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st home and abroad, whilst it, of course, provoked great
opposition from the Socinians. See Nelson's Life of Bull.
Bull's Defensio is recon.mended by the erudition, exactness,
and conciseness with which he is written, and by the neatness and
elegance of its style. It is, perhaps, the best work which a person
who seeks to obtain a clear and comprehensive knowledge of the
R. Catholic Creed, can peruse."-CHARLES BUTLER.
"The doctrinal parts of the Christian religion are summarily
comprehended in the Creeds which our Church has adopted into
its service. You need (after Pearson) have no better help than
Bishop Bull's Latin works in defence o," the Nicene Faith."-MR.

"After Dr. Cudworth came Dr. Rull, author of the Defence of the Nicene Faith, a book that has rendered the writer of it very famous, not in England only or chiefly, but beyond the water. "Tis composed in a style most truly Latin, with much vivacity of expression, with great vigour and subtilty of thought: in short, 'tis worthy of the noble argument of which he treats. This author, having studied the Fathers with an application, diligence, and observation almost peculiar to him, perceived that the schools have departed from that notion of the Trinity believed and professed by some of the principal Fathers."-The Unitarian author of The Judgment of a disinterested Person, dc., Lon., 1696, 4to.

The following testimony from the celebrated Bossuet deserves to be quoted. In his answer to M. Jurieu, he remarks that, if the learned treatises of Father Thomassin and the preface of Father Petau are neglected by the opponent of the eternal generation of the Son,-then

"I send him to Bull, that learned English Protestant, in the treatise where he hath so well defended the Fathers who lived before the Council of Nice. You must either renounce the Faith of

| land, 1719, 8vo. Works concerning the Trinity, 1730. 2 vols. 8vo. Apology for the Harmony. Primitive Apos tolical Tradition, &c., against Daniel Zwicker, a Prussian Two sermons concerning the State of the Soul on its immediate separation from the Body, &c., with a preface by Leonard Chappelow, B.D., 1764, 8vo. The Rev. Edward Burton pub. a revised edition of the Bishop's works, 7 vols. in 8, 8vo, Clarendon Press, Oxf., 1827; again in 1846; in which will be found the Life of Nelson, with additions by Mr. Burton.

"His works are esteemed by the learned as one of the main pil lars of orthodoxy."-BISHOP WATSON.

Perhaps we cannot better conclude our notice of this celebrated divine than by a commendation which may be useful as a hint in some quarters. Dr. Lupton gives the following character of Bishop Bull's sermons:

"He abhorred affectation of wit, trains of fulsome metaphors, and nice words wrought up into tuneful, pointed sentences, with out any meaning at the bottom of them. He looked upon sermons consisting of these ingredients-which should be our aversion, and not our aim-as empty, and frothy, and trifling; as inconsistent with the dignity of serious and sacred subjects, and as an indication of a weak judgment."-Letter to Robert Nelson in Biog. Brit, Bull, G. S. Appeal on behalf of the Factory Children, Bradf., 1832, 12mo. Sermon to Coal Miners, Bradf., 1834, 8vo.

Bull, Henry. Christian Prayers and Holy Meditations as well for Private as Publick Exercises; collected

the Holy Trinity, which God forbid, or presuppose with me that by H. Bull, 8vo, 1566; reprinted for The Parker Society,

this author hath reason."

We give some other quotations:

"The best books against the Arians, besides Bishop Pearson on the Creed, are Bishop Bull's works."-DR. WOTTON.

Bishop Horsley commends the accuracy of Dr. Bull's citations from the Fathers of the first three centuries, "confirming the Church of England Faith, and refuting the Unitarian."

"On the subject of a sinner's justification before God, the views of this distinguished prelate were very incorrect, and have done immense harm; but as an advocate of the Catholic doctrine of the Trinity, declared in the Nicene Creed, he has few equals. He was a man of immense learning, the whole of which he has brought to bear on this important subject. His Life, by Robert Nelson, Esq., is one of the finest pieces of theological biography in the English language."-DR. E. WILLIAMS.

In both of the above opinions Mr. Bickersteth concurs. Judiciam Ecclesiæ Catholicæ trium priorum Seculorum de necessitate credendi quod Dominus noster Jesus Christus sit verus Deus, assertum contra M. Simoneum Episcopium aliosque, 1691. In English, with Life, by Rev. T. Rankin, York, 1825, 8vo. This work (which is a defence of the Anathema, as the former was of the Faith, declared by the First Council of Nice) was sent by Mr. Nelson to the famous Bishop of Meaux, Bossuet, whose commendation of the preceding work we have already cited. This celebrated prelate transmitted

"Not only his humble thanks, but the unfeigned congratulations also of the whole clergy of France, then assembled at St. Germain's, for the great service he had done to the Catholic Church in so well defending her determination concerning the necessity of believing the Divinity of the Son of God."

But the Roman Catholic prelate could not but express his surprise that

"So great a man, so weighty and solid an author, could continue a moment without acknowledging the Church."

Camb., 1842, sm. 8vo.

Bull, Henry. Extracts from Sermons, Saffron Walden, 1840, 12mo.

Bull, J. Theolog. and other works, 1805, '13, '14, 8vo. Bull, John, b. about 1563, d. about 1622, an eminent musician, and professor in that art in Gresham College, was a native of Somersetshire. The Oration of Maister Sir Thomas Gresham, Knt. Bull's compositions were pub. John Bull, Oct. 6th, 1597, in the new-erected Colledge of in sundry collections of music. See Burney's Music, iii. 166-14; Ward's Gresham Professors; Athen. Oxon.; and The Harmonicon.

