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stronger reason than mere convenience for Some of the changing the common course. streets in the old track are so ruinous, that there is danger lest the houses, loaded as they will be with people, all pressing forward in the same direction, should fall down upon the procession. The least evil that can be expected is, that in so close a crowd, some will be trampled upon, and others smothered; and queen's arms at her head and stern, besides a variety of surely a pomp that costs a single life, is too dearly bought. The new streets, as they are more extensive, will afford place to greater numbers with less danger.
which was covered with gold brocade, and adorned with sails of silk, with two rich standards of the king's and
In this proposal I do not foresee any objection That a longer that can reasonably be made. march will require more time, is not to be mentioned, as implying any defect in a scheme of which the whole purpose is to lengthen the march and protract the time. The longest course which I have proposed is not equal to an hour's walk in the Park. The labour is not such, as that the king should refuse it to his people, or the nobility grudge it to the king. Queen Anne went from the palace through the Park to the Hall, on the day of her coronation; and when old and infirm, used to pass on solemn thanksgivings from the palace to St. Paul's church.*
flags and streamers, containing the arms of that company, and those of the merchant adventurers; besides which, the shrouds and ratlines were hung with a number of small bells: on the left was a barge that contained a very beautiful mount, on which stood a white falcon crowned, perched upon a golden stump enriched with roses, being the queen's emblem: and round the mount sat several beautiful virgins, singing, and playing upon instruments. The other barges followed in regular order, till they came below Greenwich. On their return the procession began with that barge which was before the last, in which were mayors' and sheriffs' officers, and this was followed by those of the inferior companies, ascending to the lord mayor's, which immediately preceded that of the queen, who was attended by the Bachelors, or state barge, with the magnificence of which her majesty was much delight. ed and being arrived at the Tower, she returned the lord mayor and aldermen thanks, for the pomp with which she had been conducted thither.
Part of my scheme supposes the demolition of the Gate-house, a building so offensive, that, without any occasional reason, it ought to be pulled down, for it disgraces the present magni
* In order to convey to the reader some idea how highly parade and magnificence were estimated by our ances. tors, on these solemn occasions, 1 shall take notice of the manner of conducting Lady Anne Boleyn from Greenwich, previous to her coronation, as it is recited by Stow. King Henry VIII. (says that historian) having divorced Queen Catherine, and married Anne Boleyn, or Boloine, who was descended from Godfrey Boloine, Mayor of the city of London, and intending her coronation, sent to order the Lord Mayor, not only to make all the prepara tions necessary for conducting his royal consort from Greenwich, by water, to the Tower of London, but to adorn the city after the most magnificent manner, for her passage through it to Westminster.
In obedience to the royal precept, the mayor and common-council not only ordered the company of haberdashers, of which the lord mayor was a member, to prepare a magnificent state barge; but enjoined all the city corporations to provide themselves with barges, and to adorn them in the most superb manner, and especially to have them supplied with good bands of music.
On the 29th of May, the time prefixed for this pompous procession by water, the mayor, aldermen, and commons, assembled at St. Mary-hill; the mayor and aldermen in scarlet, with gold chains, and those who were knights, with the collars of SS. At one. they went on board the city barge at Billingsgate, which was most magnificently decorated, and attended by fifty noble barges, belonging to the several companies of the city, with each its own corporation on board; and, for the better regulation of this procession, it was ordered, that each barge should keep twice their lengths asunder.
Thus regulated, the city barge was preceded by another mounted with ordnance, and the figures of dragons, and other monsters, incessantly emitting fire and smoke, with much noise. Then the city barge, attended 6 the right by the haberdashers' state barge, called the Bachelors,
Two days after, the lord mayor, in a gown of crimson velvet, and a rich collar of SS, attended by the sheriffs, and two domestics in red and white damask, went to receive the queen at the Tower of London, whence the sheriff's returned to see that every thing was in order. The streets were just before new gravelled from the Tower to Temple-bar, and railed in on each side, to the intent that the horses should not slide on the pavement, nor the people be hurt by the horses; within the rails near Gracechurch, stood a body of Anseatic merchants, and next to them the several corporations of the city, in their formal. ities, reaching to the aldermen's station at the upper end of Cheapside. On the opposite side were placed the city constables dressed in silk and velvet, with staffs in their hands to prevent the breaking in of the mob, or any other disturbance. On this occasion, Gracechurch-street and Cornhill were hung with crimson and scarlet cloth, and the sides of the houses of a place then called Goldsmithsrow, in Cheapside, were adorned with gold brocades, velvet, and rich tapestry.
