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the Semitic Sin, is Aku, 'the Seated-father,' as chief supporter of kosmic order, styled 'the-Maker-ofbrightness,' Enzuna, 'the-Lord-of-growth,' and Idu, 'the-Measuring-lord,'1 the Aides of Hesychios.2 Idu is the equivalent of the Assyrian Arkhu, 'month,' Heb. Yerakh; and is expressed in archaic Babylonian by the ideograph x^> — the circle, (solar or) lunar + <« (10 +10+ 10), i.e., the thirty days of the month. <« also stands for the Moon-god as the god-thirty. Amongst the Finns Kuu is' the male god of the moon,'3 and exactly corresponds with A-ku. It is singular to find also Kua as a moon-name in Central Africa. *
'Among the Mbocobis of South America, the moon is a man and the sun his wife.'5
Amongst the Mexicans, Metztli, the Moon, was a hero.6
According to an Australian legend, ' Mityan, the Moon, was a native cat [male], who fell in love with some one else's wife, and was driven away to wander, ever since.'7
'The Khasias of the Himalaya say that the moon [male] falls monthly in love with his mother-in-law, who throws ashes in his face, whence his spots.'8
Ea Vula, the Figian Moon, is male.9
The Ahts of Vancouver's Island regard 'the Moon as husband and the Sun as wife.'10
1 Id, a measure, + U, lord.
- 'Aii8ai 'AI8^y 17 arekr}vr) napa XaA Wo«r (Ilesychios, in voc).
3 Lenormant, Chaldean Magic, 219. 4 Vide Tylor, P. C. ii. 272.
5 Ibid. i. 260. 6 Ibid. 202. 'Ibid. 320. 8 Ibid.
9 Ibid. 321. ,0 Ibid. ii. 272.
In Japan 'the Moon-god was worshipped under the form of a fox.'1
The Unicorn is represented as male, being ' maiden' with respect to chastity.2
1 Vide Tylor, P. C. ii. 273. 3 Of. Sliaksporo:—
'Thou maiden youth, be vanquished by a maid.'
(I Hen. VI.,A.iv.S.7.)
THE LUNAR PHASES.
The succession of apparent alterations in the form of the moon presents a phenomenon so remarkable as necessarily to have attracted the attention and careful observation of man from the earliest period. With the Greeks the phases were named ;—
I. The New Moon. Noumenia, which because in the same line or path with the Sun, is called Synodos.
II. The Young Moon. Nea Selene. Time in the month,—Prote Phasis, 'the First Appearance;' a slender crescent seen a short time after sunset.
m. The Increasing Crescent. Hexagonos, 'Sixangled,' as having run ^th of its course.
IV. The Half Moon. Hemitomos, 'Cut-in-twain.'1 Also called Tetragonos, as having four equal angles in its circuit, ^th of which it has now passed.
V. The Increasing Moon. Amphikurtos,' Curvedon-each-side.' Also called Trigdnos, 'Triangular,' for were an equilateral triangle drawn from its startingpoint, the present position would be the apex, Jrd oi its course being now passed.
1 Some tribes consider this to be the act of the angry Sun, an illustration of the hostility of Lion and Unicorn.
VI. The Full Moon. Panselenos. Also called Dichomenia, the ' Month-divider.'
VII. The Decreasing Moon. Amphikurtos, Trigonos.
VIII. The Second Half-Moon. Hemitomos, etc.
IX. The Decreasing Crescent. Menoeides, 'Crescent-shaped,' Lat. Lunatus.
X. The Old Moon. Ene Selene. Time in the month,—Eschate Phasis, * the Last Appearance.' A slender crescent.
The corresponding Latin names are;—
I. The New Moon. Novilunium, which being
invisible is called Luna Silens, and the time styled
Congressus cum Sole.
LT. The Young Moon. Nova Luna. Period,—
HI. The Increasing Crescent. Primus sextilis aspecius.
IV. The Half Moon. Luna dividua, semiplena, bisecta. Prima quadratura.
V. The Increasing Moon. Luna gibba,' the Humpbacked Moon.' Luna in triquelro.
VI. The Full Moon. Plenilunium. Also Oppositio, the Moon being now opposite the Sun ; Luna totilunis, Medius mensis.
VTI. The Decreasing Moon. Luna gibba.
VIH. The Second Half Moon. Luna dividua, etc. Secunda quadratura.
IX. The Decreasing Crescent. Corniculata, falcata, curvata in cornua.
X. The Old Moon. Ultima phasis.
The epithets menoeides, corniculata, and the like, apply to any crescent phase of the moon. During the first half of its course the moon is Selene auxanomini, Luna crescens, the Waxing moon; during the last half, Selene phthinousa, Luna decrescens, senescens, the Waning moon. As the Crescent-moon is nearest the Sun,1 so it is the crescent-moon that is represented with the young sun in its arms;2 and the crescentmoon is also the mother of the old moon and of the full moon. This is shown in the east window of Herringfleet Church, Suffolk,3 where the crescent surrounds the full invisible moon, in the circle of which is the face of an angel. The Unicorn-goat during the first half of its career bounds forward from the sun, at which and the earth it looks back, and hence is regardant; during the second half of its career it bounds back towards the sun, looking round to the point whence it has begun to return.4
The lunar phases received the greatest attention from Babylonian and Akkadian observers; but we are not yet in a position to formulate results, as in the case of the Classical languages. Every position and alteration was more or less portentous, the system of portents being founded on the triple basis of (1)
1 Cf. W. A. I., III. lviii. 5:' The Moon the Sun overtook, and with it had lingered. (It is) horned' (ap. Prof. Sayce in T. S. B. A. iii. 212).
'Vide Lenormant in Chaldean Magic, Device on hack; Inruan, Ancient Faiths, ii. 261, 325; Moor, Hindu Pantheon, pi. ii. Sectarial Marks; inf. sec VIII.
3 Vide Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, vi. 459; vide also sec. III. No. XIV.' 4 Vide sec. III. No. III.