Bull, Joseph. The Unity of God, 1809, 8vo. Bull, Michael. Love of Country, Sermon, 1715, 8vo. Bull, Nicholas. Sermons, 1805, '20, 8vo. Bull, Robert. Sermons, 1714, '15, '23, 8vo. Bull, Roger. Under this name was pub. Grobianus, or the Compleat Booby, an Ironical Poem, translated from the Original Latin of F. Dedekindus, by R. B., 1739, 8vo. "A very singular and humorous work, written to inculcate good tions to Servants." manners, which probably presented to Swift the idea of his Direc

Bull, Thomas, M.D. Hints to Mothers for the Management of their Health, Lon., 8vo; 7th ed., 1851.

There is no mother that will not be heartily thankful that this book ever fell into her hands, and no husband who should not present it to his wife. We cannot urge its value too strongly on all whom it concerns."-Lom. Eclectic Review.

"We recommend it to our readers; and they will confer a benefit on their new-married patients by recommending it to them.”— Brit, and For. Med. Review.

The Maternal Management of Children, in Health and Disease, 8vo; 3d ed., 1848.

"These little manuals will prove useful exactly in proportion to the extent of their circulation. The best thanks of the profes sion, as well as of all intelligent mothers, are due to Dr. Bull for

these excellent little works."-Lon. Medical Gazette.

Bull, W. and J. P. Church at Newport, 1811.
Bullar, Henry, of Lincoln's Inn, and Joseph Bul-

Baths of the Furnas in St. Michael's, Lon., 1841, 2 vols. 8vo. out leaving a sensation of unprofitableness behind it, we scarcely know how it could be presented in a more agreeable form than these lively volumes, which, for this purpose, we cordially recommend."-Lom. Churchman's Monthly Review.

"If amusement is desirable which shall excite the mind with

He begged to have this question resolved, and Dr. Bull, nothing backward in defending the apostolicity of the Church of England, drew up a treatise upon the subject, which did not reach Mr. Nelson's hands until just as he received news of Bossuet's death. The treatise was, how-lar, M.D. A Winter in the Azores, and a Summer at the ever, published, Lon., 1705-07, 8vo, under the title of The Corruptions of the Church of Rome, in relation to Ecclesiastical Government, the Rule of Faith, and Form of Divine Worship: in answer to the Bishop of Meaux's Queries. In 1703 Dr. John Ernest Grabe superintended an edition of his Latin works, (the author's age and infirmities disabling him from the effort,) pub. in 1 vol. folio. Robert Nelson, author of The Fasts and Festivals of the Church of England, a former pupil of Bp. Bull, pub. in 1713, 4 vols. 8vo, Seven Sermons and other Discourses, with an account of his Life; new edit., Oxf., 1816, 3 vols. 18mo: again, Oxf., 1840, 8vo.

This Bishop's sermons are compositions of the highest order:— learned, forcible, and perspicuous, they always excite attention

and reward it; they teach us that the practice of Christian duties can only be founded on the faithful acknowledgment of Christian doctrine."

A Companion for the Candidates of Holy Orders, or the Great Importance and Principal Duties of the Priestly Office. 1714, 12mo. Recommended by Bishop Burgess to candidates for Holy Orders. It is reprinted in the Clergyman's Instructor. Vindication of the Church of Eng

"Of all the Tours and Travels we have ever read, we are disposed to think it the most agreeable and original.”—Lom. Examiner. Bullar, John. Tour round Southampton, South., 1807, 8vo.

Bullar, John. Lay Lectures on Christian Faith and
Practice, South., 1844, '46. Questions on the Holy Scrip-

tures, new ed., 1846, 18mo.
"The author has evidently taken great pains to render his work

complete and serviceable."-Lon. Eclectic Review.

Other works.

Bullard. Con. to Phil. Trans., 1698; on the Magnetism of Drills.

Bullard, Henry A., and J. Curry. New Digest of the Statute Laws of the State of Louisiana, from the change of Government to the year 1841, inclusive, vol. i. 8vo, New Orleans, 1842.

Bullein, William. See BULLEYN.

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Bullen, George, an assistant librarian of the British
Museum. Catalogue of the Library of the British and
Foreign Bible Society, Lon., 1857, 8vo.

"An accurate and well-compiled catalogue. The author, Mr.
Bullen, has brought all his own Bibliographical knowledge, as
one of the librarians of the British Museum, to bear upon his
work. The Bible Society's library consists of about five thousand
volumes, printed and manuscript, of which by far the greater part
are presents. In cataloguing the Scriptures. the plan adopted in
the British Museum has been followed; and copious cross-references
have been given from the names of all editors, translators, anno-
tators, &c. upon the Bible to the particular edition in which their
labours appear. These cross-references, &c. greatly enhance the
value of this catalogue."-T. H. HORNE, D.D., in a letter to the
author of this Dictionary, Aug. 31, 1858.

Bullen, H. St. John. 1. Grammar. 2. Geography,

1797, '99.

| lain he was, selected him as a fit antagonist for Luther. In 1513, in conjunction with Walden, he read a mathemati cal lecture, and had a salary from the University for it. He was one of the twelve preachers sent out by the University in 1515. Tanner fixes the date of his death in 1526, but Dodd says that he was living in 1530. 1. De Captivitate Babylonica contra Lutherum. 2. Epistolæ et Orationes. 3. De Serpentibus siticulosis: trans. from the Greek of Lucian, Camb., 1521, 4to. 4. Oratis coram Archiepiscopo Eboracensi, Camb., 1521, 4to. See his oration in favour of Wolsey in Fiddes's Life of the Cardinal.

Bullock, H. A. History of the Isle of Man, 1816, 8vo. Bullock, J. Lloyd, Editor of Fresenius and Will's New Method of Alkalimetry, Lon., 1843, 12mo.

