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whom but was persuaded 92 that he had a considerable hand in bringing 93 the war to a happy termination. .

But all these were nothing to the tales of ghosts and apparitions that succeeded. The neighbourhood is rich in legendary treasures of the kind. Local tales and superstitions thrive best in these sheltered long-settled retreats; but are trampled underfoot by the shifting throng that forms the population of most of our country places. Besides, there is no encouragement for ghosts in most of our villages, for they have scarce had time to take their first nap, and turn themselves in their graves, before their surviving friends have travelled away from the neighbourhood; so that when they turn out at night to walk their rounds, they have no acquaintance left to call upon. This is perhaps the reason why we so seldom hear of ghosts except in our longestablished Dutch communities.

The immediate cause, however, of the prevalence of supernatural stories in these parts, was doubtless owing to the vicinity of Sleepy Hollow, There was a contagion in the very air that blew from that haunted region; it breathed forth an atmosphere of dreams and fancies infecting all the land. Several of the Sleepy Hollow people were present at Van Tassel's, and, as usual, were doling out 94 their wild and wonderful legends. Many dismal tales were told about funeral trains, and mournful cries and wailings heard and seen about the great tree where the unfortunate Major André 95 was taken, and which stood in the neigh

92) = not one of whom was not persuaded: von denen es keinen gab, der nicht überzeugt gewesen wäre.

98) to have a considerable hand in bringing etc. = beträchtlich dazu beitragen, dass ....

94) to dole (neben deal aus ags. dael, goth. dails, nhd. Teil) out = teilen, austeilen, mitteilen= to deal out in small portions (Webster), to distribute (Smart), nach Thieme ungebräuchlich, nach Grieb wenig oder nicht gebräuchlich; Webster und Smart sagen davon nichts. – Trench (Select Glossary etc.) sagt von dole: „This and deal“ are of course one and the same word, and answer the German „Teil“ a part or portion. It has now always the subaudition of a scanty portion, as „to dole" is to deal scantily and reluctantly forth.

95) Der amerikanische General Arnold, Commandant des Postens West-Point am Hudson, welcher sämtliche amerikanische Forts in den Hochlanden umfasste, hatte durch geheime Correspondenz mit Clinton Verabredungen getroffen, den Engländern die wichtige Stellung in die Hände zu spielen. Major André, den Clinton zu seinem Generaladjutanten ernannt, diente als Unterhändler. Von einer Unterredung mit Arnold zurückkehrend, wurde André von amerikanischen Milizen angehalten, vor ein Kriegsgericht gestellt und musste am Galgen sterben (2. October 1780).

bourhood. Some mention was made also of the woman in white, that haunted the dark glen at Raven Rock, and was often heard to shriek on winter nights before a storm, having perished there in the snow. Tbe chief part of the stories, however, turned upon the favourite Spectre of Sleepy Hollow, the headless horsemano, who had been heard several times of late, patrolling the country, and, it was said, tethered his horse nightly among the graves in the churchyard.

The sequestered situation of this church seems always to have made it a favourite haunt of troubled spirits. It stands on a knoll, surrounded by locust-trees and lofty elms, from among which its decent whitewashed walls shine modestly forth, like Christian purity, beaming through the shades of retirement. A gentle slope descends from it to a silver sheet of water, bordered by high trees, between which peeps may be caught at the blue hills of the Hudson. To look upon its grass-grown yard, where the sunbeams seem to sleep so quietlyo7, one would think that there at least the dead might rest in peace. On one side of the church extends a wide woody dell, along which raves a large brook among broken rocks and trunks of fallen trees. Over a deep black part of the stream, not far from the church, was formerly thrown a wooden bridge; the road that led to it and the bridge itself, were thickly shaded by overhanging trees, which cast a gloom about it, even in the daytime; but occasioned a fearful darkness at night. Such was one of the favourite haunts of the headless horseman, and the place where he was most frequently encountered. The tale was told of old Brouwer, a most heretical disbeliever in ghosts, how he met the horseman returning from his foray 98 into Sleepy Hollow, and was obliged to get up behind him; how they galloped over bush and brake'', over hill and swamp, until they reached the bridge; when the horseman suddenly turned into a skeleton, threw old Brouwer

96) Zu dem headless horseman vergl. S. 184, A. 10.