The procession began from the Tower with twelve of the French ambassador's domestics in blue velvet, the trappings of their horses being blue sarsnet, interspersed with white crosses; after whom marched those of the equestrian order, two and two, followed by judges in their robes, two and two; then came the knights of the Bath Next came the in violet gowns, purfled with menever. abbots, barons, bishops, earls, and marquises, in their robes, two and two. Then the lord chancellor, followed by the Venetian ambassador and the Archbishop of York: next the French ambassador and the Archbishop of Canterbury, followed by two gentlemen representing the dukes of Normandy and Aquitain; after whom rode the lord mayor of London with his mace, and Garter in his coat of arms; then the Duke of Suffolk, lord high stew. ard, followed, by the deputy marshal of England, and all the other officers of state in their robes, carrying the symbols of their several offices: then others of the nobility in crimson velvet, and all the queen's officers in scarlet, followed by her chancellor uncovered, who immediately preceded his mistress.
The queen was dressed in silver brocade, with a mantle of the same furred with ermine; her hair was dishevelled, and she wore a chaplet upon her head set with jewels of
ficence of the capital, and is a continual nuisance of houses are now let, will be abated, not only to neighbours and passengers. greater numbers will be admitted to the show, but each will come at a cheaper rate.
A longer course of scaffolding is doubtless more expensive than a shorter; but it is hoped that the time is now past, when any design was received or rejected according to the money that it would cost. Magnificence cannot be cheap, for what is cheap cannot be magnificent. The money that is so spent is spent at home, and the king will receive again what he lays out on the pleasure of his people. Nor is it to be omitted, that if the cost be considered as expended by the public, much more will be saved than lost; for the excessive prices at which windows and tops
inestimable value. She sat in a litter covered with silver tissue, and carried by two beautiful pads clothed in white damask, and led by her footmen. Over the litter was carried a canopy of cloth of gold, with a silver bell at each corner, supported by sixteen knights alternately by four
at a time.
After her majesty came her chamberlain, followed by her master of horse, leading a beautiful pad, with a side saddle and trappings of silver tissue. Next came seven ladies in crimson velvet, faced with gold brocade, mounted on beautiful horses with gold trappings. Then followed two chariots covered with cloth of gold, in the first of which were the Dutchess of Norfolk and the Marchioness of Dorset, and in the second four ladies in crimson velvet; then followed seven ladies dressed in the same manner, on horseback, with magnificent trappings, followed by another chariot all in white, with six ladies in crimson velvet; this was followed by another all in red, with eight ladies in the same dress with the former: next came thirty gentlewomen, attendants to the ladies of honour; they were on horseback, dressed in silks and velvet; and the cavalcade was closed by the horse-guards.
This pompous procession being arrived in Fenchurchstreet, the queen stopped at a beautiful pageant crowded with children in mercantile habits; who congratulated her majesty upon the joyful occasion of her happy arrival in the city.
Thence she proceeded to Gracechurch corner, where was erected a very magnificent pageant, at the expense of the company of Anseatic merchants, in which was represented mount Parnassus, with the fountain of Helicon, of white marble, out of which arose four springs about four feet high, centering at the top in a smali globe, from whence issued plenty of Rhenish wine till night. On the mount sat Apollo, at his feet was Calliope, and beneath were the rest of the Muses, surrounding the mount, and playing upon a variety of musical instruments, at whose feet were inscribed several epigrams suited to the occasion, in letters of gold.
Some regulations are necessary, whatever track be chosen. The scaffold ought to be raised at least four feet, with rails high enough to support the standards, and yet so low as not to hinder the view.
It would add much to the gratification of the people, if the horse-guards, by which all our processions have been of late encumbered, and rendered dangerous to the multitude, were to be left behind at the coronation; and if contrary to the desires of the people, the procession must pass in the old track, that the number of foot soldiers be diminished; since it cannot but offend every Englishman to see troops of soldiers placed between him and his sovereign, as if they were the
The cavalcade thence proceeded to a great conduit that stood opposite to Mercers-hall in Cheapside, and upon that occasion, was painted with a variety of emblems, and during the solemnity and remaining part of the day, ran with different sorts of wine, for the entertainment of the populace.