"This little work will prove of the highest importance to calico printers, bleachers, dyers, manufacturers of soap, paper, and prusBuller, Rt. Hon. Charles, b. 1806, at Calcutta, siate of potash; also to chemists and to dealers in alkalies, acids, &c. d. in London, 1848. Responsible Government for CoTo Mr. B. we are also indebted (in addition to this Lect. lonics, 12mo: originally pub. in Colonial Gaz. Contrib. on Pharmacy, 1844,) for an edition of Fresenius's Elemenfrequently to Morning Chronicle, Globe, Edinburgh Re-tary Instruction in Chemical Analysis, as practised in the view, and Westminster Record. Laboratory of Giessen. Qualitative, 8vo. Quantitative, 8vo. "I can confidently recommend this work, from my own personal Buller, Sir Francis, 1745-1800, a Judge of the Court of King's Bench and Common Pleas, was a grand-experience, to all who are desirous of obtaining instruction in anason of Allen, Earl Bathurst. He was distinguished for lysis, for its simplicity and usefulness, and the facility with which An Introduction to the it may be comprehended."-BARON LIEBIG. profound knowledge of the Law. Bullock, Jeffrey. One Blow more against AntiLaw relative to Trials at Nisi Prius, with copious Annotations, 7th edit., Lon., 1817, r. 8vo; former edits., 1767, '72, Christ Ministers, the downfall of whose Ministry hastens, '75, '80, 90, '93; pub. in New York, with Notes of American Lon., 1678, 4to. Bullock, R. Geography Epitomized, 1810, 4to. Cases, 1806. The germ of this work was written, it is supBullock, Richard. Sermons, Lon., 1754, '89, 4to. posed, by Mr. Bathurst, afterwards Lord Apsley, and was Bullock, Thomas. Sermons, Lon., 1723-28. entitled Institutes of the Law relative to Nisi Prius, 1760, Bullock, William. Virginia impartially Examined, 8vo. Sir Francis Buller enlarged the work, and pub. it as and left to Public View, Lon., 1649, 4to. Dedicated to the above. Earl of Arundell and to Lord Baltimore.

"Notwithstanding its defects, from the judicial station of the learned author whose name it bears, it has been regarded as a work of considerable authority. Its place has been supplied by later works, but it is still useful because it contains some author ities not elsewhere to be met with."-Marvin's Legal Bibl.

Buller, W. Chronological, Biographical, Historical, and Miscellaneous Exercises for Young Ladies.

Bullock, William. An Earthquake, Phil. Trans., 1755. Bullock, William. A short and easy Method of preserving Subjects of Natural History, ISIS.

Bullokar, John. Eng. Exposition of Hard Words, 1616, 8vo.

Bullokar, William. Book at large for the amendBulley, Frederick, President of St. Mary Magd.ment of Orthographia for English speech, Lon., 1580, 4to. College, Oxford. A Tabular View of the Variations in the Communion and Baptismal Offices of the Church of England from 1549 to 1662; to which are added those in the Scotch Prayer-Book of 1637; with an Appendix illustrative of the Variations, Oxf., 1842, 8vo.

Bulleyn, or Bullein, William, b. about 1500, in the Isle of Ely, d. 1576, a learned physician and botanist, was educated at Cambridge and Oxford. The Government of Health, Lon., 1558, 59, 8vo. A very popular work in its day. Regimen against the Pleurisie, 1562, 16mo. Bulwarke of Defece againste all sikness, sornes, and woundes, that dooe daily assaulte mankinde, &c., 1562, '72, fol. A Dialogue, bothe pleasaunte and pietifull; wherein is shewed a goodlie Regimente against the Fever of Pestilence, with a Consolation and Comfort against Death, 1564, '69, '73, '78, 8vo. Several small profess. treatises are also ascribed to our author.

Bullingbroke, Edward, and Jonah Bilcher. An Abridgt. of the Statutes of Ireland, &c., Dubl., 1754, 2 vols. 4to; continued by Francis Vesey. Duty and Authority of the Justices of Peace and Parish Officers for Ireland, Dubl., 1766, 4to.

“A useful work in its day, and framed very much upon the model of the celebrated work of his brother civilian, Burn, in England"-Pref. to Smythe's Justice.

Other legal treatises.

Mr. Bullokar believed that his proposed reform would not only improve his own tongue, but also effect "an entrance into the secretes of other languages."

This production Lowndes ascribes to John Bullokar, but Watt attributes it to William; and we judge the latter to be correct, as the author promises a "Grammar to be imprinted hereafter;" and Bullokar's Bref Grammar for English, pub. six years afterwards, (1586, 16mo,) is ascribed by both Lowndes and Watt to William Bullokar. Esop's Fables in Tru Orthography, with Grammar Notz, 1585, 8vo. Bulman, E. Introduc. to Hebrew, 1795, 8vo. Bulman, John. Sermons, 1803, '05, 4to. Bulmar, Capt. John. Arts and Mysteries for a Sol dier, Mariner, &c., and other works, 1641, '43, '49, fol.

Bulmer, Agnes. Messiah's Kingdom; a Poem, Lon., p. 8vo. Scripture Histories, 3 vols. 18mo. Select Letters, with Notes by Bunting, 12mo. Mem. by Anne R. Collinson. Bulmer, Peter. Sermons, 1803, '05, 8vo.

Bulstrode, Edward, 1588-1659, a native of Buckinghamshire, was entered of St. John's College, Oxford, in 1603, whence he removed to the Inner Temple. He was a favourite of Cromwell's, and in 1649 made one of the Justices of North Wales. A Golden Chain, or Miscellany of divers Sentences of the Sacred Scriptures, &c., Lon., 1657, Svo. Reports in King's Bench, in the Reigns of Kings Bullingham, John. Trans. of Joh. Venæus's Ora- James I. and Charles I., in 3 parts; 2d edit., corrected, &c., tion in defence of the Sacrament of the Aultaire, 1554, 8vo. Lon., 1688, fol.; 1st edit., 1657, 58, 59, fol. There is an Bullions, Peter, b. 1791 at Perthshire, Scotland, irregularity in the paging of both editions, but they are Prof. Greek and Latin in the Albany Academy. Principles perfect. Bulstrode took his reports in French, and trans. them into English. He is said to have adopted the excelof Latin Grammar. Latin Reader. Cæsar's Commentaries. Cicero's Orations. Sallust. Greek Lessons for Be-lent method of Plowden. They were pub. by his son. ginners. Principles of Greek Grammar. Greek Reader. Latin Exercises. Lessons in English Grammar and Composition. Principles of English Grammar. Progressive Exercises in Analysis and Parsing. Introduction to Analytical Grammar. New, or Analytical and Practical English Grammar.

