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WINE VINEGAE—NASTURTIUM CATEItS. 09

fuls of salt, three tea-spoonfuls of pepper, and half a tea-spoonful of Cayenne. After standing four days, give the whole a boil; when cold, strain and filter the liquor through paper. Keep in small bottles to add to salad, gr eat with meat.

Wine Vinegar.—After making raisin wine, when the fruit has been strained, lay it on a heap to heat, then to every hundred weight put fifteen gallons of water—set the cask, and put yeast, &c., as before.

As vinegar is so necessary an article in a family, and one on which so great a profit is made, a barrel or two might always be kept preparing, according to what suited. If the raising of wine were ready, that kind might be made; if a great plenty of gooseberries made them cheap, that sort; or if neither, then the sugar vinegar—so that the cask may not be left empty, and grow musty.

Nasturtiums for Up keep them a few days after they are gathered, then pour boiling vinegar over them, and when cold, cover. They will not be fit to eat for some months, but are then finely flavoured, and by many preferred to capers.

To make mustard. —Mix the best Durham flour of mustard with boiling water till of a proper thickness, rubbing it perfectly smooth; add a little salt, and keep it in a small jar, dose covered, and put only as much into the glass as will be used soon, which should be wiped daily round the edges.

Another way, for immediate use. — Mix the mustard with new milk by degrees, to be quite smooth, and add a little raw cream. It is much softer this way, is not bitter, and will keep well.

The patent mustard is by many preferred, and it is perhaps as cheap, being always ready; and if the pots are returned, threepence is allowed for each.

A tea-spoonful of sugar to half a pint of mustard is a great improvement, and softens it.

Kitchen Pepper,—Mix in the finest powder one ounce of ginger; of cinnamon, black pepper, nutmeg, and Jamaica pepper, half an ounce each; ten cloves, and six ounces of salt. Keep it in a bottle; it is an agreeable addition to any brown sauces or soups.

Spice in powder, kept in small dis close stopped, goes much further than when used whole. It must be dried before pounded, and should be done in quantities that may be wanted in three or four months. Nutmeg need not be done, but the others should be kept in separate bottles with a little label on each.

To Dry Mushrooms.—Wipe them clean, and of the large take the brown, and peel off the skin. Lay them on paper to dry in a cool oven, and keep them in paper bags in a dry place. When used simmer them in the gravy, and they will swell to near their former size: to simmer them in their own liquor till it dry up into them, shaking the pan, then drying on tin plates, is a good way, with spice or not, as above, before made into powder.

Tie down with bladder, and keep in a dry place, or in paper.

Mushroom Powder.—Wash half a peck of large mushrooms

100 MUSHROOM POWDEE—ESSENCE OF ANCHOVIES.

while quite fresh, and free from grit and dirt with flannel: scrape out the black part clean, and do not use any that are worm-eaten; put them into a stew-pan over the fire without water, with two large onions, some cloves, a quarter of an ounce of mace, and two spoonfuls of white pepper, all in powder; simmer and shake them till all the liquor ue dried up, but be careful they do not burn. Lay them on tins or sieves in a slow oven till they are dry enough to beat to powder, then put the powder in small bottles, corked and tied closely, and keep in a dry place. A tea-spoonful will give a very fine flavour to any soup or gravy, or any sauce; and it is to be added just before serving, and one boil given to it after it is put in.

To Choose Anchovies- They are preserved in barrels, with bay salt: no other fish has the fine flavour of the anchovy. The best look red and mellow, and the bones moist and oily; the flesh should be high flavoured, the liquor reddish, and have a fine smell.

Essence of Anchovies.—Take two dozen of anchovies, chop them, and take out the bone, but with some of their own liquor strained, add them to sixteen large spoonfuls of water; boil gently till dissolved, which will be in a few minutes; when cold, strain and bottle it.

To keep Anchovies when the Liquor Dries.—Pour on them beef brine.

To Make Sprats Taste like Anchovies.—Salt them well, and let the salt drain from them. In twenty-four hours wipe them dry, but do not wash them. Mix four ounces of common salt, an ounce of bay salt, an ounce of saltpetre, a quarter of an ounce of sal prune], and half a tea-spoonful of cochineal, all in the finest powder. Sprinkle it among three quarts of the fish, and pack them in two stone jars. Keep in a cold place fastened down with a bladder.

