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the ottava rima, the terza rima, the canzone, the intermixture of short lines in blank verse, &c. The only surviving really national measure with which we are acquainted is the redondilha, and that is but little cultivated.

Portugueze literature, accordingly, abounds in odes, eclogues, idyls and sonnets, with some dull epics; but the drama, so rich in Spain, is here almost a barren field. Oue classical national tragedy indeed we have by Ferreira, one of the first of the writers who uudertook to teach the classical muses Portugueze, professing this to be the main object of his life, and the character to which he aspired to be that since given him by Francisco Manuel, of

“ The good Ferreira, of our tongue the friend.” Ferreira likewise, as well as his friend Sa de Miranda, wrote some comedies that display considerable comic powers, and superseded Gil Vicente, the early and real Portugueze Plautus, whose national, comic, but extravagant and very gross pieces, now fell into disrepute. But the cold classical simplicity of form adopted by these authors was too uncongenial to modern taste to awaken that passion for scenic representation, without which no theatre can fourish. Ferreira had few followers. His contemporaries and immediate successors preferred the epopea to the drama; the stage was supported by translations, and it is only since the last revival of Portugueze literature that original dramatists have arisen.

Portugueze epic poetry is generally held to be identical with Os Lusiadas of Camoens; and the reputation of this great author stands so deservedly high in European esteem, whilst his works are so universally known through the medium of translations, (though perhaps only Lord Strangford's beautiful version of some of his minor pieces can be deemed really to afford the means of appreciating his merits,) that of him we do not propose to speak here, where our object is to give information concerning what is unknown. The Lusian poets, who emulated his success, were, however, so immeasurably inferior to him, that we shall not fill our pages with critiques upon Cortereal, Quevedo, Lobo, Castro, &c. &c. The species of composition in which Sa de Miranda, Bernadim Ribeyra, Bernardes, Pereira, Fernão Alves de Oriente, Lobo, (whom we have condemned as a writer of epics, the dramatist Fereira, and many others of lesser note excelled, were especially eclogues and idyls. After these, their favourite strains were lyrics and cartas, a kind of didactic epistle.

Concerning the authors of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century, it is needless to add any thing to what has been already said. Of those who, some seventy or eighty years since,



first suddenly started up to show that Lusitanian genius, if it bad long slumbered, was not dead, the most celebrated were Garção and Diniz. They were followed by Domingo dos Reis, Quita, a successful pastoral poet, by Claudio Manoel da Costa, (chiefly distinguished as the first Brazilian candidate for literary fame,) and his countryman Gonzaga. But these American authors forfeited the advantages they might have derived from their local situation, by writing merely as classical Portugueze, instead of giving poetical pictures of a new world. Another Brazilian avoided this rock. The URAGUAY of J. Bazilio de Gama is an American epic, and if the genius of the author was unfortunately not equal to his ambition, the Brazilian subject and colouring bestow an interest upon his production. It was at this period too that Antonio José, a Jew, gave to the stage a number of national comedies, or rather comic operas, which, though certainly not to be compared with the stock plays of the French or English stage, are by no means deficient in wit, humour, and comic effect.

The authors already deceased, who have adorned the end of the last and the beginning of the present century, are so numerous that it would be tedious to name them all. We shall mention a few who bear the highest reputation, and give some extracts from those whom we prefer. Manoel Barbosa du Bocage* was the most celebrated of improvisatores in a land where that peculiar talent is almost as common as in Italy. Francisco Manuel do Nascimento is considered as the Boileau, or rather, perhaps, the Horace of Portugal, combining great lyrical powers with keen satirical and critical talents. Joam Baptista Gomez was the first tragic writer of modern times, and his Nova Castrot still holds the highest rank upon the Portugueze stage: it is far inferior to Ferreira's Castro in poetry, but surpasses that classical tragedy, perhaps, as far, in dramatic and theatrical effect. To these names we must add those of Nicolau Tolentino, a peculiarly national satirist; of Domingos Maximiano Torres, who excelled in eclogues and canzonets; of Antonio Ribeiro dos Santos, an elegant imitator of Ferreira; and of the Brazilian A. P. Souza Caldas, esteemed one of the best of the modern lyric poets.

Of the living authors of Portugal, the most eminent are J. M. da Costa e Silva, J. A. de Macedo, J. F. de Castilho, who lost his sight at six years of age, B. M. Curvo Semedo, J. Evangelista de Moraes Sarmento, J. V. Pimentel Maldonado, and his sister Marianna; three other ladies, the Viscondessa de Balsamao, of the Villa Poucas de Guimaraens family, a lady, who, at upwards of seventy years of age, excels in amorous lyrics, Dona Francisca · de Paula Pozzolo da Costa, and Dona Leonor d'Almeida; M. C. S. d’Aguiar, a very prolific tragedian, not without merit, D. A. J. Osorio de Pina Leitão, a Brazilian, F. de Paula Medina e Vasconcellos, a native of the island of Madeira, J. B. Leitão d'Almeida Garrett, and Luiz da Silva Mozinho de Albuquerque. The writings of this last writer are already so various and voluminous that we hope ere long to introduce him to our readers' notice in a separate article. Of some of the others we shall here give specimens, and we may observe generally, that although by no means deficient in the more ordinary tuneful strains, a large proportion of the works of the above mentioned living authors consists of invectives against French ambition, and of lyrical tributes of admiration and gratitude to England's great captain, to whom Portugal owes her independence. We have heard of an epic upon his peninsular wars by Vasconcellos, but have never been able to procure a sight of it.

* Foreign names are not of uncommon occurrence,-English, French, and Germans having settled in Portugal, whose descendants are considered as native Portugueze.