Bullivant, Benjamin. Observations on Natural
History, made in New England; Phil. Trans., 1698.
Bullivant, Daniel, Surgeon. Case of Violent Spasms
which succeeded the Amputation of an Arm, &c.
Bullman. See BULMAN.
Bullocar. See BULLOKAR.
Bullock, Henry, Fellow of Queen's College, Cam-
bridge, 1507; D.D., 1520; Vice-Chancellor, 1524, '25. He
was a correspondent of Erasmus, (who calls him Bovillus,)
and so “ripe a scholar" that Cardinal Wolsey, whose chap-

Only a portion of his MS. was pub.:

"The fittest and choicest cases out of these reports which I have with no small care, labour, and pains collected together." "I have perused divers cases in these reports, and I think they are fit to be published."-MATTHEW HALE.

Bulstrode, Sir Richard, eldest son of the above, is said to have died at the advanced age of 101 years. Let ters to the Earl of Arlington, Lon., 1712, 8vo. Essays on Manners and Morals, 1715, 8vo. Memoirs, &c. relative to Charles I. and Charles II., 1721, 8vo. 185 Elegies and Epigrams on religious subjects, composed at the age of eighty.

"A man of talents and considerable learning, and in his political course able and consistent."

Bulstrode, Whitelocke, d. 1724, aged 74, Prothonotary of the Marshal's Court, son of the preceding. An Essay on Transmigration, Lon., 1692, 8vo; in Latin, by


Oswald Dyke, 1725, 8vo. Essays Ecclesiastical and Civil, 1706, 8vo. Letters between him and Dr. Wood, 1717, 8vo. Compendium of the Crown Laws, 1723, 8vo. Three Charges to Grand and other Juries, 1718, 8vo.

Bulteel, or Bulteal, John. Translations of Amorous Oruntus; a Comedy, Lon., 1665, 4to. Court of Rome, 1668, 8vo. Psalms and Songs, 1674, 8vo. Abridged Chronology of France, 1683, fol. Bulwer, Sir Edward Lytton. See LYTTON. Bulwer, Lady. See LADY LYTTON.

Bulwer, Rt. Hon. Sir Henry Lytton Earle, G.C.B., M.P., Privy Councillor, Diplomatist, and Author, b. 1804, is an elder brother of Sir Edward Lytton Bulwer Lytton. Sir Henry has filled several highly responsible diplomatic positions, with great credit to himself and honour to his country. An an author, also, he has gained considerable reputation. An Autumn in Greece, 1824, p. 8vo. France, Social, Literary, and Political, 2 vols. p. 8vo. The Monarchy of the Middle Classes, 2 vols. p. 8vo, 1834-36. Sir Henry wrote a Life of Lord Byron, prefixed to a Paris edition of his lordship's works.

Bulwer, John, an author of the 17th century, wrote several books on Dactylology, Dress, &c. Chirologia, or the Natural Language of the Hand; as also Chironomia, or the Art of Manual Rhetorick, Lon., 1644, 8vo. Philocophics, 1648, 8vo. Pathomyotomia, 1649, 8vo. Anthropo-metamorphosis, Man-transformed; or the Changeling, shewing the various ways how divers People alter the Natural Shape of some part of their Bodies, Lon., 1653,


Of this curious and extravagant work an account will be found in Oldys's Brit. Librarian, 367-72, and in the Lon. Retrospective Review, N. S., ii. 205-17. It appears that the author wrote several other works which he did not see fit to publish.

"From Bulwer's extravagance some illustration is thrown upon one portion of the history of human knowledge. He lived in an age of great learning and of little judgment; at a time when there was a voracious appetite for information, and when fact and fiction were indiscriminately gorged and devoured by all who sought for the reputation of learning."-Lon. Retrosp. Review.

Bumpfield, W. R. Tropical Dysentery, Lon.,1818,8vo. Bumstead, Josiah F., b. 1797 at Boston. Popular Series of Readers.

Bunbury. The Church Catechism, Lon., 1727, 12mo. Bunbury, C. J. F. A Residence at the Cape of Good Hope; with Notes on the Natural History and Native Tribes, Lon., 1848, 8vo.

"The statesman who may be called upon to discuss or decide upon the public affairs of the Cape, the emigrant who may contemplate removing his cares thither, the curious inquirer who would know the rights of what has given rise to so much controversy, will find Mr. Bunbury an intelligent and candid guide."-Lom. Examiner. Bunbury, Henry. Academy for Grown Horsemen, &c., by Geoffrey Gambado, Esq., Riding Master; with 17 engravings of equestrian performances, 1787, '91, fol. A humorous work which still attracts attention.

Bunbury, Sir Henry. Narratives of the Wars with France, 1799-1810, Lon., 8vo. Edited Sir Thomas Hanmer's Life and Correspondence, Lon., 1838, 8vo. In this valuable work will be found letters from Burke, Prior, Goldsmith, Pope, Garrick, Dr. Young, Lord Nelson, Crabbe, &c.

"There is indeed much curious literary and political matter in these pages."-Lon. Literary Gazette.

Bunbury, Miss. A Visit to My Birth Place. Thoughts in Suffering. Fear Not.

"Christians, while here, are much exposed to, and frequently assailed by, formidable spiritual foes, and are apt to give place to doubts and fears. This little volume is prepared to inspire them with confidence, and to dissipate their fears, and is well adapted

to answer the end designed."-New Method. Connection Mag.

Bunbury, Miss Selina. Coombe Abbey; a Tale, 1843, 8vo. Evelyn; a Novel, 1849, 2 vols. p. 8vo. Evenings in the Pyrenees, 1848, 2 vols. p. 8vo. Rides in the Pyrenees, 1844, 2 vols. p. 8vo. Star of the Court; or the Maid of Honour and Queen of England, Anne Boleyn,

1845, p. 8vo.