97) to sleep = to lie still and silent, vergl. Merch. of Venice; Act V, Scene 1: „How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank!"

98) fóray und fórray, auch mit dem Ton auf der letzten gesprochen (zu mlat. foragium, welches auf deutschem Grunde ahd. fuotar, nhd. Futter beruht) = Beutezug, Streifzug.

99) Man beachte in over bush and brake die Alliteration, die auch in deutschen Ausdrücken anzutreffen ist, wie in dem „over bush and brake“ ähnlichen „über Stock und Stein“, ferner: dick und dünn, frank und frei, ganz und gar; Mann und Maus, samt und sonders, Wind und Wetter u. s. w.

into the brook, and sprang away over the tree tops with a clap of thunder.

This story was immediately matched 100 by a thrice marvellous adventure of Brom Bones, who made light of the galloping Hessian 101 as an arrant jockey. He affirmed, that on returning one night from the neighbouring village of Sing-Sing, he had been overtaken by this midnight trooper; that he had offered to race with him for a bowl of punch, and should have won it too, for Daredevil beat the goblin horse all hollow 102, but just as they came to the church bridge, the Hessian bolted, and vanished in a flash of fire.

All these tales, told in that drowsy under-tone with which men talk in the dark, the countenances of the listeners only now and then receiving a casual gleam from the glare of a pipe, sunk deep in the mind of Ichabod. He repaid them in kind 103 with large extracts from his invaluable author, Cotton Mather, and added many marvellous events that had taken place in his native state of Connecticut, and fearful sights which he had seen in his nightly walks about Sleepy Hollow.

The revel now gradually broke up. The old farmers gathered together their families in their waggons, and were heard for some time rattling along the hollow roads, and over the distant hills. Some of the damsels mounted on pillions behind their favourite swains, and their light-hearted laughter, mingling with the clatter of hoofs, echoed along the silent woodlands, sounding fainter and fainter until they gradually died away — and the late scene of noise and frolic was all silent and deserted. Ichabod only lingered behind, according to the custom of country lovers, to have a tête-à-tête with the heiress; fully convinced that he was now on the high road to success. What passed at this interview I will not pretend to say, for in fact I do not know. Something, however, I fear me, must have gone wrong, for he certainly sallied forth, after no very great

100) to match = ein Seitenstück geben.

101) to make light of = to consider as of no consequence; to treat with indifference or contempt = geringschätzig urteilen über, sprechen


102) to beat hollow und verstärkt to beat all hollow = mit Leichtigkeit, ganz und gar, vollständig besiegen.

103) kind Art, Natur (zu d. Stamme des altengl. kennen, kionen, ags. cennan, ahd. kichennan erzeugen, gebären); in kind = in produce or some kind of commodity, as distinguished from the general representative of value, that is money = in Natura, mit gleicher Münze.

Irving, The Sketch Book. II.


interval, with an air quite desolate and chopfallen. — Oh these women! these women! Could that girl have been playing off any of her coquettish tricks? — Was her encouragement of the poor pedagogue all a mere sham to secure her conquest of his rival? – Heaven only knows, not I! — Let it suffice 104 to say, Ichabod stole forth with the air of one who had been sacking a hen-roost, rather than a fair lady's heart. Without looking to the right or left to notice the scene of rural wealth, on which he had so often gloated, he went straight to the stable, and with several hearty cuffs and kicks, roused his steed most uncourteously from the comfortable quarters in which he was soundly sleeping, dreaming of mountains of corn and oats, and whole valleys of timothy 105 and clover.

