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Stat quoque juncosas Cami remeare pa- | heavenly plant. It has been arranged for ludes,

me to go back to the bulrush swamps of Atque iterum raucæ murmur adire Cam, and to the raucous murmur of the Scholæ.

school. Meanwhile take this poor gift of a Interea fidi parvum cape munus amici, faithful friend, these few words constrained

Paucaque in alternos verba coacta modos. ) into the measure of elegy.



Anno ætatis 17




The person to whose memory this elegy is addressed, Richard Ridding, M. A., of St. John's College, Cambridge, died in the autumn of 1626, near the beginning of Milton's third year at the University. Three persons at Cambridge bear the title of Esquire Bedel (Latin praeco, herald or crier). Their duties are, to bear the mace before the Chancellor on solemn occasions, and to give summons. The office is one of considerable dignity, and has a

life tenure. The opening lines of the elegy have a suspicion of humor in them, but it is safe to say that Milton's tribute was meant in all seriousness. At any rate, the passing away of a picturesque figure from the University life gave the young Latinist too good an opportunity for versifying to be neglected. The date-heading, anno ætatis 17, is here and elsewhere misleading; Milton was, in the autumn of 1626, near the end of his eighteenth year.

Tx, qui conspicuus baculo fulgente solebas1 As beadle, you were wont, standing con

Palladium toties ore ciere gregem, spicuous with your shining staff, to assemUltima præconum præconem te quoque sæva

ble the gowned flock: but now, beadle, Mors rapit, officio nec favet ipsa suo.

Death has summoned you; his fierceness

does not favor even his own office. 'Tis Candidiora licet fuerint tibi tempora plumis

true, the locks of your temples were whiter Sub quibus accipimus delituisse Jovem, than the swan-plumes under which Jove is O dignus tamen Hæmonio juvenescere storied to have hid, but O, you should have succo,

grown young again like Æson, with the Dignus in Æsonios vivere posse dies, simples drawn by Medea from the flowers Dignus quem Stygiis medicâ revocaret ab

of Hæmonvale! Æsculapius, son of Coronis,

heeding the prayers of some importunate undis

goddess, should have called you back with Arte Coronides, sæpe rogante deâ.

his healing art from the Stygian waves. Tu si jussus eras acies accire togatas, Whenever you were ordered to go as a swift Et celer a Phæbo nuntius ire tuo,

herald from your Apollo (the vice-chancelTalis in Iliacâ stabat Cyllenius aulâ

lor of the university) and bring together Alipes, æthereâ missus ab arce Patris; the togaed hosts, you stood like wing-foot Talis et Eury bates ante ora furentis Achil.

Hermes in the Trojan halls, sent from the lei

ethereal domes of his Father; or like the

herald Eurybates, when before the stormy Rettulit Atridæ jussa severa ducis.

face of Achilles he delivered the stern Magna sepulchrorum regina, satelles demands of Agamemnon. O thou great Averni,

queen of sepulchres, handmaid of Avernus, Sæva nimis Musis, Palladi sæva nimis, I too harsh to the Muses and the arts, why


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The subject of this elegy, Dr. Launcelot Andrewes, died in September, 1626, at the close of the second long vacation of Milton's academic course. He was a fit subject for eulogy at the hands of young Cantabrigians, because he not only was a Cambridge man,

but had at one time been Master of Pembroke Hall. The tone of the elegy affords a curious contrast to Milton's later utterances, in his anti-episcopal pamphlets, concerning this same bishop.

Mestus eram, et tacitus, nullo comitante, | Sad and silent I sat, comradeless; and sedebam,

many griefs clung about my soul. Then Hærebantque animo tristia plura meo: suddenly, behold, there arose before me an Protinus en subiit funestæ cladis imago image of the deadly plague which ProserFecit in Angliaco quam Libitina solo;

pina spread on English soil, when dire Dum procerum ingressa est splendentes

Death, fearful with his sepulchral torch,

entered the glorious marble towers of the marmore turres

great, shook the walls heavy with jasper Dira sepulchrali Mors metuenda face,

and gold, and feared not to lay low with Pulsavitque auro gravidos et jaspide muros, i

his scythe the host of princes. Then I Nec metnit satrapum sternere falce thought on that illustrious duke Duke greges.

