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Ktesias, and is therefore in origin a Babylonian name. Very likely; but I do not doubt that it is also an Aryan name, that is to say, here probably, as in many other instances, an Aryan and a non-Aryan name, of somewhat similar sound, have become united like a double star. The sire of Andromedê, Kepheus the Aithiop king and son of Belos,is a personage altogether non-Aryan and Euphratean; and Hellanikos, B.C. 490-10, chief of the Greek logographers, mentions Kepheus and the Kephenians (Ethiopians or Kushites) in connexion with Babylon.3
Lastly, in the dread Gorgô, originally Darkness + Moon, then more distinctly lunar, we have the origin of the myth of the Face in the Moon. We know otherwise that this myth was archaic, for Epigenes of Sikyôn, the most ancient writer of tragedy,'4 in a lost work called The Poetry of Orpheus, says that the Theologer called the moon Gorgonian on account of the face in it;'5 and Serapion, an Alexandrine physician of the third century B.C., thought that the Face seen in the moon is the soul of the Sibylla.' 6
1 Perhaps originally Antar-ma-da, i.e., “Sky-cutting-from-Media,' or eastern dawn-light. Her mythic position authorises a non-Aryan explanation of her name. Names subsequently applied to elaborations, e.g., constellations, were probably in numerous cases primarily applied to far simpler phenomena.
2 Herod. vii. 61, 150. 3 Persika, Frag. iii. The star-group of Kepheus, Kassiopeia, Andromedê and Perseus points to Chaldean influence.
4. Souidas, in voc. Thespis. 5 Ap. Clem. Alex. Stromata, v. 8.
6 Ibid. i. 15. Sibylla, i.e., “Council-of-Zeus,’ is a general name given to various shadowy and prophetic females of Classical antiquity, to whom the composition of divers late and anonymous verses was attributed.
According to the doctrine set forth by Plutarch, evil souls, on attempting to enter the tranquil lunar region, are driven away by the dread Face in the Orb.2
With respect to Gorgonian art, Sir G. Wilkinson is of opinion that the monster Medusa evidently derived its form from the common Typhonian figure of Egypt;'3 and M. Clermont-Ganneau, in a most interesting work, has elaborated a theory which connects a beautiful female Gorgon with Hathor and Tanit, and a hideous male Gorgon with the Kamic Bes.
Speaking of Etruscan temple-tombs, Mr. Dennis observes, “The pediments terminate on each side in a volute, within which is a grim, grinning face, with prominent teeth, a Gorgon's head, a common sepulchral decoration.'5 On the ḥollowed bottom of the famous Etruscan bronze lamp in the Museum of Cortona is a huge Gorgon's face, all horror. The visage of a fiend, with eyes starting from their sockets, a mouth stretched to its utmost, with gnashing tusks—and the whole rendered more terrible by a wreath of serpents bristling around it.'6 Well may Mr. Dennis add, 'It is a libel on the fair face of Dian, to say that this hideous visage symbolises the moon.' This difficulty I have fully explained.
On the ceiling of a chamber in the cemetery of Perugia is 'an enormous Gorgon's head, hewn from
1 Concerning the Face in the Moon's Orb.
2 On this myth, vide Rev. S. Baring-Gould, Curious Myths of the Middle Ages, The Man in the Moon.
3 Rawlinson's Herodotus, ii. 125. * L’Imagerie Phénicienne, 136 et seq. 5 C. C. E. i. 199. Ibid. ii. 404. the dark rock, with eyes upturned in horror, gleaming from the gloom, teeth bristling whitely in the open mouth, wings on the temples, and snakes knotted over · the brow.'1 The Etruscans evidently fully shared in the Akkadian horror of darkness.
On the back of the late Mr. Cooper's edition of Lenormant's Chaldean Magic is represented (I presume from some Chaldean original) a Gorgoneion, apparently a black face, radiate, with wide and open grinning mouth. This presents a remarkable combination of moon and darkness.
Greek vases were occasionally moulded in the shape of the leg of Gorgô.2 A Vase in the British Museum shows a Gorgô in connexion with Lions. She holds upon either side a lion by the fore paw; the lions standing on their hind legs, fling back their heads. The design may of course be mere sportive art, but it appears to be Assyrian in origin 4 and may signify the Gorgonian Night stationed harmoniously between two leonine Days.
Another Vase 5 shows Perseus, wearing the petasos and talaria, plunging the harpê, which he holds in his right hand, into the neck of the Gorgô, who has four wings, two snakes on each side of her head, and two round her waist. •Her face has the usual Gorgon type, with curls symmetrically ranged [an Assyrian characteristic), and a wide, open mouth showing the
1 C. C. E. ii. 441-2. ? Birch, Ancient Pottery, 169; vide sec. IX. 3 Vase Catalogue, No. 1852. 4 Vide sec. III. Nos. IV. VI. 5 Brit. Mus. Cat., No. 641.
teeth and tongue.' Another Vase 1 shows the rare design of Perseus flying over the Libyan mountains, pursued by Stheinô and Euryalê. “The wild pursuit of the immortal Gorgons seems to be the chase of Darkness after the bright Sun who, with his golden sandals, just escapes their grasp as he soars into the peaceful morning sky.' ?
In Canon Spano's very interesting work, Mnemosine Sarda ossia Ricordi e memorie di varii Monumenti Antichi con altre rarita dell'isola de Sardegna (Cagliari, 1864), several good examples of the Gorgon-type are given, the most remarkable of which shows three Gorgon-faces radiate, with open mouths and protruded tongues, in a circle—the lunar orb. Here the three Gorgon sisters are connected with the one Moon.
* Brit. Mus. Cat. No. 548.
% Cox, M. A. N. i. 102.
In the myth of Inô and Melikertes we see no longer opposition between Day and Night, Sun and Moon, but kosmic harmony, the crescent-moon-goddess with the young sun in her arms. Inô, the daughter of Kadmos the · Easterner,'1 is married to Athamas, in Ionic Tammas,' 2 the Phoenician Tammuz, the Akkadian Dumuzi, “the Only-son,' i.e., the solitary Sun-god, Melqarth, who goes forth to hunt alone. By him she becomes the mother of Melikertes, the Phoenician Melqarth, or City-king ;' his reduplication—the sun of the next day; and when the raging Athamas -Herakles Mainomenos-in madness slays his eldest child by Inô, the latter with the infant Melikertes, leaps into the sea, and is subsequently known as Leukotheê, “ the White-goddess.' The obscure name Inô is probably a variant of Iuno, Juno, and from being a phase of Hêrê, “the Gleaming-heaven, she becomes the Queen-of-heaven, Lebhânâ, “the Pale
1 Semitic Kedem,' the East.' 2 K. O. Müller, Orchomenos und dier Minyer, 156. 36 Athamas is the god Tammuz.' (Sir G. W. Cox, Introd. 67, Note 2.)
4 Vide G. D. M. ii. 293. M. Lenormant and Prof. Sayce have pointed out the correct reading of Jeremiah, xxii. 18: 'Ah me, my brother, and ab me, my sister! Ab me, Adonis, and ah me, his lady!'.