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strength or power. Now, the point to be ascertained is, in what degree of strength are these primitive faculties possessed by each individual ? It is from this knowledge, however acquired, that the natural dispositions and talents of the indi. vidual are to be ascertained. This knowledge may be obtained in two ways. The first, which is at once the most certain and the most speedy, is by manipulating the head. But this is not the only way. It may also be obtained by a knowledge of the manifestations, either by attentive observation, or by information from the individual himself, or his friends. The objection immediately occurs, that this is a mode which may be followed whether we know any thing of Phrenology or not. Not quite so. After Phrenology has put us in possession of this most important information, viz. what the primitive faculties of the mind really are, it may be less difficult to ascertain from observation what are the different degrees of power in which these faculties are possessed; but without that information, we never could have moved a single step, and the science of mind would have been involved in the same obscurity in which it was before the discoveries of Dr Gall. Many of the primitive faculties are denied to be such ; and Phrenologists have been derided for admitting into their system such faculties as Combativeness, Destructiveness, and Secretiveness. But if the very existence of these is denied, it is absurd to suppose that any one holding that opinion would seriously seek for evidence of their manifestations, and with the view of forming an estimate of the character into which those elements are supposed to enter. It is surely a point of some importance to ascertain whether a genius for poetry or music depends on habits of business, or on faculties which are primitive and innate. Again, from knowing what are the primitive faculties, and what are their respective manifestations, we arrive more speedily and more accurately at a knowledge of character. Suppose a Phrenologist wishes to know the natural dispositions of some individual, and he either sees or hears that Mr A. is subject to violent fits of passion. This is a clear indication of Destructiveness; and if he farther knows the circumstances which in general lead to these ebullitions, he may perhaps infer a large endowment of Self-esteem or Love of Approbation. He knows that Mr A. is remarkable for keeping a secret. This indicates Secretiveness ; if a determined disputer, Combativeness and Firm ness ; and so on. A single clear and undoubted manifestation of any of these faculties is sufficient to determine the degree of power in which the faculty is possessed ; and when the ob servations as to the others are, in like manner, ascertained, a Phrenologist can, from the effects of the combinations, predicate upon the whole character with a degree of certainty, and to an extent, which, on any other mode, it would require a tract of years to arrive at.

Nor is all this a mere hypothesis. My friend, Mr James Law, junior, knowing that Mr Combe was possessed of Mr Vandenhoff's development, determined to observe his manifestations on the stage, and to infer what the development ought to be from the natural language of the faculties. He accordingly did so; and, on comparing the inferences thus obtained with the actual development, the two were found almost exactly to correspond.

A knowledge of the effects produced by the combinations of the different faculties, according to their relative degrees of strength, is one of the most important practical uses of Phrenology. Without such a knowledge, a simple development conveys little information, or, at least, the greatest errors may otherwise be committed. Phrenology is now beginning to be attended to, and in part, at least, to be under stood; and the objectors, forgetting entirely the source of their knowledge, pretend that many of the discoveries of Phrenology were equally well known before it was heard of, while, perhaps, that very knowledge was unconsciously acquired by them from the lights of Phrenology itself. Take, for instance, the combinations which produce humour, irony, satire, modesty, humility, timidity, &c. &c. ; and though it

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appears very simple after the combinations are pointed out, yet, perhaps, it is this very simplicity which makes the discovery at once difficult and important. At least, Lord Bacon remarks, that the observation which has universally been

made by mankind after some great and important discovery , has been made, is the wonder that it was not made before,

and an expression of surprise by the superficial at the stupi. dity of their forefathers in never having perceived it. The, falling of a stone to the ground led Sir Isaac Newton to the discovery of the laws of gravitation, and the lifting of the lid of a tea-kettle by the steam of boiling water to the magnificent discovery of the steam-engine. The true way, therefore, to ascertain the importance and value of the phrenolo gical combinations is to put into the hands of a person, totally ignorant of the science, a note of a development; and I should consider it little short of miraculous if he succeeded, by the mere efforts of his own mind, to infer the character which it indicated. If it should be desired, I may trouble your readers, at a

I. future period, with a statement of the principles from which the inferences of character in this particular case were drawn.