Christian of Brunswick, a victim of the Tunc memini clarique ducis, fratrisque War of the Palatinate) and his worshipped verendi,

brother, whose bones were consumed on an Intempestivis ossa cremata rogis; 10 untimely pyre; and I thought on those Et memini Heroum quos vidit ad æthera

heroes whom all Belgia saw snatched away raptos,

to the skies, — saw, and wept her lost lead

ers. But for you chiefly I grieved, good Flevit et amissos Belgia tota duces.

Bishop, once the great glory of WinchesAt te præcipuè luxi, dignissime Præsul,

ter. I melted in tears, and with sad lip Wintoniæque olim gloria magna tuæ;

thus complained: “Cruel Death, goddess Delicui fletu, et tristi sic ore querebar: second to Tartarean Jove, is it then not

“ Mors fera, Tartareo diva secunda Jovi, enough that the woods should feel thy Nonne satis quod sylva tuas persentiat iras, wrath, and that power should be given

Et quod in herbosos jus tibi detur agros, 1 thee over the green things of the fields ?


Quodque afflata tuo marcescant lilia tabo,

Et crocus, et pulchræ Cypridi sacra rosa ? Nec sinis ut semper fluvio contermina quer

cus Miretur lapsus prætereuntis aquæ; Et tibi succumbit liquido quæ plurima cælo

Evehitur pennis, quamlibet augur, avis, Et quæ mille nigris errant animalia sylvis, Et quod alunt mutum Proteos antra pe

cus. Invida, tanta tibi cum sit concessa potestas,

Quid juvat humanâ tingere cæde manus? Nobileque in pectus certas acuisse sagittas, Semideamque animam sede fugâsse suâ ?

30 Talia dum lacrymans alto sub pectore

volvo, Roscidus occiduis Hesperus exit aquis, Et Tartessiaco submerserat æquore currum

Phæbus, ab Eoo littore mensus iter. Nec mora; membra cavo posui refovenda

cubili; Condiderant oculos noxque soporque

meos, Cum mihi visus eram lato spatiarier agro; Heu ! nequit ingenium visa referre

meum. Illic puniceâ radiabant omnia luce,

Ut matutino cum juga sole rubent; 40 Ac veluti cum pandit opes Thaumantia

proles Vestitu nituit multicolore solum; Non dea tam variis ornavit floribus hortos

Alcinoi Zephyro Chloris amata levi. Flumina vernantes lambunt argentea cam

pos; Ditior Hesperio flavet arena Tago; Serpit odoriferas per opes levis aura Fa

voni, Aura sub innumeris humida nata rosis: Talis in extremis terræ Gangetidis oris

Luciferi regis fingitur esse domus. 50 Ipse racemiferis dum densas vitibus um.

bras Et pellucentes miror ubique locos, Ecce mihi subitò Præsul Wintonius astat!

Sidereum nitido fulsit in ore jubar; Vestis ad auratos defluxit candida talos;

Infula divinum cinxerat alba caput. Dumque senex tali incedit venerandus

amictu, Intremuit læto florea terra sono; Agmina gemmatis plaudunt cælestia pen

nis; Pura triumphali personat æthra tubâ. 60

That, touched by thy pestilent breath, the lily withers, and the crocus, and the rose sacred to beautiful Cypris ? Thou dost not permit the oak to stand forever by the stream, looking at the slipping-by of the water. To thee succumb the birds, as many as are borne on wings through the liquid sky, - even the birds, though they give augury; and all the thousand animals that roam the dark forests ; and the dumb herd that the caves of Proteus shelter. Envious! When so much power has been granted thee, what did it pleasure thee to steep thy hands in human slaughter, sharpen thy certain arrows to pierce a no ble breast, and drive from its tenement a soul half-divine?