These are pleasant on bread and butter; but use the best for sauce.

Forcemeat to Force Fowls or meat. —Shred a little ham, or gammon, some cold veal, or fowl, some beef-suet, a small quantity of onion, some parsley, a very little lemon-peel, salt, nutmeg, or pounded mace, and either white pepper or Cayenne, and bread crumbs.

Pound it in a mortar, and bind it with one or two eggs beaten and strained. For forcemeat patties, the mixture as above.

Forcemeat, whether in the formof stuffingballs, or for patties, makes a considerable part of good cooking, by the flavour it imparts to whatsoever dish it is added, if properly made.

Exact rules for the quantity cannot easily be given; but the following observations may be useful, and habit will soon give knowledge in mixing it to the taste.

At many tables where everything else is well done, it is common to find very bad stuffing.

According to what it is wanted for, should bo the selection from the following list, observing that of the most pungent articles, least must be used. No one flavour should predominate greatly;

FOECEMEAT INGEEDIKNTS. 101

yet, if several dishes be served the same day, there should be a marked variety in the taste of the forcemeat, as well as of the gravies. It should be consistent enough to cut with a knife, but not dry and heavy.

Forcemeat Ingredients.—
cal fowl or veal. Oysters,

Scraped ham. . Anchovy.

Fat bacon. Tarragon.

Beef-suet. Savoury.

Crumbs of bread. Pennyroyal.

Parsley. Knotted Marjoram.

White pepper. Thvine.

Salt. Basil.

Nutmeg. Yolks of hard eggs

Yolk and white of eggs Cayenne,
well beaten, to bind the Garlic,
mixture. Shalot.

Chives.

Jamaica pepper, in fine powder, or two or three cloves. The first column contains the articles of which the forcemeat may be made, without any striking flavour; and to those, may be added some of the different ingredients of the second column, to vary the taste.

For Cold Savoury Pies. — The same: only substituting fat, or bacon, for suet. The livers (if the pie be of rabbit or fowls) mixed with fat and lean pork, instead of bacon, and seasoned as above, are excellent. For Hare, see to roast, page 82. Ditto, for baked Pike, page M. Ditto, for Pike, Haddock, and small Cod, page 29. Ditto, for Soles, page 29. Ditto, for Mackerel, page 28. Ditto, for Fish Pie, page 103.

Very fine Forcemeat Balls, for Fish Soups, or Fish Stewed, on Maigre Days.—Beat the flesh and soft parts of a middling lobster, half an anchovy, a large piece of boiled celery, the yolk of a hard egg, a little Cayenne, mace, salt, and white pepper, with two table-spoonfuls of bread crumbs, one ditto of oyster liquor, two ounces of butter warmed, and two eggs long beaten : make into balls, and fry of two fine brown in butter.

Forcemeat as for Turtle, at the Bush, Bristol. —A pound of fresh suet, one ounce of ready dressed veal or chicken, chopped fine, bread crumbs, a little shallot or onion, salt, white pepper, nutmeg, mace, pennyroyal, parsley, and lemon thyme finely shred; beat as many fresh eggs, yolks and whites separately, as will make the above ingredients into a moist paste: roll into small balls, and boil them in fresh lard, putting them in just as it boils up. When of a light brown, take them out, and drain them before the fire. If the suet ion moist or stale, a great many more eggs will be necessary.

102 DIRECTIONS FOE SAYOTJEY PIES.

Balls made this way are remarkably light; but being greasy, some people prefer them with less suet and eggs.

Little Eggs for Turtle.—Beat three hard yolks of eggs in a mortar, and make into a paste with the yolk of a raw one, roll it into small balls, and throw them into boiling water for two minutes to harden.

Browning, to Colour and Flavour Made Dishes.— Beat to powder four ounces of double-refined sugar, put it into a Tery nice iron frying-pan, with one ounce of fine fresh butter, mix it well over a clear fire, and when it begins to froth, hold it up higher; when of a very fine dark brown, pour in a small quantity of a pint of port, and the whole by very slow degrees, stirring all the time, Put to the above half an ounce of Jamaica, and the same of black pepper, six cloves of shalots peeled, three blades of mnco bruised, three spoonfuls of mushroom, and the same of walnut ketchup, some salt, and the finely pared rind of a lemon ; boil gently fifteen minutes, pour it into a basin till cold, take off the scum, and bottle for use.