"To point a moral against female ambition, vanity, and lightness. The commentary is elegant, and the remarks are just."— Lon. Spectator.

"A more appropriate present could not be chosen."-Blackwood's Lady's Mag.

"This is a charming little volume, containing all the fascination of a Romance, with the sober lessons of History."-Belle Assemblée. Life in Sweden, with Excursions in Norway and Denmark, Lon., 2 vols.

"Two delightful, well-informed volumes, by a lady of much acuteness, lively imagination, and shrewd observance. The work can be safely recommended to the reader as the freshest, and most certainly the truthfullest, publication upon the North that has of late years been given to the world."-Lon. Observer.

Russia after the War, 1857, 2 vols. p. 8vo. Other works.

Bunbury, William. Reports of Cases in the Exchequer, from the Beginning of the Reign of Geo. I. to 14 Geo. II., pub. from his own MSS.; by G. Wilson, Lon., 1755, fol.; 2d edit., Dubl., 1793, 8vo.

"Mr. Bunbury never meant that these cases should have been published."-LORD MANSFIELD.

But the editor was Mr. B.'s son-in-law; and it is to be presumed that he was correctly informed upon the subject, Bunce, John. St. Chrysostom Of the Priesthood; in books; trans. from the Greek, 1759, p. 8vo. Buncle, John. See AMORY, THOMAS. Buncombe, Samuel. Sermon, 1767, 8vo. Bundy, John. The Roman History from the French of Catron and Rouille, Lon., 1728, 6 vols. fol.

Bundy, Richard, D.D., d. about 1739, Prebendary of Westminster. Apparatus Biblicus, or an Introduction to the Holy Scriptures, from the French of Père Lamy, Commended by Bishops Watson and Lon., 1723, 4to. The English trans. contains some additional matter, principally taken from Lamy's De Tabernaculo Fœderis. Sermons, 1740, 2 vols. 8vo. Sixteen Sermons, 1750, 8vo.


"Easiness of style and clearness of method characterize the sermons of this author; he was a pleasing and instructive preacher."-Darling's Cyc. Bibl.

Bunn, Alfred. Poems, 1816, 8vo. The Stage, both before and behind the Curtain, from "Observations taken on the Spot," Lon., 1840, 3 vols. c. 8vo. "Full of curious and interesting details respecting modern actors and the present state of the drama."

Old England and New England, 2 vols. p. 8vo. Bunney, or Bunny, Edmund, 1540-1617, educated at Oxford, became probationer Fellow of Magdalen College, and was appointed Chaplain to Archbishop Grindall. The whole Summe of Christian Religion, Lon., 1576, Svə. Certain Abridgt. of Calvin's Institutions, 1580, 8vo. Prayers, &c., for the 17th November, 1585, 4to. "This work, as I take it, gave birth to the Accession form "PECK.

He wrote some controversial pamphlets against Parsons. the Jesuit, and pub. some other theolog. treatises. Bunney, or Bunny, Edward. Treatise on Pacifi cation, Lon., 1591.

Bunney, or Bunny, Francis, 1543-1617, brother of Edmund, was chosen perpetual Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1562; Archdeacon of Northumberland, 1573. He wrote four Tracts against Popery, 1595, 1607. A Survey of the Pope's Supremacy, 1595, 4to. Exposition. 8vo. He left a Commentary on Joel, in MS. of Romans iii. 28, 1616, 4to. Guide to Godliness, 1617, "This person was very zealous in the way he professed, was a great admirer of Jo. Calvin, a constant preacher, charitable, and a stiff enemy to Popery."-Athen. Oxon. Bunning, Charles. Peace in our Power, 1798, 8vo. Bunow, Rev. E. J. Elements of Conchology, 1815. Bunting, Edward. A General Collection of the Ancient Music of Ireland, consisting of upwards of 165 Airs, Lon., 1840, 4to. The importance of this work to a proper understanding of ancient Irish musical science, need not be enlarged upon.

Bunting, Henry. Itinerarium totius Sacræ Scripturæ; or the Travels of the Holy Patriarchs, Prophets, Judges, Kings, our Saviour Christ, and his Apostles, &c., Lon., 1629, 4to. There have been several foreign editions of this work. Chronologia Servestæ, 1590. Itinerarium et Chronicon totius S. Scripturæ, Magdeb., 1598, fol. Divisio et Distributio Terræ Canaan, &c., Magdeb., 1597. Chronologia Catholica, Magdeb., 1608, fol.; trans. into German, Magdeb., 1608, fol.

Bunting, Jabez, D.D., 1778-1858, the "Hercules land. A Great Work Described and Recommended; in a of modern Methodism," was a native of Manchester, EngSermon, 1805, 8vo. Justification by Faith; a Sermon, 1812, 8vo; 7th edit., Lon., 1847, 8vo. Memorials of the late Rev. Richard Watson, including a Funeral Sermon

on John viii. 51, Lon., 1833, 8vo.

Bunworth, Richard. Med. Works, &c., 1656, '62. Bunyan, Humphrey. Epithalamium on a recent Marriage, 1812.

Bunyan, John, 1628-1688, is one of the most remarkable instances of the acquisition of great fame where nothing was designed but the simple discharge of duty. He was the son of a tinker residing at Elstow in Bedfordshire:

"For my descent then. it was, as is well known by many, of a low and inconsiderable generation, my father's house being of that rank that is meanest and most despised of all the families of the land."--Autobiography.

By his father's care, who taught him his own trade, he was placed at school, where he obtained the first rudiments of an English education:

"Though to my shame, I confess, I did soon lose that I had earned, even almost utterly, and that long before the Lord did work his gracious work of conversion upon my soul."

