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Clunis Clunid. Teut. hlend, lende; Eng. loin. (See Rem. 7,
in the Introd.) Um-beli-cus Um-bel. . Nabel; Pers. nafe. In Latin the first syllable
is transposed, as in ungula Nagel; but on account of the following b the n went over
into the labial mn. Armus Arm The arm; the upper part of the same, later The word ar-m both in Latin and German, Anglo-Saxon,
certainly it was applied to the shoulder of &c. connects itself with a numerous family of words debeasts, yet we see from Virg. Æn. xi. 644,
noting labour, &c. Hence ur-are, arvum, &c. Gothic,
ar-ms; Anglo-Saxon, ëarm; Old High Dutch, aram, the that it was also used for the human arm.
arm, &c. i.e. tlie labouring limb: and adjective of the From this also were derived
same form, viz. Anglo-Saxon, ëarm; New High Dutch,
arm, laborious, poor. Perhaps also ëarg, New High Arma
That which hangs from the arm, defensive Dutch, arg, parsimonious, &c. To ear a field (Shakes-
weapons, shield, &c.
peare) i. e. plough it. But this must not be confounded
with ear of corn, nor with ear, Gothic, áuso; Latin, auris,
probably Old Latin ausis ; arista may have to do with
arare, but Anglo-Saxon ëar, spica, is Gothic ah-s; Old
High Dutch, ah-ar; Old Norse, ar, ak-s. Anglo-Saxon
car for ëahs, eur. In all probability the Old High Dutch
ari which yet remains in the er of some English words
may be connected with this root; at any rate the often
repeated derivation of it from Anglo-Saxon wer, Gothic
vairs, homo, is idle in the extreme.
Manus · Manut. . Old High Dutch, munt ; Anglo-Saxon, mund, The New High Dutch mund, protection, yet retains this root.
the hand; whence Anglo-Saxon, mundboro, In spite of the t which Dr. Jäkel chooses to find here in
manut, it must be doubted whether his view is correct in
making manus out from mund. Both probably belong to the set of words mentioned in our comment upon homo, which, as was there observed, involve, first division, next orderly division, intellectual arrangement, &c. By the way read Anglo-Saxon mund-bora. It is an interesting
speculation whether Latin prehendo, Old English hend, to
catch hold of with the land, does not set forth a perished
Latin word of that form: perhaps Dr. Jäkel would say,
that m in man-ut-s is falsely for h, and so give us hand at
once; but if he were to say so it would not do.
Isidor. folmo ; Anglo-Saxon, folm; the flat If this be true, and we at present see no cause to doubt it,
hand; also, any thing flat; hence also Feld. we have a clue to the whole family of words beginning
with Fl, for F-1 (P-1) as Planus, Pla-tanus. Anglo-Saxon
fol-d, terra; fel-d, campus; and according to a well-known
etymological law, THEX®, pli-care, pl-ex; Gothic, fal-ban,
falþs; Anglo-Saxon, fealdan, fëald ; Old High Datch,
falt; New English, fold, and -fold (in manifold).
Ungula : $ Nagul • Nagel: Persian, nachun. A transposition of This is one of the cases in which we should be inclined to
na into un, as in the case of umbelicus.
assume a direct derivation from the Greek. Col. V. Ken.
nedy gives the following line of words:-Sanskrit, nakham;
Greek, óvuxr; Latin, unguem ; German, nagel; Persian,
nakhan; English, nail. Jäkel being desirous of making
out his -el as well as his root, has given a Latin diminutive.
Unguis, un-guin, should have been instanced, for ungula
is a hoof, not strictly a nail. The way in which the o of
the Greek has forced itself into the Latin word in conse-
quence of the omission of the v, and consequent contrac-
tion of v-into ng is obvious, without resorting to a trans-
position of any sort.
Cut-is Cut . Haut; Fränk, kut; Swedish, huden.
The Gothic and Anglo-Saxon form of this is h-Þ. Hence
Anglo-Saxon hud for hůdh, &c. connecting itself with many
words; as hide, to conceal, &c. hád, a hood, &c. &c.
Cruor Cru. Old High Dutch, grau, blood ; particularly that To this belongs Old High Dutch in krû-ison, abhorresco ?
which flows out; hence also is derived grau-
More true to the law is Anglo-Saxon hryre, horror, ruin.
sam, bloodthirsty, cru-delis.
· Rede; Teutonic
, redina; Gothic, raþjo; Swed. This sort of etymology is not to be endured. We have here räd, reason, derive from reden, and show like
another instance of the Professor's determination not to
distinguish his root from the forming sylluble, when it suits the Greek loyos, the connection between
his purpose to confound them. It is as clear as sunlight
speaking and thinking.
that the r belongs to the root os, out of whose s it grew;
then came or-are, to pray, and or-at-jo, prayer. This way
of twisting words is most unjustifiable. While we are
upon the subject we must expose one or two more instances
of it, and then we will leave it. In p. 50 he ventures to
make magistratus=magist or macest-rat, from mag, mighty,
and rath, a councillor: one would think that the common
forms of a thousand words in atus and atio, where no to
could be, would have spared us this nonsense.