Casserol, or Bice? Edging for alCurrie, or Fricassee. —After soaking and picking fine Carolina rice, boil it in water,

nd a little salt, until tender, but not to a mash; drain, and put it round the inner edge of the dish, to the height of two inches; smooth it with the back of a spoon, and wash it over with yolk of egg, and put it into the oven for three or four minutes, then servo the meat in the middle.

PIES, PUDDINGS, AND PASTRY.

SAVOUEY PEES.

(feuit Pies Will Be Placed Undee Tite Head Pastey.)

Observations on Savoury Pies.

ThERE are few articles of cookery more generally liked than relishing pies, if properly made; and they may be made so of a great variety of things. Some are best eaten when cold, and, in that case, there should be no suet put into the forcemeat that is used with them. If the pie is either made of meat that will tako more dressing, to make it extremely tender, than the baking of the crust will allow; or if it is to be served in an earthen pie-form; observe the following preparation:—

Take three pounds of the veiny piece of beef (for instance) that has fat and lean; wash it, and season it with salt, pepper, mace, and allspice, in fine powder, rubbing them well in. Set it by the side of a slow fire, in a stew-pot that will just hold it; put to it a piece of butter, about two ounces, and cover it quite close; let it just simmer in its own steam till it begins to shrink. "When it is cold add more seasoning, forcemeat, and eggs: and if it is in a dish, put some gravy to it before baking; but if it is only in crust, do not put the gravy till after it is cold and in jelly, as has been

EEL PIE—COD PIE—LOBSTEE TIE. 103

described in page 93. Forcemeat may be put both under and over the meat, if preferred to balls.

Eel Pio.—Cut the eels in lengths of two or three inches, season with pepper, and salt, and place in a dish, with some bits of butter, and a little water; ana cover it with paste.

Cod Pie.—Take a piece of the middle of a small cod, and salt it well one night: next day wash it; season with peppor, salt, and a very little nutmeg, mixed; place in a dish, and put some butter on it, and a little good broth of any kind into the dish.

Cover it with a crust; and when done, add a sauce of a spoonful of broth, a quarter of a pint of cream, a little flour and butter, a grate of lemon and nutmeg, and give it one boil. Oysters may bo added.

Mackerel will do well, but do not salt them till used.

Parsley picked and put in, may be used instead of oysters.

Sole Pie.—Split some soles from the bones, and cut the fins close; season with a mixturo of salt, pepper, a Httle nutmeg and pounded mace, and put them in layers, with oysters. They eat excellently. A pair of middling-sized ones will do, and half a hundred of oysters. Put in the dish tho oyster liquor, two or three spoonfuls of broth, and some butter. When the pie comes home, pour in a cupful of thick cream.

Shrimp Pie, excellent.—Pick a quart of shrimps; if they are very salt, season them with only mace and a clove or two Mince two or three anchovies; mix these with tho spice, and then season the shrimps. Put some butter at the bottom of the dish, and cover the shrimps with a glass of sharp white wine. The paste must be light and thin. They do not take long baking.

Lobster Pie.—Boil two lobsters, or threo small, take out the tails, cut them iu two, take out the gut, cut each in four pieces, and lay in a small dish, then put in tho meat of the claws and that you have picked out of the body; pick off the furry parts from the latter, and take out the lady; the spawn, beat in a mortar: likewise all the shells: set them on to stew with some water, two or three spoonfuls of vinegar, pepper, salt, and some pounded mace: a large piece of butter, rolled in flour, must be added when the goodness of tho shells is obtained; give a boil or two, and pour into the dish strained; strew some crumbs, and put a paste over all; bake slowly, but only till the paste be done.

A remarkably fine Fish Pie.—Boil two pounds of small eels; having cut the fins quite close, pick the flesh off, and throw the bones into the liquor, with a little mace, pepper, salt, and a slico of onion; boil till quite rich, and strain it. Make forcemeat of the flesh, an anchovy, parsloy, lemon peel, salt, pepper, and crumbs, and four ounces of butter warmed, and lay it at the bottom of the dish. Take the flesh of soles, small cod, or dressed burbot, and lay them on the forcemeat, having rubbed it with salt and pepper; pour tho gravy over and bake.

Observe to take off the skin and fins, if cod or soles.

Pilchard and Leek Pie.—Clean and skin the white part of some large leeks; scald in milk and water, and put them in layers

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