It was the very witching time 106 of night that Ichabod, heavy-hearted and crest-fallen, pursued his travel homewards, along the sides of the lofty hills which rise above Tarry Town, and which he had traversed so cheerily in the afternoon. The hour was as dismal as himself. Far below him, the Tappaan Zee spread its dusky and indistinct waste of waters, with here and there the tall mast of a sloop, riding quietly at anchor under the land. In the dead hush of midnight, he could even hear the barking of the watch-dog from the opposite shore of the Hudson; but it was so vague and faint as only to give an idea of his distance from this faithful companion of man. Now and then, too, the long-drawn crowing of a cock, accidentally awakened, would sound far, far off, from some farm-house away among the hills — but it was like a dreaming sound in his ear. No signs of life occurred near him, but occasionally the melancholy chirp of a cricket, or perhaps the guttural twang of a bull-frog, from a neighbouring marsh, as if sleeping uncomfortably, and turning suddenly in his bed.

All the stories of ghosts and goblins that he had heard in the afternoon now came crowding upon his recollection. The night grew darker and darker; the stars seemed to sink deeper in the sky, and driving clouds occasionally bid them from bis sight. He had never felt so lonely and dismal. He was, moreover, approaching the very place where many of the

104) In to suffice wird das c wie weiches s gesprochen.

105) tímothy Wiesenlieschgras, Timothee (phleum pratense), so genannt nach Timothy Hanson, der es um 1780 aus America in England einführte. Es heisst auch cat’s-tail-grass oder meadow cat'stail-grass.

106) witching time = Gespensterstunde.

stic, large almost to with the len prisoner Andre's trend

scenes of the ghost stories had been laid. In the centre of the road stood an enormous tulip tree 107, which towered like a giant above all the other trees of the neighbourhood, and formed a kind of landmark. 108 Its limbs were knarled and fantastic, large enough to form trunks for ordinary trees, twisting down almost to the earth, and rising again into the air. It was connected with the tragical story of the unfortunate André 109 who had been taken prisoner hard by; and was universally known by the name of Major André's tree. The common people regarded it with a mixture of respect and superstition, partly out of sympathy for the fate of its illstarred namesake, and partly from the tales of strange sights and doleful lamentations told concerning it.

- As Ichabod approached this fearful tree, he began to whistle: he thought his whistle was answered; it was but a blast sweeping sharply through the dry branches. As he approached a little nearer, he thought he saw something white, hanging in the midst of the tree; he paused and ceased whistling; but on looking more narrowly, perceived that it was a place where the tree had been scathed by lightning, and the white wood laid bare. Suddenly he heard a groan — his teeth chattered, and his knees smote against the saddle: it was but the rubbing of one huge bough upon another, as they were swayed about by the breeze. He passed the tree in safety, but new perils lay before him.

About two hundred yards from the tree a small brook crossed the road, and ran into a marshy and thickly-wooded glen, known by the name of Wiley's swamp. A few rough logs, laid side by side, served for a bridge over this stream. On that side of the road where the brook entered the wood, a group of oaks,and chestnuts 110, matted thick with wild grape vines, threw a cavernous gloom over it. To pass this bridge was the severest trial. It was at this identical spot that the unfortunate André was captured, and under the covert of those chestnuts

107) tulip-tree Tulpenbaum = an American tree, allied to the magnolia, growing to a large size, and bearing flowers resembling the tulip; Liriodendron tulipifera ; auch white-wood genannt.

108) landmark = a mark to désignate the boundary of land; any mark or fixed object (as a marked tree, a stone, a ditch, or a heap of stones) by which the limits of a farm, a town, or other portion of territory may be known and preserved Grenzstein; dann im weiteren Sinne - Wahrzeichen.

109) Zu Major André vergl. S. 207, A. 95.
110) lo chestnut Kastapie, Kastanienbaum ist das t stumm.

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