At the end of Wood-street, the standard there was finely embellished with royal portraitures and a number of flags, on which were painted coats of arms and trophies, and above was a concert of vocal and instrumental music.
At the upper end of Cheapside was the aldermen's station, where the recorder addressed the queen in a very elegant oration, and, in the name of the citizens, presented her with a thousand marks in a purse of gold tissue, which her majesty very gracefully received.
At a small distance, by Cheapside conduit was a pageant, in which were seated Minerva, Juno, and Venus; before whom stood the god Mercury; who in their names, presented the queen a golden apple.
At St. Paul's gate there was a fine pageant, in which sat three ladies, richly dressed, with each a chaplet on her head, and a tablet in her hand, containing Latin inscriptions.
At the east of St. Paul's cathedral, the queen was entertained by some of the scholars belonging to St. Paul's school, with verses in praise of the king and her majesty, with which she seemed highly delighted.
Thence proceeding to Ludgate, which was finely decorated, her majesty was entertained with several songs adapted to the occasion, sung in concert by men and boys upon the leads over the gate.
At the end of Shoe-lane, in Fleet-strect, a handsome tower with four turrets was erected upon the conduit, in each of which stood one of the cardinal virtues, with their several symbols; who addressing themselves to the queen, promised they would never leave her, but be always her constant attendants. Within the tower was an excellent concert of music, and the conduit all the while ran with various sorts of wine.
Her majesty then proceeded to Leadenhall, where stood a pageant, representing a hill encompassed with red and white roses; and above it was a golden stump, upon which a white falcon, descending from above, perched, and was quickly followed by an angel, who put a crown of gold upon his head. A little lower on the hillock sat St. Anne, surrounded by her progeny, one of whom made an oration, in which was a wish that her majesty might prove extremely prolific.
At Temple-bar she was again entertained with songs, sung in concert by a choir of men and boys; and having from thence proceeded to Westminster, she returned the lord mayor thanks for his good offices, and those of the
The procession then advanced to the conduit in Corn-citizens, that day. The day after, the lord mayor, alder-
men, and sheriffs, assisted at the coronation, which was
most honourable of the people, or the king re- as may be expected from servile authority; and quired guards to secure his person from his sub- the impatience of the people, under such immejects. As their station makes them think them-diate oppression, always produces quarrels, tuselves important, their insolence is always such
mults, and mischief.
ARTISTS' CATALOGUE, FOR 1762.
THE public may justly require to be informed of the nature and extent of every design, for which the favour of the public is openly solicited. The artists, who were themselves the first projectors of an exhibition in this nation, and who have now contributed to the following catalogue, think it therefore necessary to explain their purpose, and justify their conduct. An exhibition of the works of art, being a spectacle new in this kingdom, has raised various opinions and conjectures among those who are unacquainted with the practice in foreign nations. Those who set out their performances to general view, have been too often considered as the rivals of each other, as men actuated, if not by avarice, at least by vanity, and contending for superiority of fame, though not for a pecuniary prize; it cannot be denied or doubted, that all who offer themselves to criticism are desirous of praise; this desire is not only innocent, but virtuous, while it is undebased by artifice, and unpolluted by envy; and of envy or artifice these men can never be accused, who, already enjoying all the honours and profits of their profession, are content to stand candidates for public notice, with genius yet unexperienced, and diligence yet unrewarded; who, without any hope of increasing their own reputation or interest, expose their names and their works only that they may furnish an opportunity of appearance to the young, the diffident, and the neglected.
The purpose of this exhibition is not to enrich the artists, but to advance the art: the eminent are not flattered with preference, nor the obscure Insulted with contempt; whoever hopes to de
serve public favour, is here invited to display his merit.
Of the price put upon this exhibition some account may be demanded. Whoever sets his work to be shown, naturally desires a multitude of spectators; but his desire defeats its own end, when spectators assemble in such numbers as to obstruct one another. Though we are far from wishing to diminish the pleasures, or depreciate the sentiments, of any class of the community, we know, however, what every one knows, that all cannot be judges or purchasers of works of art; yet we have already found by experience, that all are desirous to see an exhibition. When the terms of admission were low, our room was thronged with such multitudes as made access dangerous, and frightened away those whose approbation was most desired.