While I was brooding thus with tears, ruddy Hesperus rose from the western waters; for Phæbus, having measured out his journey from the shores of dawn, had submerged his chariot in the seas beyond Spain. I laid my limbs upon my bed to be refreshed by sleep. Night and slumber had embalmed my eyes, when suddenly I seemed to be walking in a wide field. Alas, I have no gift to tell what I saw! There all things shone with a purpureal light, as when the mountain tops are flushed with the morning sun; and the earth gleamed with a vestment of many colors, even as when Iris scatters her wealth abroad. Not with so various flowers did Chloris, goddess loved of light Zephyr, adorn the gardens of King Alcinoüs. Silver streams laved the green champaign; the sand shone richer than Hesperian Tagus. Through the odorous leafage breathed the light breath of Favonus, rising humid from under bowers of roses. Such a place men fable the home of Lucifer to be, far on the shores beyond Ganges. As I stood wondering at the enticing nooks and the shades made dense with loaded vines, behold, suddenly before me stood Winchester's bishop! His face shone with glory like the stars; down to his golden sandals his robe flowed all candid; a white fillet encircled his head. As the old man, thus venerably clad, walked on, the flowery earth trembled with joyful sound; hosts of angels clapped their jew. elled wings, and through the air rang out a

Quisque novum amplexu comitem cantuque

salutat, Hosque aliquis placido misit ab ore

sonos: “ Nate, veni, et patrii felix cape gaudia

regni; Semper abhinc duro, nate, labore vaca." Dixit, et aligeræ tetigerunt nablia turmæ;

At mihi cum tenebris aurea pulsa quies; Flebam turbatos Cephaleiâ pellice somnos.

Talia contingant somnia sæpe mihi!

triumphal horn. Each angel saluted his new comrade with embrace and song; and from the placid lips of One came these words: “Come, son, enjoy the gladness of thy father's realm; rest henceforth from thy hard labors.” As He spoke, the winged choirs touched their psalteries. But from me my golden rest fied with the darkness, and I was left weeping the dreams which

had been snatched away. May the like | come to me often again !


Anno ætatis 18





Thomas Young, a young Scotch divine who liad come to England in the wake of King James, had been Milton's domestic tutor, and had probably continued in that capacity after the boy was sent to St. Paul's School. Two years before Milton left St. Paul's, Young accepted a position abroad as minister of a Protestant church supported by the English merchants resident at Hamburg in Germany. The present verse-letter, written in 1627, some years after Young's departure, shows by its tone of tenderness and solicitude that, in spite of his dilatoriness in writing, Milton still cherished 3 sincere affection for his former tutor. He compares his love for Young to that of Alcibiades for Socrates, and plainly states his debt to him for initiation into the delights of classical literature. Milton's references to the troubled state of Germany, and the danger to which Young is exposed, will be made clear by remembering that in 1627 the Thirty Years' War had entered upon its second stage, with Tilly and Wallenstein at the head of the Imperialist forces, and Christian IV. of Denmark as champion of the Protestant cause. When the pre

sent epistle was written, the Imperialist army was reported in England to be on the point of laying siege to Hamburg. This circumstance serves to inflame Milton's indignation over the callousness of England, who had allowed one of her most righteous sons to be driven abroad for sustenance.

The prophecy with which the epistle closes, that Young would soon see his native shores again, was fulfilled in the same or the following year. He received a living at Stowmarket, Suffolk, and held it uninterruptedly until the close of his life in 1655. When the Long Parliament met to inaugurate a new state of things in the church, Young came forward with the famous pamphlet against Bishop Hall and his defence of Episcopacy. This pamphlet was signed Smectymnuus, a name made up from the initials of Young and the four other ministers who had collaborated in the production; it was the first of the remarkable series of Smectynnuan pamphlets to which Milton contributed. After Milton's break with the Presbyterians, and his embroilment in the divorce controversy, his intimacy with Young probably ceased.