But a far
more profligate piece of etymology is in p. 57, where he
derives dea, a goddess, from Isl. gi-dia. Now in this word
the g-d contains the root, and it then corresponds to Gothic
Gud (n), an idol, (but no doubt once a God); Gudja, a
priest; ga-gud-ei, (f.) godliness; gud-jinón, to act the
priest; gud-jinassus, (m.) priesthood; gyden, Anglo-Saxon
(f.) goddess; göttin, German, ditto; Gott. German, God;
and so throughout the Teutonic stock. This becomes
doubly remarkable, because in p. 56 he had derived Deus
at great length from Tuisto, &c. &c. and Teut. German.
This is scarcely surpassed by Plato's delightful interpreta-
tion of Alog upon flowing principles, viz. from dia through.
vid. Cratyl. By ihe way it will not do seriously to quote
Plato's Cratylus, in order to prove certain words Phrygian
and Barbaric; because wben he says this of any word, he
is obviously laughing at those who do shelter themselves
under such a cloak. He says, “ whenever I cannot make
out a word, I say it is barbaric;" and as the flowing phi-
losophy would not explain all the words, he uses his jungam
more than once, and says, “Oh that's barbaric."
Jäkel, and others too, have quoted these passages as if
Plato was in earnest; once for all we beg to say that he
was not such a blockhead: and that not one of the ety-
mologies which he brings forward from that" hive of wis-
dom,” the Heracleitan Philosophy, but is a slap at the
philosophy itself. He has several times insinuated to his
reader that he is joking, and his readers must have been
very dull not to have found it out for themselves. One
more instance of confounding root and formative syllable
and we have done: In this case he separates part of the
root, and makes it out to be a diminutive, p. 65. Collis,
coll, English, hill; hid-l from hoch (high) and the dimi-
nutive el, a small height. The numerous words, amount-
ing to 90 or 100, which are formed with k-l, h-l, and
classed by the conception of overness, (that which stands
over another thing,) reject the supposition altogether of
el being a diminutive. Where, moreover, did he ever find
Namen; Pers. nam; Teut. namo, from nehmen. Gk. veja, vopos, ovopa; Lat. numa, numen, nomen, nummus ;
Anglo-Saxon, niman, nama, &c. &c. &c.
Wille ; Ulpb. willja; Anglo-Saxon, wylla. This word and the next have their roots in the vol, as in volo,
Ital. voluttd, wollust. The p cannot bave ex- I will: the un-t and up-t are common syllables of forma-
isted in the common people's pronunciation,
tion; conf. Gk. xan-UntW; Lat. celo; Anglo-Saxon, helan
—to conceal. The p being left out by the Italians is no or it would probably have remained in Ita
reason whatever for its being so by the Romans; and the
lian. Both syllables would then be pure German lust has nothing whatever to do with the word.
German-wobl and lust.
Old Saxon, sueban; Old Nor. swefn ; Swed. That the root lies in sop is obvious, from the verb sopire and
other forms; the Old Lat. sompnus, later somnus, was in-
correct. Sop-or or sop-n-us corresponds then to Old Sax.
suebh-an (not sueban); Anglo-Saxon, suef-en, swef.n; Old
Eng. sweven, and New Eng. swoon. The unorganic m in
Swedislı word shows that, liko French som-meil, it wou
derived from the Lat. So Span, suelto ; Ital. sonno.
CONNECTIONS AND RELATIONS OF MEN.
Vater; Pers. peder; Swed. fader; and so in the whole examination of the question of accentuation shows
all the German dialects, from faea, foeda— to that it is altogether distinct from the ground-forms, i. e. bring forth, nourish.
roots of words : in spite of the Professor's objections, we
shall therefore still connect gathg and uning with pater and
Mutter ; Pers, mader; Swed, moder, &c., from mater. We shall go further yet, and give, as equally con-
magad gebähren- to bring forth.
nected, the following line from Grimm-Sansk. pat-is
(conjunx); Litth. pats; Gk. Tócis (? Dor. Pót-is); Goth.
Brúdfaþs sponsus---from which, as well as from the Eng.
fath-er, we see that, according to the canon, the Anglo-
Saxon fäd-er should have been, and probably was, fadh-er.
So of modor also, for modh-or; New Eng. mother : but dh
was always liable to lose its aspiration. We cannot see
what magad has to do with mater. Mag-aþs, Goth,; in
Old High Dutch, makad, makadin ; Middle High Dutch,
maget, megedin; New High Dutch, meit; Anglo-Saxon,
mæden, &c., are the English maid, maiden ; and that Ger-
man maids should be mothers would not please Dr. Jäkel,
we believe, a whit more than, according to Tacitus, it
pleased our forefathers, the chastest as well as boldest of
mankind. In what language, by the way, does Dr. Jäkel
find magad, to bring forth? Perhaps in the Phrygian or
Bruder ; Pers. berader ; Eng. brother ; Ulph. If this be true, we must assume that the Latin f is right in
brother—he who is of the same breed, geburt. frater, and the p wrong in parens, &c.; because it is to be ob-
served that the word parens ought to bear the same relation
From baren gebäbren; hence barend, the pro-
to ferre that it does to Goth. bairan, ferre. Now frater
ducers, bringers forth.
is strictly Gothic bróþar; and parentes, Gothic berusjós.
Kero, barn ; Teut. parn; Fris. and Swed. barn,
The whole set of words pario, &c. either are totally uncon
nected with ferre, bairan, or the Gothic bairan and Latin equally from baeren, one who is born, a boy ; ferre are mere derivatives, which is in the highest degree Pers. puser ; Sansk. putreh, a son.
improbable. This requires to be deeper investigated. We admit of cour:e that Gothic barns is from bairan, but we