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very conspicuous. In it, as well as in his general conduct, his knowing organs, propensities and sentiments, manifested themselves in tolerable sanity, while bis reflecting intellect appeared greatly obscured.
His appetite for money was so great, that he sometimes nearly starved himself through aversion to pay for food. He was fond of spirituous liquors, but fonder still of money; and never drank when he required to pay ; so that, except when unprincipled individuals filled him drunk to render him a spectacle for their own amusement (which was sometimes the case), he was habitually sober. This showed the activity of Acquisitiveness and Self-esteem.
His love of order was conspicuous. He was sometimes oddly, but always cleanly dressed ; and his lodgings were a pattern of arrangement.
It was not necessary to put him under confinement; but when a legal guardian became necessary, the puzzle presented itself how to get i his own mind reconciled to it. To have told him that he was insane, and required a curator, would have rendered him furious, and aggravated his malady. Mr C. overcame this difficulty with complete success by addressing his predominant faculties. He recalled to his mind the poverty and ruin that had imbittered the lives of men of genius, particularly poets, from Homer down to Burns; told him that his genius had been recognised; that to free him from every similar danger, and also to leave his mind at freedom to take its loftiest flights unencumbered by paltry cares, a curator of his pecuniary interests had been appointed, who should merely collect his funds, and be at all times accountable to him for their disbursement. He was delighted at this idea; and submitted without the least reluctance to Mr C.'s control.
Occasionally, however, he met with persons who seemed desirous of torturing his mind in the most vulnerable points ; they assured him that he was treated as insane, that his guardian was not accountable to him, but held his funds for the benefit of his relations; that the expense of management was enormous, and was a robbery committed against him; and by such representations wrought him up to the fiercest indignation.
In this humour he regularly visited Mr C., and poured out a storm of abuse; but in a few minutes, by addressing his faculties in an agreeable way, he was calmed. Mr C. asked him whether men of genius were not pursued by envy, and whether he was well assured that the representations he had received were not dictated by that spirit, and intended merely to detract from the honour he enjoyed. This was a view of the case highly gratifying to his Self-esteem, and he readily seized upon it. Knowing his parsimony, Mr C. re
. quested him to make the experiment whether his funds were not at his own disposal, and desired him to write a donation of L.50 to the Infirmary, or any charitable institution, and see whether it would not be paid; or to take L.20, and amuse himself with an excursion in the country. Such was the constitution and state of his mind, that it was just as impossible for him to have done either as to convert himself into a real Shakspeare; but, like many wiser persons, he had no idea that his actions were controlled by his dispositions ; he declined making these experiments as unnecessary, and retired quite satisfied that he possessed the uncontrolled disposal of his effects.
Some of his productions show strongly the state of his faculties. The following note is dated 25th February, 1823, and, in the profusion of assumed titles in it, forms an amusing illustration of the activity of his Self-esteem and Love of Approbation :-“ President D- herewith transmits his “ compliments to President Combe, W. S. and requests to know “ why Mr T-L (Mr Combe's clerk) writes him a card « “ about some L.3, 19s. 4d., which afterwards he does not ac“ knowledge personally. Physician D-A.M. LL.D. &c. “ &c. having previously chalked it down in his day-book. “ Yours,
“T-D, M.D. F.R.S.E.” In the month of May last he became seriously indisposed, but could not be persuaded to follow medical prescriptions,
or even to take the necessaries of life. His landlady was instructed to supply him with every thing that could minister to his comfort, as if in a compliment out of her profound respect for the honour he had conferred on her by lodging in her house, but to be paid privately by Mr C. This took effect at once. As long as he had to pay, he pretended he had no appetite, and that he could not eat ; but when the compliment was mentioned, he acquired vigorous powers of digestion, and ate readily. His complaint was in the lungs, and one day, when very ill, he was met by a friend at the head of the Vennel, a very steep lane in Edinburgh, leading from the Grassmarket to Laurieston, and held the following discourse :-"I have had a sore battle,” said he.
