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BAPTISM is a sacrament of the New Testament, ordained by Jesus Christ, not only for the solemn admission of the party baptized into the visible church, but also to be, unto him, a sign and seal of the covenant of grace, of his ingrafting into Christ,d of regeneration,e of remission of sins,f and of his giving up unto God, through Jesus Christ, to walk in newness of life : which sacrament is, by Christ's own appointment, to be continued in his church until the end of the world.h
It. The outward element to be used in this sacrament is water, wherewith the party is to be baptized in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, by a minister of the gospel, lawfully called thereunto.i
I. a Mat. xxviii. 19. (See letter k of the foregoing chapter.)
6.1 Cor. xii. 13. For, by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.
c Rom. iv. 11. And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith, which he had yet being uncircumcised; that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also. With Col. ii. 11, 12. In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ: buried with him in bap tism, wherein also ye are risen with him, through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead.
d Gal. iii. 27. For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ. Rom. vi. 5. For, if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in the likeness of his resurrection.
e Tit. iii. 5. Not by works of righteousness, which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost.
f Mark i. 4. John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the baptism of repentance, for the remission of sins.
g Rom. vi. 3, 4. Know ye not, that so many of us as were baptized into Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death? Therefore, we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of life.
h Mat. xxviii. 19, 20. (See in letter k foregoing chapter.) Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you : and lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world. Amen.. II. Mat. iii. 11. I, indeed, baptize you with water unto repentance
III. Dipping of the person into the water is not necessary; but baptism is rightly administered by pouring or sprinkling water upon the person.k
IV. Not only those that do actually profess faith in and obedience unto Christ, but also the infants of one or both believing parents are to be baptized.m
but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire. John i. 33. And I knew him not but he that sent me to baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending and remaining on him, the same is he which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. Mat. xxviii. 19. (See in letter & foregoing chapter.) v. 20. (See in letter h.)
III. k Heb. ix. 10, 19 to 22. Acts ii. 41. Then they that gladly received his word, were baptized: and the same day there were added unto them about three thousand souls. Acts xvi. 33. And he took them the same hour of the night, and washed their stripes; and was baptized, he and all his, straightway. Mark vii. 4. And when they come from the market, except they wash, they eat not. And many other things there be, which they have received to hold, as the washing of cups and pots, brazen vessels, and of tables.
IV. 7 Mark xvi. 15, 16. And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach ye the gospel to every creature. He that believeth and is baptized, shall be saved; but he that believeth not, shall be damned. Acts viii. 37, 38. And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. And he commanded the chariot to stand still and they went down both into the water, both Philip and the eunuch; and he baptized him.
m Gen. xvii. 7. 9. And I will establish my covenant between me and thee, and thy seed after thee in their generations, for an everlasting covenant; to be a God unto thee, and to thy seed after thee. And God said unto Abraham, Thou shalt keep my covenant, therefore, thou, and thy seed after thee in their generations. With Gal. iii. 9, 14. So then they which be of faith, are blessed with faithful Abraham. That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. And Col. ii. 11, 12. In whom also ye are circumcised with the circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh, by the circumcision of Christ: buried with him in baptism, wherein also you are risen with him through the faith of the operation of God, who hath raised him from the dead. And Acts ii. 38, 39. Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. For the promise is unto you, and to your children, and to all that are afar off, even as many as the Lord, our God, shall call. And Rom. iv. 11, 12, And he received the sign of circumcision, a seal of the righteousness of the faith, which he had yet being uncircumcised; that he might be the father of all them that believe, though they be not circumcised; that righteousness might be imputed unto them also: and the father of circumcision to them, who are not of the circumcision enly, but also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham,
V. Although it be a great sin to contemn or neglect this ordinance," yet grace and salvation are not so inseparably annexed unto it, as that no person can be regenerated or saved without it, or that all that are baptized are undoubt edly regenerated.P
VI. The efficacy of baptism is not tied to that moment of time wherein it is administered; yet notwithstanding, by the right use of this ordinance, the grace promised is not only offered, but really exhibited and conferred by the Holy Ghost, to such (whether of age or infants) as that grace belongeth unto, according to the counsel of God's own will, in his appointed time.
which he had being yet uncircumcised. 1 Cor. vii. 14. For the unbelieving husband is sanctified by the wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified by the husband; else were your children unclean; but now are they holy. Mat. xxviii. 13. Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Mark x. 13 to 16. And they brought young children to him, that he should touch them; and his disciples rebuked those that brought them. But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for, of such is the kingdom of God. Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein. And he took them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them. Luke xviii. 15. And they brought unto him also infants, that he would touch them; but when his disciples saw it, they rebuked them.