His youth gave little promise of the exemplary piety for which he was afterwards noted. Some of his modern biographers have taken strange liberties with the facts of the case, by seeking to represent his character at this period as much better than it really was. If we can believe his own words, he led a very dissolute life, and seems anxious to acknowledge his transgressions, that he might magnify the mercy which snatched him from the "horrible pit and the miry clay." Such instances of "Grace Abounding" are of great value, and should teach us never to despair of, nor cease to labour for, the reformation and conversion of the most vicious. He tells us, with his own simple pathos, the manner in which his conscience received an impression which led to the happiest results for

his future character:

"As I was standing at a neighbour's shop-window, and there cursing and swearing after my wonted manner, there sat witnin the woman of the house, who heard me; and though she was a very loose and ungodly wretch, yet protested that I swore and cursed at that most fearful rate, that she was made to tremble to hear me.... At this reproof, I was silenced, and put to secret shame, and that, too, as I thought, before the God of Heaven; wherefore, while I stood there, hanging down my head, I wished that I might be a little child again, that my father might learn me to speak without this wicked way of swearing."

What an encouragement is this to reprove profanity, and, indeed, to proffer good advice even to those who seem the most unlikely to be edified! "Blessed are they that sow beside all waters." prosper, this or that."

"Thou knowest not which shall

At the early age of nineteen, he married a wife "whose father and mother were counted godly." This connexion was of great advantage to him: his immoral habits were laid aside, and he was so much pleased with this improvement, that he tells us, "I thought no man in England could please God better than I." He was favoured with more correct views both of his own depravity, and of the justifying grace which is in Christ Jesus; and in the year 1653 he was considered qualified for admission into a Baptist congregation at Bedford. Two years later, on the death of the pastor, he was urged to preach to the congregation, at least for a season. He was eagerly heard both in Bedford and in the adjoining parts of the country. After preaching for some five years, Justice Wingate, who declared he would break the neck of such meetings, issued an indictment against him, which ran in

these words:

"John Bunyan hath devilishly and perniciously abstained from coming to church to hear divine service, and is a common upholder of several unlawful meetings and conventicles, to the disturbance and distraction of the good subjects of this kingdom, contrary to the laws of our sovereign lord and king.”

He was cast into Bedford jail, where were about sixty Dissenters, and

"Here with only two books,-the Bible and Fox's Book of Martyrs, he employed his time for twelve years and a half, in preaching to, and praying with, his fellow-prisoners, in writing several of his works, and in making tagged laces for the support of himself and family."-DR. BARLOW.

Bishop Lincoln-to his praise be it recorded-procured his enlargement in 1672. He visited his religious brethren in various parts of England, exhorting them to good works and holiness of life; by these visitations, he acquired the name of Bishop Bunyan. When James II. issued his proclamation for liberty of conscience to Dissenters, Bunyan built a meeting-house at Bedford. He annually visited his Baptist brethren in London, where such was his popularity that the meeting-house was too strait for his hearers. During one of these journeys, he was overtaken by a violent storm of rain, from which he contracted a cold, which ended fatally, at his lodgings in Snow-hill, August 31st, 1688.

Bunyan wrote many works; it is said as many as he was years of age, (60,) but is chiefly known by that wonderful production, "Pilgrim's Progress," the fruit of his imprisonment, and, we had almost said, valuable enough to reconeile us to the wickedness of that persecuting spirit that thus unwittingly educed good from evil. But, no; we abhor the crime, while we rejoice that it was overruled to such happy results. In accordance with what we esteem one of the most valuable features of our work, we shall proeeed to give the opinions of various eminent authorities upon the merits of the best-known uninspired allegory which has been composed by the wit of man.

"It is not known," says Dr. Southey, (who has written the life of Bunyan,) "in what year "The Pilgrim's Progress' was first published; no copy of the first edition having as yet been discovered. The second is in the British Museum; it is with additins, and its date is 1678. But as the work is known to have

been written during Bunyan's imprisonment, which terminates in 1672, it was probably published before his release, or, at latest, immediately after it."

It had reached the tenth edition in 1685! Bunyan, in the preface to the second part, published in 1684, complains that

"Some have of late, to counterfeit My Pilgrim, to their own my title set; Yea, others, half my name and title too, Have stitched to their books, to make them do." If not very poetical, this is sufficiently significant. The third part, denied to be Bunyan's, appeared in 1693. It has been suggested that the hint of the Pilgrim's ProRichard Bernard, The Isle of Man; or Legal Proceedgress was taken from an allegory written by the Rev. ings in Manshire against Sin, Lon., 1627: this work seems to have been as popular as Bunyan's, having also reached the tenth edition in eight years,-1635. Bunyan's Pilgrim has been translated into almost every modern Euro pean tongue, and is perhaps the most popular religious work ever written.

"If this work is not a well of English undefiled,' it is a clear stream of current English, the vernacular speech of his age; some times, indeed, in its rusticity and coarseness, but always in its plainness and its strength. To this natural style, Bunyan is in some degree beholden for his general popularity; his language is everywhere level to the most ignorant reader, and to the meanest capacity: there is a homely reality about it; a nursery tale is not

more intelligible in its manner of narration to a child. Another cause of his popularity is, that he taxes the imagination as little as the understanding. The vividness of his own imagination is such, that he saw the things of which he was writing as distinctly with his mind's eye as if they were indeed passing before him in a dream. And the reader, perhaps, sees them more satisfactorily to himself, because the outline only of the picture is presented to him, and the author having made no attempt to fill up the details, every reader supplies them according to the measure and scope of his own intellectual and imaginative powers."-SOUTHEY.

Mr. Ivimey, another biographer of Bunyan's, thus speaks of the basis of this allegory:

"The plan of this work is admirable, being drawn from the cir cumstances of his own life, as a stranger and pilgrim, who had left the City of Destruction' upon a journey towards the Celestial Country. The difficulties he met with in his determination to serve Jesus Christ, suggested the many circumstances of danger through which this pilgrim passed. The versatile conduct of some professors of religion, suggested the different characters which Christian met with in his way; these, most probably, were persous whom he well knew, and who, perhaps, would be individually read at the time.”