CURRE per immensum subitd, mea littera, / Run through the great sea, my letter; pontum;

| go, over the smooth waters seek the shores I, pete Teutonicos læve per æquor agros;

of Germany. Tarry not; let nothing, I Segnes rumpe moras, et nil, precor, obstet eunti,

pray, stand in the way of your going; let Et festinantis nil remoretur iter. | nothing impair your haste. I myself


Ipse ego Sicanio frænantem carcere ventos pray to Æolus, who cbains the winds in his

Eolon, et virides sollicitabo Deos, Sicilian cave, and to all the green-haired Cæruleamque suis comitatam Dorida Nym gods, and to cerulean Doris with her nymphs,

that they give you a quiet way through their Ut tibi dent placidam per sua regna vian. realms. But do you, if possible, get for At tu, si poteris, celeres tibi sume jugales,

yourself that swift dragon-team, whereVecta quibus Colchis fugit ab ore viri; 10

| with Medea fled from the face of her hus Aut queis Triptolemus Scythicas devenit in

band; or that with which the boy Triptooras, Gratus Eleusinâ missus ab urbe puer.

lemus came into Scythia, a welcome mes. Atque, ubi Germanas flavere videbis are

senger from Eleusis. And when you shall nas,

see the German sands gleam, turn your Ditis ad Hamburgæ mænia flecte gradum, course to the walls of wealthy Hamburg, Dicitur occiso quæ ducere nomen ab Hamâ, which takes its name, they say, from Hama,

Cimbrica quem fertur clava dedisse neci. slain by the club of the Danish giant. There Vivit ibi antiquæ clarus pietatis honore a minister dwells, skilled to pasture the

Præsul, Christicolas pascere doctus oves; Alocks of Christ. He is the other half of Ille quidem est animæ plusquam pars altera

my soul, yea, more; without him I am nostræ;

forced to live a half-life. Ah me, how Dimidio vitæ vivere cogor ego. Hei mihi, quot pelagi, quot montes inter

many seas, how many mountains, interpose jecti,

to part me from my other self! Dearer Me faciunt aliâ parte carere mei !

he is to me than wert thou, Socrates, wisest Charior ille mihi quàm tu, doctissime of Greeks, to Alcibiades, who had Telamon Graiûm,

for ancestor; dearer than the great StagyCliniadi, pronepos qui Telamonis erat; rite to his generous pupil Alexander, whom Quàmque Stagirites generoso magnus Olympias of Chaonia bore to Lybian Jove. alumno,

As to the king of the Myrmidons was the Quem peperit Lybico Chaonis alma Jovi.

son of Amyntor, or Cheiron, son of nymph Qualis Amyntorides, qualis Philyrëius He Philyra, such is this man to me. I fol. ros

lowed his footsteps when I first wandered Myrmidonum regi, talis et ille mihi. Primus ego Aonios illo præeunte recessus

through the hollows of the Aonian mount, Lustrabam, et bifidi sacra vireta jugi, 30

and through the sacred groves of the cloven Pieriosque hausi latices, Clioque favente

hill; with him I first drank the waters of Castalio sparsi læta ter ora mero.

the Pierian spring, and under favor of Clio Flammeus at signum ter viderat arietis wet my happy lips thrice with wine of Ethon

Castaly. But flame-clad Æthon, the sunInduxitque auro lanea terga novo,

hero, has three times seen the sign of the Bisque novo terram sparsisti, Chlori, seni ram, and clothed the wooly back with new lem

gold; and twice, O Flora, thou hast sprinGramine, bisque tuas abstulit Auster kled the old earth with new verdure, and opes;

twice has Auster, the South-wind, stolen Necdum ejus licuit mihi lumina pascere

away thy wealth, since it was granted mine vultu, Aut linguæ dulces aure bibisse sonos.

eyes to feast upon this man's face, or mine Vade igitur, cursuque Eurum præverte

ears to drink in the sweet tones of his voice. sonorum;

Go, then, and outstrip in your flight the Quàm sit opus monitis res docet, ipsa sonorous East-wind. Whatever monitions vides.

you need, your eyes and occasion will teach Invenies dulci cum conjuge fortè sedentem, you. Perchance yon will come upon him Mulcentem gremio pignora cbara suo;

as he sits with his sweet wife, fondling in Forsitan aut veterum prælarga volumina his breast the dear pledges of their love; Patrum

or perchance as he turns the tomes of the Versantem, aut veri Biblia sacra Dei, ancient Fathers, or the sacred books of

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