† An account of this tragedy has appeared in Blackwood's Magazine.

Without apologizing for the length of this introduction, rendered necessary by the novelty of the subject, we proceed to the compilation under review. The introductory prose sketch is from the pen of Almeida Garrett, and affords much valuable informa: tion, although somewhat tinctured with national partiality, and more perhaps with national feelings, which to foreigners detract from the weight of its criticism. It need not detain us after the ample statements we have given. The compiler, P. J. de Fonseca, appears to be very inferior in judgment to his coadjutor, and might have made, we suspect, a better selection. He has divided and classed the pieces contained in these volumes as is usually done, according to the character of the poetry; but we shall deviate from this rule in arranging our extracts; and Portugueze poetry being so distinctly divided into two distant eras, we shall first give specimens of two or three of the numerous poets of the sixteenth century, and then proceed to the modern school.

The first poet we shall introduce to our readers is our principal favourite, Antonio Ferreira, a nobleman and eminent lawyer, who was born in 1528, and died before he had completed his fortieth year. In most kinds of poetry Ferreira was, we think, fully equal to his rivals and friends, with the exception, perhaps, of Camoens; but his tragedy is so decidedly considered as the masterpiece upon which his reputation rests, that we shall take our specimens of his powers from it. The Castro is the second tragedy written in any modern language, and Ferreira's compatriot admirers lay much stress upon its being so little posterior to the first (Trissino's


Sofonisba)* as to render it improbable that the Portugueze poet should have seen the Italian piece. We ourselves think that a previous knowledge of the Sofonisba would detract but little from Ferreira's merit. Both tragedies are modelled after the Greek masters of the art, and should we allow that Trissino suggested to our author the idea of imitating them in a modern language, the conception of founding a tragedy upon the history of bis own country, as Eschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, did upon the history of theirs, was entirely Ferreira's, and this is, to our miuds, sufficient to establish his claim to originality. His tragedy is, moreover, very superior to Trissino's. The Castro is founded upon the story, or rather the catastrophe, of the loves of Don Pedro, Infante of Portugal, and Dona Iñez de Castro. After a long attachment during the life of Pedro's first wife, they were privately married upon her death. Iñez lived in retirement upon the banks of the Mondego, (the spot still bears the name of the Quinta das Lagrimas, the Villa or Garden of Tears, and there became the mother of four children, passing with the world for her husband's mistress; but the enemies of her family discovered the secret of her marriage, and dreading her future influence as queen, persuaded the king that the interest of the country required the death of his sou’s wife or mistress. She was accordingly murdered by them, with the old king's concurrence, during the Infante's casual absence, and the widower's despair sought alleviation in a sanguinary vengeance that branded him with the surname of Cruel; though after he had solaced his exasperation with the tortures and death of the assassins, his insane violence subsided into a tranquil and just, however inexorable, sternness, which was marked by the more laudatory epithet of the Justiciary. This story is highly tragical, and Ferreira's conception of it is dramatic, notwithstanding that to his zeal for classical simplicity he has sacrificed what should have been tragical and dramatic scenes. He has no interview between the wedded lovers, no efforts of the husband to save an idolized wife. The first act exhibits the ardent love of both, and on the part of Iñez, fear of her enemies, anxiety for the declaration of her marriage, and reliance upon her husband's firmness. In the second act, her enemies persuade the reluctant king to sanction her death; in the third she is warned of her impending fate; and in the fourth it is consummated, despite the seeming success of her attempt to soften her royal father-in-law. The fifth act is wholly occupied with Don Pedro's

It will be remembered, that France and England in those days knew nothing of the drama beyond Mysteries and Moralities.

† The i so marked is pronounced as if followed by a y.

despair and vengeful menaces. A chorus forms part of the dramatis persona, and sings appropriate lyrical strains between the acts. We shall take our specimen from the third act. The chorus thus addresses Iñez:

Tidings most sad and cruel, death-fraught tidings,
I bring thee, Dona Iñez. Oh woe, woe!
Oh most unhappy one, that merit’st not

A death so cruel !
Nurse. How? Wbat say'st thou? Speak.
Chorus. I cannot speak for weeping.
Inez. Wherefore weep'st thou ?
Chorus. I look upon that face, those eyes-
Iñez. Woe's me!

Alas! What ill? What ill so terrible

Is this thou bringest me?
Chorus. It is thy death.
Inez. Is he then dead? my busband ? nive Infante?
Chorus. You both must die, ev'n now.
Iñez. Oh woful tidings !

They'll murder my beloved! Why murder bim?
Chorus. Because they'll murder thee. In thee he lives,

In thee will quickly die. Nurse. Now God forbid

Sucb ills' befalling!
Chorus. They are imminent,

And linger not. Fly, thou unbappy one !
By flight secure thee. I already bear
The clashing of the iron instruments
That bither basten with thy death. Armed men,
Lady, in search of thee, are hastening hither.
The king himself is seeking thee, resolved
On thee t avenge* his rage. If possible,
Rescue thy children with thyself, nor suffer

Thine evil fate t'infect them.
Iñez. Woe is me!

Sad, lonely, persecuted! Oh, my lord,
Wbere art thou, that thou comest not? The king

Seeks me.
Chorus. The king.
Iñez. And wherefore should be slay me?
Chorus. Oh cruel king! and cruel those who urge

Such monstrous cruelty! For thee they seek,
For thy fair bosom, that with savage steel
It may be furiously pierced through and through.

This expression, however singular, is Ferreira's ; the word cannot, we believe, be trajislated otherwise than to revenge or retaliate. A similar use of revenge frequently occurs in the old German of the middle ages.

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