Bunyan seems to have been sorely perplexed by the conflicting advice of his friends as to the expediency or otherwise of printing his "little book:"

"Some said. John, print it; others said, Not so; Some said it might do good, others said, No." Thus differently advised,

"Now was I in a strait, and did not see Which was the best thing to be done by me." He decided, as authors generally do in such cases: "At last I thought, since you are thus divided, I print it will; and so the case decided." "Ingenious dreamer! in whose well-told tale Sweet fiction and sweet truth alike prevail; Whose humorous vein, strong sense, and simple style, May teach the gayest, make the gravest smile; Witty, and well employed, and, like thy Lord, Speaking in parables his slighted word;

I name thee not, lest so despised a name Should move a sneer at thy deserved fame."-COWPER. It is a curious fact that Bunyan's prison companion, Fox's Book of Martyrs, (his only book save the Bible,) was sold in 1780 to Mr. Wantner of the Priories; it was inherited by his daughter, Mrs. Parnell of Botolph Lane; and afterwards purchased by subscription for the Bedfordshire General Library. It is enriched with the poor prisoner's annotations, in rhyme, one of which we quote; it is a comment upon the account of Gardiner's death: "The blood, the blood that he did shed Is falling on his one [own] head; And dreadful it is for to see The beginers of his misere."

Bunyan had a talent for repartee. A Quaker visited him in Bedford jail, and declared that by the order of the Lord he had sought for him in half the prisons of England.

"If the Lord had sent you," replied the prisoner, "you need not have taken so much trouble to find me out; for the Lord knows that I have been a prisoner in Bedford jail for the last twelve years."

Mr. Granger remarks,

"Bunyan, who has been mentioned among the least and lowest of our writers, and even ridiculed as a driveller by those who had

never read him, deserves a much higher rank than is commonly imagined. His Pilgrim's Progress gives us a clear and distinct. idea of Calvinistic divinity. In the first part, the allegory is admirably carried on, and the characters justly drawn, and uniformly supported. The author's original and poetic genius shines through the coarseness and vulgarity of his language, and intimates that if he had been a master of numbers, he might have composed a

poem worthy of Spenser himself. As this opinion may be deemed paradoxical, I shall venture to name two persons of eminence of the same sentiments; one, the late Mr. Merrick of Reading; the other, Dr. Roberts, now Fellow of Eton College."

"Mr. Merrick has been heard to say, in conversation, that his invention was like that of Homer."

Lord Kames makes a remark of a similar character; he, describes the Pilgrim's Progress as

"Composed in a style enlivened, like that of Homer, by a proper mixture of the dramatic and narrative, and upon that account it has been translated into most European languages."

Dean Swift declared, that

"He had been better entertained, and more informed, by a chapter in the Pilgrim's Progress, than by a long discourse upon the will and intellect, and simple or complex ideas."

"April 30, 1773. Johnson praised John Bunyan highly. The Pilgrim's Progress has great merit, both for invention, imagina tion, and the conduct of the story; and it has had the best evidence of its merit, the general and continued approbation of mankind. Few books, I believe, have had a more extensive sale. It is remarkable, that it begins very much like the poem of Dante; yet there was no translation of Dante when Bunyan wrote. There is reason to think that he had read Spenser."-Boswell's Life of

John son.

"Perhaps there is no book, with the single exception of the Bible, that has been so widely diffused, translated into so many languages, and that is fitted to take so firm a hold of the minds both of old and young, of learned and unlearned, as the Pilgrim's Progress. Its unity of design and fertility of invention, the poetic fancy it displays, and the graphic faithfulness of the pictures it contains both of life and manners; these, together with its scriptural truth and great practical utility, have obtained for this de min-lightful allegory a popularity no less great than it promises to he enduring. Its merits, indeed, are incontestable."-DR. JAMIESON. "It is, indeed, one of the most extraordinary productions of any age or country; and its popularity is, perhaps, unrivalled. Though upon the most serious of subjects, it is read by children with as much pleasure as are the fictions written professedly for their amusement."-MILLS.

Dr. Radcliffe terms this allegory a "phoenix in a cage." "Honest John Bunyan is the first man I know of, who has gled narrative and dialogue together; a mode of writing very engaging to the reader, who, in the most interesting passages, finds himself admitted, as it were, into the company, and present at the conversation."-DR. FRANKLIN.

“Bunyan's Pilgrim was a Christian, but Patrick's only a Pedlar." When Charles II. expressed his surprise to Dr. Owen that a man of his learning could "sit and hear an illiterate tinker prate," the doctor answered:

"May it please your majesty, could I possess that tinker's abilities for preaching, I would most gladly relinquish all my learning."


Mr. Conder, in his biographical sketch of our author, has vindicated him from some erroneous representations which he considers Dr. Southey to have made in his Life of Bunyan. In the good tinker's own day, erroneous representations" of him were not unknown, for we find an account of a work with this most ungracious title-Dirt wiped out, or a manifest Discovery of the gross Ignorance, Erroneousness, and most unchristian and wicked spirit of one John Bunyan, Lay preacher in Bedford, &c., Lon., 1672, by But we forbear to give the author's name. Those who desire to have a faithful account of the struggles and trials of Bunyan, should read his Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners; nor should The Holy War made by King Shaddai upon Diabolus, &c. be neglected. Of the Pilgrim's Progress Mr. Joseph Ivimey wrote a continuation, of which Lowndes thus speaks:

"The allegory is in many places singularly well sustained, and the performance is in every way creditable to the talents and information of the writer."

"Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress and The Holy War are inimitable specimens of genius and humour in the service of experimental religion. His works display an original genius, depth of Christian experience, and much greater precision of thought and expression than might have been expected from a man who made no pretensions to literature."-DR. WILLIAMS.

