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culties, and I only demand a requisite degree of patience in the examination of mine. Your chief objection to my plan is sensible, and, I must confess, is founded on the principles of nature and of reason. If I understand your argument aright, you mean to say, that the_sa_me expression or modification of a passion is delineated by various ways in various persons, without a necessity of any one of those modes being superior to the other; and that we must likewise consider the personages in their characters, national and private, the age and sex, and the thousand complex &"cy. belonging to them, before we can safely say what is the best expression or modification of a peculiar passion.
j Your objection, thus interpreted and explained, ! I own, carries a great weight with it, and merits a very serious consideration on my part.
On the Variety of Manners in different Parts of the World—
You ask me wherefore I lay so much stress upon
It is very true that the inhabitants of various countries have different modes of expressing the same__passions, ancT that this difference is often strikingly obvious.
The European, when he would give a mark £uj't:. of respect, takes off his hat; the inhabitant of ^5^ the East keeps his head covered, under the same circumstances. The former expresses the very highest degree of veneration and humility towards an acknowledged superior, by a bend of
the head, and a trivial inclination of the back— he rarely bows the knee. The other, in the same predicament, muffles up his visage, and falls prostrate on the earth. The uncovering of the head amongst the Europeans is by no means a natural expression, but simply a mere allusion to some ancient and arbitrary custom. Probably it alludes to that of the Romans, who never allowed their slaves to carry any covering for the head till they had been legally affranchised; and, for this reason, the bonnet or cap is unto this day the symbol of liberty. U oA^ ( To^eJLarid_i;over up_the face is a natural ex.ij ^u^ !pression, and carries the idea of respect and ve
. Jaip^s. neration to its very climax. It is equally the sign of shame and modesty. In short, it is the most humble mode of avowing the sense of our own unworthiness, when weighed against the superior and more lofty qualifications of another. Shame and modesty have the same affinity to each other which subsists between fear and veneration: for I (this reason, the European, uaturally col(L_ex
* \\#(^ presses this latter sentiment either by modestly i.>A^ J inclining his eyes towards the ground, or by
seldom raising them without an appearance of timidity. Let the mind, however, abstract itself from thesefcharacteristical shades; let it endea
vour to do away the allusion to an ancient custom in the European, and the more exalted enthusiasm of the inhabitant of the Oriental countries, and the truly natural and essentialj^xt of the sejnj^men^_wi.h^j^Mjremam; to wit, the_ motion^of jtjhe_Jbpdy. This expression is carried to its highest pitch, when a man extends himself on the ground, with his face in contact with the earth. The most slight mark of the same expression is when he confines himself to a simple motion of the head. I conclude._thexefore, that thing si&0 jj JK.^ it is
genemlj^andjnol^j^ac^wlth^l peop|e, with^all nations, without distinction of their ranks, their estates, or their conditions; though I grant that it admits of a wide and infinite variety of shades and circumflexions. I do not know any one country on the face of the earth, any one class of men who would strive to express esteem, respect, or veneration, by lifting up their heads, or seeming to give an additional height to their stature; as, on the contrary, I am inclined to believe that there is no nation or body of men who do not express pride and contempt by a deportment exactly the reverse; that is to say, by an exaltation of the head, by a straightening of the back, and sometimes erecting themselves on their toes, to
give an air more commanding and imposing to the general contour of the figure.
If the general character ofcountries causes a variety in the expression of the passions, this expression is equally modified by the character proper for each sex, and for each age, as well as by the individual qualities of each man in particular. [The characteristical determinations of the moral nature and the organization of the body may vary the manners, sentiments, and expressions in a thousand ways, without occasioning any alteration in the grand essence \ One is impetuous, another is indolent; while the first expresses his irritability, the other remains immovable. Impatience makes the former throw his body into a thousand contortions, while the same sentiment in the latter only displays itself in his physiognomy. That which makes the one man laugh aloud till his sides ache with the exertion, only raises a smile, hardly visible, on the lip of his opposite.
The same observation holds good with regard to the variety of states. The squeeze of the hand, the kiss, and the embrace, are three different modes of expressing amity and affection..-'--. The first is the weakest, because it simply joins two extremities of the human body to each other.