Yet, because it is seldom believed that money is got but for the love of money, we shall tell the use which we intend to make of our expected profits.
Many artists of great abilities are unable to sell their works for their due price; to remove this inconvenience, an annual sale will be appointed, to which every man may send his works, and send them if he will, without his name. These works will be reviewed by the committee that conduct the exhibition. A price will be secretly set on every piece, and registered by the secretary. If the piece exposed is sold for more, the whole price shall be the artist's; but if the purchasers value it at less than the committee, the artist shall be paid the deficiency from the profits of the exhibition.
OPINIONS ON QUESTIONS OF LAW.
FROM BOSWELL'S LIFE OF JOHNSON,
consults the future happiness of him who is the immediate subject of correction, but he propagates obedience through the whole school; and establishes regularity by exemplary justice. The
"The charge is, that this schoolmaster has used immoderate and cruel correction. Correction, in itself, is not cruel: children, being not reasonable, can be governed only by fear. To impress this fear, is therefore one of the first duties of those who have the care of children. It is the duty of a parent; and has never been thought inconsistent with parental tenderness. It is the duty of a master, who is in his highest exaltation when he is loco parentis. Yet, as good things become evil by excess, correction, by being immoderate, may become cruel. But when is correction immoderate? When it is more frequent or more severe than is required ad monendum et docendum, for reformation and instruction. No severity is cruel which obsti- | nacy makes necessary; for the greatest cruelty would be to desist, and leave the scholar too careless for instruction, and too much hardened for reproof. Locke, in his Treatise of Education, mentions a mother, with applause, who whipped an infant eight times before she had subdued it: for had she stopped at the seventh act of cor-him-the parents of the offenders. It has been rection, her daughter, says he, would have been said, that he used unprecedented and improper ruined. The degrees of obstinacy in young instruments of correction. Of this accusation minds, are very different; as different must be the meaning is not very easy to be found. No the degrees of persevering severity. A stubborn instrument of correction is more proper than scholar must be corrected till he is subdued. another, but as it is better adapted to produce The discipline of a school is military. There present pain without lasting mischief. Whatever must be either unbounded license, or absolute were his instruments, no lasting mischief has enauthority. The master, who punishes, not only sued: and therefore, however unusual, in hands
[A SCHOOLMASTER in Scotland, was, in 1772, by a court of inferior jurisdiction, deprived of his office, for being somewhat severe in the chastise-victorious obstinacy of a single boy would make ment of his scholars. The Court of Session his future endeavours of reformation or instrucconsidering it to be dangerous to the interest of tion totally ineffectual. Obstinacy, therefore, learning and education to lessen the dignity of must never be victorious. Yet, it is well known teachers, and make them afraid of too indulgent that there sometimes occurs a sullen and hardy parents, instigated by the complaints of their resolution, that laughs at all common punishchildren, restored him. His opponent appealed ment, and bids defiance to all common degrees to the House of Lords, where Mr. Boswell was of pain. Corrections must be proportionate to his counsel. On this occasion, Dr. Johnson occasions. The flexible will be reformed by dictated the following paper to Mr. Boswell, as gentle discipline, and the refractory must be some assistance to Mr. B. in his address to the subdued by harsher methods. The degrees of Lords] scholastic, as of military punishment, no stated rules can ascertain. It must be enforced till it overpowers temptation; till stubbornness become flexible, and perverseness regular. Custom and reason have, indeed, set some bounds to scholastic penalties. The schoolmaster inflicts no capital punishments; nor enforces his edicts by either death or mutilation. The civil law has wisely determined, that a master who strikes at a scholar's eye shall be considered as criminal. But punishments, however severe, that produce no lasting evil, may be just and reasonable, because they may be necessary. Such have been the punishments used by the respondent. No scholar has gone from him either blind or lame, or with any of his limbs or powers injured or impaired. They were irregular, and he punished them: they were obstinate, and he enforced his punishment. But however provoked, he never exceeded the limits of moderation, for he inflicted nothing beyond present pain; and how much of that was required, no man is so little able to determine as those who have determined against
ON SCHOOL CHASTISEMENT.
which came before that Court, in 1772, Mr. Boswell had laboured to persuade the judges to return to the ancient law. It was his opinion that they ought to adhere to it, but he exhausted all his powers of reasoning in vain. Dr. Johnson thought as he did, and in order to assist him in his application to the Court for a revision and alteration of the judgment, dictated to Mr Boswell the following argument.]