"Bedford jail was that den wherein Bunyan dreamed his dream: The Pilgrim's Progress, a book which the child and his grandmother read with equal delight; and which, more than almost any other work, may be said to be

Meet for all hours, and every mood of man,' was written in prison, where Bunyan preached to his fellow-prisoners, supported his family by making tagged laces. and filled up his leisure by writing a considerable part of two folio volumes. The work by which he immortalized himself grew from a sudden thought which occurred while he was writing in a different strain. Its progress he relates oddly enough in his rhyming apology, but more curiously in some verses prefixed to the Holy War:

'It came from mine own heart, so to my head,
And thence into my fingers trickeled;

So to my pen, from whence immediately,
On paper I did dribble it daintily.'

These curious verses conclude with an anagram, made in noble contempt of orthography.

"Witness my name: if anagram'd it be,

The letters make Nu hony in a B.

Blind reasoners, who do not see that it is to their intellect, not to their principles of dissent, that Milton and Bunyan and De Foe owe their immortality! strange company, we confess, but each incomparable in his way."-Lon. Quarterly Review.

"I know of no book, the Bible excepted, as above all comparison, which I, according to my judgment and experience. could so safely recommend as teaching and enforcing the whole saving truth, according to the mind that was in Christ Jesus, as the Pilgrim's Progress. It is, in my conviction, incomparably the best Summa Theologice Evangelicae ever produced by a writer not miraculously inspired. . . . It is composed in the lowest style of English, without slang or false grammar. If you were to polish it, you would at once destroy the reality of the vision. For works of imagination should be written in very plain language; the more purely imaginative they are, the more necessary it is to be plain. This wonderful book is one of the few books which may be read repeatedly, at different times, and each time with a new and a different pleasure. I read it once as a theologian, and let me assure you that there is great theological acumen in the work; once with devotional feelings; and once as a poet. I could not have believed beforehand, that Calvinism could be painted in such delightful colours."-COLERIDGE.

It is no slight evidence of the great merit of our author that critics of such opposite tastes in many particulars, vie with each other in commendation of the Tinker of Bedford. Hear Dr. Johnson on this theme:

and evangelical principles and piety are admirable."-BICKERSTETH. "Bunyan is unjustly despised by some; his natural talents "In what then consists the peculiar charm of this strange and original fiction-a charm which renders the rude pages of Bunyan as familiar and delightful to a child as they are attractive to the less impressionable mind of critical manhood? It is the homely earnestness, the idiomatic vigour of the style; it is the fearless straightforwardness of the conceptions, and the inexhaustible richness of imagery and adventures."-PROF. T. B. SHAW.

"What an illustrious instance of the superiority of goodness over learning! Who now reads the learned wits of the reign of Charles the Second? Who comparatively reads even Dryden, or Tillotson, or Barrow, or Boyle, or Sir William Temple? Who has not read, who will not read, the immortal epic of John Bunyan? Who does not, who will not ever, with Cowper,

'Revere the man whose pilgrim marks the road,
And guides the progress of the soul to God?"

"Disraeli has well designated Bunyan as the Spenser of the people; every one familiar with his Faery Queen must acknow. ledge the truth of the description. If it were not apparently incongruous, we would call him, in another score, the spiritual Shakspeare of the world: for the accuracy and charm with which he has delineated the changes and progress of the spiritual life, are not less exquisite than that of Shakspeare in the Seven Ages, and innumerable scenes of human life."-N. American Review, vol. xxxvi.

"The style of Bunyan is delightful to every reader, and invaluable as a study to every person who wishes to obtain a wide command over the English language. The vocabulary is the vocabulary of the common people. There is not an expression, if we except a few technical terms of theology, which would puzzle the rudest peasant. We have observed several pages which do not contain a single word of more than two syllables. Yet no writer has said more exactly what he meant to say. For magnificence, for pathos, for vehement exhortation, for subtle disquisition, for every purpose of the poet, the orator, and the divine, this homely dialect, the dialect of plain workingmen, was perfectly sufficient. There is no book in our literature on which we could so readily stake the fame of the old unpolluted English language; no book which shows so well how rich that language is in its own proper wealth, and how little it has been improved by all that it has bor rowed. . . . We are not afraid to say that, though there were many clever men in England during the latter half of the seventeenth century, there were only two great creative minds. One of those minds produced the Paradise Lost, the other, the Pilgrim's Progress."-T. B. MACAULAY.

"The Pilgrim's Progress was so acceptable to the common people, by reason of the amusing and parabolical manner of its composition, by way of vision, a method he was thought to have such an extraordinary knack in, that some thought there were communications made to him in dreams, and that he first really dreamt over the matter contained in such of his writings. This notion was not a little propagated by his picture before some of these books, which is represented in a sleeping posture."-Oldys's MSS.

"He had the invention, but not the other natural qualifications which are necessary to constitute a great poet. If his genius had intended him to be any thing more than a poet in prose, it would probably, like Shakspeare's, have broken through every difficulty

of birth and station."-DR. KIPPIS.

"The originality of Bunyan's genius is strikingly displayed in the Holy War. Indeed, the Holy War has no prototype in any language."-DR. CHEEVER; see his Lectures on Pilgrim's Progress. Among the editors of Pilgrim's Progress and biogra phers of Bunyan may be mentioned Southey, Ivimey, Offer, Burder, Gilpin, Mason, Montgomery, Philip, Scott, Conder, and St. John. Bunyan's Works. 2 vols. fol., 1692, 1736, 37, '60, with Preface by G. Whitefield, 1767; 2 vols. fol., Edin., 1771; 6 vols. 8vo, with Notes by Mason, Lon., 1784, 6 vols. 8vo; best ed., by Offer, 3 vols. r. 8vo, Lon., 1853.

Oldys mentions it as the observation of the anonymous author of a discourse concerning Ridicule and Irony in Writing, printed in 1729, that Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress had infinitely outdone a certain publication which the author mentions, which perhaps had not made one convert to infidelity; whereas the Pilgrim's Progress had converted many sinners to Christ.

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