GEO. Lyon. August, 1827.

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OBSERVATIONS ON THE FACULTY BY WHICH WE PERCEIVE AND COMPARE THE DIVISIONS OF DURATION OR TIME.

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In our fifth Number (vol. II. p. 134), we concluded a short article on the faculty of Time (to which we beg now to refer as useful to be read again before perusing the following paper), in these words:-" The brief sketch now offered will

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" have attained its object if it shall point out the way to farther “ observation of the function of the organ of Time, so as to lead “to its unquestionable establishment as one of the primitive fa“ culties of man.” The communication from a London correspondent, which follows, is most acceptable, and just what we wished. Indeed it seems impossible to read it, to observe nature, and still to doubt that there is a distinct faculty for perceiving Time. We especially desiderated a well-authenticated example of the faculty in diseased action, the most satisfactory of all proofs of its distinctive character. We had one case, but withheld it as not sufficiently unequivocal or minutely inquired into ; namely, that of a man we saw in Bethlem hospital, who danced, when permitted, almost without ceasing. The case of Alice Whitworth is not only most curious in itself, but gives consistency to theother, which may therefore now be mentioned.

(From a Correspondent.)

That there is a faculty of the mind by which we are rendered capable of appreciating and comparing the divisions of Duration or Time is evident from these facts: 1st, Impressions on any of the senses periodically repeated, such as the visible oscillations of a pendulum, or the audible strokes of a clock-bell, cause the expectation of other equally distant impressions, and when this expectation is disappointed by the intervals being prolonged or shortened, we perceive and are capable of estimating their differences. 2dly, When a series of such equal divisions of time is discontinued we can continue to mark similar divisions, and generally with as much precision as when the sensations were still subsisting. 3dly, We are able to compare the different frequencies of these periods so as to distinguish the varieties of quick and slow intervals; and, 4thly, There is as great a diversity among individuals respecting this power as in the other perceptive powers of the mind.

Writers on the philosophy of mind have in general disregarded these phenomena ; but many authors who have writ

ten on music and prosody, and who, from the nature of their researches, could not avoid observing them, have admitted, to explain them, a primitive faculty of the mind, to which they have given various appellations. Steele, in his Prosodia Rationalis, designated it as the instinctive sense of periodical pulsation, and Lord Monboddo gives his approval to this designation.

Baron Dupin, in his “ Geometrie et Mécanique des Arts et Métiers,” has so fully stated the useful purposes to which this faculty is subservient, and the advantages to be derived from its artificial cultivation, that we cannot do better than translate his observations on this subject from that part of his work which treats of the education of the senses :

“ We gradually learn to measure the duration of sounds and " of intervals of rest. In many arts the knowledge of this dura“tion acquired through the senses is indispensable. By repeat

ing similar sounds, separated by longer or shorter intervals of

rest, we acquire the knowledge, or, we may call it, the sensa“ tion of the duration of these intervals. Thus, the voice of an “ instructor, or the sounds of the drum or of musical instru“ments, are employed to give to a newly-recruited soldier the

sensation of a more or less accelerated measure, corresponding “ with each variety of step appropriate to military evolutions. “When it is required to drill a regiment of soldiers to perform “their.exercise together, the duration of each part of these ex“ ercises is divided into equal intervals, each of which is occupied

by a motion. A real cadence is thus produced in the exercise, “ without which the desired effect cannot be obtained. It is by “ this means that eight or nine hundred well-drilled men are

able, at the mere command of, Charge your arms, to perform “ successively, and without any new signal, twelve divisions and

more than thirty movements with perfect simultaneousness. “ This education of the faculty requires less time in proportion « as the recruits are taken from a nation whose organs are in general more susceptible. French soldiers are much better “ drilled by explaining the movements to them than by continu“ally repeating them before them; but there is but one means “ of initiating the soldiers of other countries less advanced in “civilization, that of placing before them a fugleman to make each movement separately, for each soldier to repeat by his “ faculty of imitation, until he has acquired the habit of making “ his limbs alone perform the exercise without his head being at “ all employed in the operation. These great differences merit “ the attention of the philosophic observer." VOL. IV.No XVI.

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