80 cautious they were proper. It has been objected, that the respondent admits the charge of cruelty, by producing no evidence to confute it. Let it be considered, that his scholars are either dispersed at large in the world, or continue to inhabit the place in which they were bred. Those who are dispersed cannot be found: those who remain are the sons of his prosecutors, and are not likely to support a man to whom their fathers are enemies. If it be supposed that the enmity of their fathers proves the justness of the charge, it must be considered how often experience shows us, that men who are angry on one ground will accuse on another; with how little kindness, in a town of low trade, a man who lives by learning is regarded; and how implicitly, where the inhabitants are not very rich, a rich man is hearkened to and followed. In a place like Campbelltown, it is easy for one of the principal inhabitants to make a party. It is easy for that party to heat themselves with imaginary grievances. It is easy for them to oppress a man poorer than themselves; and natural to assert the dignity of riches, by persisting in oppression. The argument which attempts to prove the impropriety of restoring him to the school, by alleging that he has lost the confidence of the people, is not the subject of juridical consideration; for he is to suffer, if he must suffer, not for their judgment, but for his own actions. It may be convenient for them to have another master; but it is a convenience of their own making. It would be likewise convenient for him to find another school; but this convenience he cannot obtain. The question is not what is now convenient, but what is gener-standing are to be supplied. It is to suffer the rash and ignorant to act at discretion, and then to depend for the legality of that action on the sentence of the judge. He that is thus governed, lives not by law, but by opinion: not by a certain rule to which he can apply his intention before he acts, but by an uncertain and variable opinion, which he can never know but after he has committed the act on which that opinion shall be passed. He lives by a law (if a law it be) which he can never know before he has offended it. To this case may be justly applied that important principle, misera est servitus ubi jus est aut incognitum aut vagum. If intromission be not criminal till it exceeds a certain point, and that point be unsettled, and consequently different in different minds, the right of intromission, and the right of the creditor arising from it, are all jura vaga, and, by consequence, are jura incognita; and the result can be no other than a misera servitus, an uncertainty concerning the event of action, a servile dependance on private opinion.
"Concerning the power of the Court to make or to suspend a law, we have no intention to inquire. It is sufficient for our purpose that every just law is dictated by reason; and that the practice of every legal court is regulated by equity. It is the quality of reason to be invariable and constant; and of equity, to give to one man what, in the same case, is given to another. The advantage which humanity derives from law is this: that the law gives every man a rule of action, and prescribes a mode of conduct which shall entitle him to the support and protection of society. That the law may be a rule of action, it is necessary that it be known: it is necessary that it be permanent and stable. The law is the measure of civil right: but if the measure be changeable, the extent of the thing measured never can be settled.
"To permit a law to be modified at discretion, is to leave the community without law. It is to withdraw the direction of that public wisdom, by which the deficiences of private under
ally right. If the people of Campbelltown be distressed by the restoration of the respondent, they are distressed only by their own fault; by turbulent passions and unreasonable desires; by tyranny, which law has defeated, and by malice, which virtue has surmounted."
[The decree of the Court of Session was reversed in the House of Lords, April 14, 1772, and the schoolmaster consequently deprived of his situation.]
ON VICIOUS INTROMISSION.
[Ir was held of old, and continued for a long period to be an established principle in Scotch law, that whoever intermeddled with the effects of a person deceased, without the interposition of legal authority to guard against embezzlement, should be subjected to pay all the debts of the deceased, as having been guilty of what was technically called VICIOUS INTROMISSION. The Court of Session had gradually relaxed the strictness of this principle, where the interference proved had been inconsiderable. In a case
"This, we are told, is a law which has its force only from the long practice of the Court; and may, therefore, be suspended or modified as the Court shall think proper.
"It may be urged, and with great plausibility, that there may be intromission without fraud; which, however true, will by no means justify an occasional and arbitrary relaxation of