66 With “ whom?" "With my body to be sure. When at the foot “ of the Vennel there, it rebelled and would not mount; but “ I assured it that I had never yet submitted to my body, and “ was resolved should not conquer me now.
I told it that “ it might take its time, but ascend it should to the top. So," continued he, “ I set out, but had not got ten yards when my “ body rebelled again, and refused to mount; but I just replied, " that up it must go, and that it was in vain for it to try to get
off; and so to it again I went; and here I am you see: I have “ forced it up, after half a dozen of stoppages. I am deter“mined that I shall never be beat by my body.” The real cause of the rebellion was weakness and want of breath. In this disseveration in personality of himself from his body, he , reminds us forcibly of the metaphysicians, some of whose discourses about the mind's independence of its organs are not much superior in sense to the foregoing dialogue.
Among the last acts of his life were, preparing to rise, not to yield to his body, and desiring a chair that was out of its place to be put in its proper position.
His head decreased in size during the progress of his insanity, and to such an extent that he observed the circumstance himself, and said that he required a smaller size in each successive hat that he purchased. His intellectual faculties were obviously feebler in the latter years of his life, for he became incapable of collecting money by presenting receipts, and performing some other little pieces of business
which in former years he had accomplished, and his forehead very perceptibly diminished and retreated during the corresponding period. He accounted for the decrease in the size of the hats he required, by ascribing it to the sublimation of his brain ; he said he was becoming purely etherial, and that the grosser particles of his head were evaporating daily.
“The body was opened forty-two hours after death. The small “ size of the forehead was remarkable. The integuments were very
adherent, and the skull so dense as to be sawn with diffi“culty. It was of very unequal thickness; and the forehead pre“sented a large frontal sinus of great depth, which also extended “ backwards over the orbitar plate nearly to the bottom of the « socket. The dura-mater adhered firmly, but presented no “ unusual appearance, except being, in common with the skull “ and brain, more highly vascular on one side than on the other. “One hemisphere was turgid with blood, and when cut into,
presented numerous red points, a very deep red brown
corpus striatum, and a little bloody serum in the ventricle. “ The other was rather paler than natural, forming a contrast “ in every point with its fellow. Nothing else remarkable was “noticed in the head ; and no symptom indicated, during life, “this inequality of affection. The bead was under the average “ size, but high, particularly towards Self-esteem and Firmness."
These appearances, particularly the great density of the skull, and the remarkable extent of the frontal sinus backwards over the eyes, show the existence of long-continued morbid action in the head, and afford a strong presumption that the anterior region of the brain, which is the seat of intellect, had undergone a diminution even greater than that indicated by the external surface of the bone. It is also worthy of notice, that the corpus striatum, which was evidently much changed in structure from the healthy state, serves to form, or rather to increase, the mass of brain corresponding to the organs of the intellectual faculties.
NOTICE OF THE NATURAL DISPOSITIONS AND TALENTS
OF MR JOHN VANDENHOFF, AS INFERRED FROM HIS DEVELOPMENT.
(Communicated by Mr George Lyon.) SEVERAL years ago a phrenological friend (Mr G. Combe) put into my hands notes of several developments, with a request that I would draw the inferences which they indicated. Of these, one belonged to a Member of Parliament, another to a Writer to the Signet, and the third was Mr Vandenhoff. I had not (as I never have in these experiments) the most remote idea of the source from which the developments were taken ; and, least of all, could I suspect that of Mr Vandenhoff,—a gentleman with whom I was not only personally unacquainted, but whom I had never so much as
I was only informed that the development belonged to “ a gentleman between 30 and 35 years of age-well-edu“cated-moves in good society—a learned profession-not " the church.”
The development is as follows :
From Spine to Lower Individuality,..
5 .5% .6 .5 53
DEVELOPMENT. 1. Amativeness, rather large. 5. Combativeness, rather large. 2. Philoprogenitiveness, rather large. 6. Destructiveness, rather large. 3. Concentrativeness, rather large. 7. Constructiveness, rather large. 4. Attachment, rather large.
8. Acquisitiveness, full,