V. n Luke vii. 30. But the Pharisees and lawyers rejected the counsel of God against themselves, being not baptized of him. With Exod. iv. 24, 25, 26. And it came to pass by the way in the inn, that the Lord met him, and sought to kill him. Then Zipporah took a sharp stone, and cut off the foreskin of her son, and cast it at his feet, and said, Surely a bloody husband art thou to me. So he let him go then she said, A bloody husband thou art, because of the eircumcision.
o Rom. iv. 11. (See in letter m.) Acts x. 2, 4, 22, 31, 45, 47.
p Acts viii. 13, 23. Then Simon himself believed also: and when he was baptized, he continued with Philip, and wondered, beholding the miracles and signs, which were done. For, I perceive that thou art in the gall of bitterness, and in the bond of iniquity.
VI. q John iii. 5,8. Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born of water, and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. The wind bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it goeth: so is every one that is born of the Spirit.
7 Gal. iii. 27. For, as many of you as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ. Tit. iii. 5. Not by works of righteous ness, which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost. Eph. v. 25, 26. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also lov the church, and gave himself for it: that he might sanctify
VII. The sacrament of baptism is but once to be administered to any person.s
OF THE LORD'S SUPPER.
OUR Lord Jesus, in the night wherein he was betrayed, instituted the sacrament of his body and blood, called the Lord's Supper, to be observed in his church unto the end of the world, for the perpetual remembrance of the sacrifice of himself in his death, the sealing all benefits thereof unto true believers, their spiritual nourishment and growth in him, their farther engagement in and to all duties, which they owe unto him, and to be a bond and pledge of their communion with him, and with each other, as members of his mystical body.a
II. In this sacrament, Christ is not offered up to his Father, nor any real sacrifice made at all, for remission of sins of the quick or dead ; but only a commemoration of
cleanse it with the washing of water by the word. Acts ii. 38, 41. Then Peter said unto them, Repent, and be baptized every one of you in the name of Jesus Christ, for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Ghost. Then they that gladly received his word, were baptized: and the same day there were added unto them above three thousand souls.
VII. s Tit. iii. 5. (See in letter r.)
I. a 1 Cor. xi. 23 to 26. For, I have received of the Lord, that which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus, the same night in which he was betrayed, took bread: and when he had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat; this is my body, which is broken for you: this do in remembrance of me. After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testa inent in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. For, as often as ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show the Lord's death till he come. 1 Cor. x. 16, 17, 21. The cup of blessing, which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is is not the communion of the body of Christ? For, we being many, are one bread, and one body: for we are all partakers of that one bread. Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, and the cup of devils: ye cannot be partakers of the Lord's table, and of the table of devils. 1 Cor. xii. 13. For, by one Spirit, are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free and have been all made to drink into one Spirit.
II. b Heb. ix. 22, 25, 26, 28. And almost all things are, by the law, purged with blood; and without shedding of blood is no remission. Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth
that one offering up of himself, by himself, upon the cross, once for all; and a spiritual oblation of all possible praise unto God for the same; so that the Popish sacrifice of the mass, as they call it, is most abominably injurious to Christ's one only sacrifice, the alone propitiation for all the sins of the elect.d
III. The Lord Jesus hath, in this ordinance, appointed his ministers to declare his word of institution to the people, to pray, and bless the elements of bread and wine, and thereby to set them apart from a common to an boly nse; and to take, and break the bread, to take the cup, and (they communicating also themselves) to give both to the communicants; but to none who are not then present in the congregation.f
into the holy place, every year with blood of others: (for then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world :) but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself. So Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many; and unto them that look for him shall he appear the second time, without sin, unto salvation.
c 1 Cor. xi. 24, 25, 26. (See them in letter a.) Mat. xxvi. 26, 27. And as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of it.
d Heb. vii. 23, 24, 27. And they truly were many priests, because they were not suffered to continue by reason of death: but this man, because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable priesthood. Who needeth not daily, as those high priests, to offer up sacrifice, first for his own sins, and then for the people's; for this he did once, when he offered up himself. Heb. x. 11, 12, 14, 18. And every priest standeth daily ministering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices, which can never take away sins: but this man, after he had offered one sacrifice for sins, for ever sat down on the right hand of God. For, by one offering he hath perfected for ever them that are sanctified. Now, where remission of these is, there is no more offering for sin.
III. e Mat. xxvi. 26, 27, 28. (See in letter c.) For, this is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sins. And Mark xiv. 22, 23, 24. And as they did eat, Jesus_took bread, and blessed, and brake it, and gave to them, and said, Take, eat; this is my body. And he took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave it to them: and they all drank of it. And he said into them, This is my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for many. And Luke xxii. 19, 20. And he took bread, and gave thanks, and brake it, and gave unto them, saying, This is my body, which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me. Likewise, also, the cup, after supper, saying, This cup is the New Testament in my blood, which is shed for you. With 1 Cor. xi. 23-26. (See all in letter a.)
f Acts xx. 7. And upon the first day of the week, when the disciples ça ne together to break bread, Paul preached unto them, ready