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VI.-1. Essai sur la Répartition des Richesses. Par Paul

Leroy-B aulieu. 3mc édition. Paris, 1888.

2. Le Collectivisme, Examen critique. Par Paul

Leroy-Beaulieu. 3 édition. Paris, 1893.

3. A History of Trade Unionism. By Sidney and

Beatrice Webb. London, 1894.

4. A Criticism of the Theory of Trades Unions. By

T. S. Cree. Third Edition. Glasgow, 1892.

5. Trade Unionism, a Criticism and a Warning. By

James Birks. West Hartlepool, n. d.


VII.-1. Collected Essays. By T. H. Huxley, F.R.S.

London, 1894.

2. Essays on Controverted Questions. By the Same.

London, 1892.

3. The Life and Letters of Charles Darwin.

Francis Darwin. London, 1887.

4. Reden. Von Du Bois Reymond. Leipzig, 1887.

5. Epitome of the Synthetic Philosophy of Herbert

Spencer. By F. Howard Collins. London, 1894 - 160

VIII.-The Writings of Oliver Wendell Holmes. In

Thirteen Volumes. Riverside Edition. London,



IX.--1. Our English Surnames. By C. W. Bardsley.

London, 1873.

2. The Norman People and their existing Descendants.

London, 1874.

3. Surnames as a Science. By Robert Fergusson.

London, 1883.

4. The Homes of Family Names. By H. B. Guppy.

London, 1890.

5. British Family Names. By H. Barber. London,



X.-1. Great Landowners of Great Britain and Ireland.

By John Bateman. London, 1876.

2. Board of Agriculture, Agricultural Returns for

Great Britain. 1893.

3. The Representatiou of the People Acts, 1832-1881.

4. 'The Local Government Acts, 1888 and 1894.

5. The Finance Act, 1894 -


XT.---1. England in Egypt. By Alfred Milner, late Under-

Secretary for Finance in Egypt. Sixth Edition.

London, 1894.

2. Egypt and the Egyptian Question. By Sir 1).

Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E. London, 1883.

3. Egypt To-Day: the First to the Third Khedive.

By W. Fraser Rae. Lundon, 1892


And other Works.

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Art. 1.-1. Érasme, Précurseur et Initiateur de l'esprit moderne

Par H. Durand de Laur. Paris, 1872. 2. Érasme, Étude sur sa Vie et ses Ouvrages. Par Gaston

Feugere. Paris, 1874. 3. Renaissance et Réforme. Iar D. Nisard, de l'Académie

Française. Paris, 1877. 4. Érasme en Italie. Par Pierre de Nolhac, Paris, 1888. 5. Un Libre-Penseur du X ]me Siècle: Érasme. Par Émile

Amiel. Paris, 1889. 6. Erasmus. The Rede Lecture delivered in the Senate-House

on June 11, 1890, by R. C. Jebb, Regius Professor of Greek

in the University of Cambridge. Cambridge, 1890. 7. Life and Letters of Erasmus. Lectures delivered at Oxford,

1893-4, by J. A. Froude, Regius Professor of Modern

History. London, 1894. THE \HE name of Desiderius Erasmus is certainly one of the

most considerable in the literary annals of Europe. There have been, perhaps, only two other men of letters, during the Christian era, whose influence can be paralleled with his : two who, like him, lived and worked in periods of transition ; who, like bim, furnish in their writings, and especially in their correspondence, the most vivid image of their time; who, like him, with small prescience of the destined course of events, were singularly potent instruments in moulding the minds of the generations to come after them. It was the function of St. Augustine to sum up in himself the chief characteristics of the vast spiritual and intellectual changes that accompanied the dissolution of the Roman Empire. He it was, more than any one else, who impressed upon public and private life that ecclesiastical form which it was to wear until the Middle Ages had run their course. In Voltaire we have the living embodiment of Vol. 180.-No. 359.



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the spirit of doubt and denial which sapped the foundations
whereon European society rested in his age. He was the chief
prophet of that vast Revolution which he did not live to see,
which he did not anticipate : a revolution which has made all
things new for us in this nineteenth century. Erasmus may
be regarded as the representative man'-to use Emerson's
word-of the Revival of Letters in its non-Italian phase. The
whole literary and religious Renaissance of Western Europe
in the sixteenth century converged towards him.'* From all
parts men turned to him to interpret for them ideas, presenti-
ments, desires of which they were dimly conscious, but which
they could not formulate ; to guide them in their exodus from
the outworn mediæval order to an ampler stage of civilization.
We too may, with advantage, turn to him for light upon that
astonishing epoch, so pregnant with instruction—if history
be indeed philosophy teaching by experience—for us in our
own changeful times. M. Émile Amiel truly remarks, “ Même
aujourd'hui, malgré les travaux parus, et Dieu sait si le
nombre en est grand, le dernier mot n'a pas été dit sur Érasme.'
We are far from supposing that we shall say that last word in
this article. But we hope to say something which shall present
at least the outlines of the true character and work of this man
of light and leading, so long obscured by religious passion and
theological prejudice.

The recent Erasmian literature is somewhat extensive. We
have selected from it seven works enumerated at the head of
this article, which, for various reasons, appear specially deserving
of notice. It will be well, perhaps, if, by way of introduction
to what we are about to write, we make a few remarks con-
cerning each of them. Regarding the sketch of Erasmus which
fills the first of M. Nisard's fascinating volumes, it is hardly
necessary, indeed, that we should say anything. The singular
value of this admirable bit of work was at once recognized
by all competent judges when it originally appeared in the
• Revue des Deux Mondes' in 1836. And M. Nisard has had
the well-merited satisfaction of telling us in the preface to the
last edition, that the works which have appeared on the subject,
since he wrote, have served to corroborate the general correct-
ness of his judgments. The longer study which we owe to the
labour of M. Feugère appears to have been designed, in some
sort, as a supplement and corollary to M. Nisard's brilliant
essay. Nothing can be more excellent than the spirit in which
this accomplished scholar addressed himself to his task: Se

* Nisard, 'Renaissance et Réforme,' vol. i. p. 140.


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