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as the same

“ quiry, that there always was a tune dwelling upon her mind, “ which at times becoming more pressing, irresistibly compelled “ her to commence the involuntary motions. The motions " ceased at four o'clock.

“ At half-past seven the motions commenced again, when I “ was sent for. There were two drummers present, and an un" braced drum was beaten till the other was braced. She danced

regularly to the unbraced drum, but the moment the other “commenced, she instantly ceased. As missing the time stopped “ the affections, I wished the measure to be changed during “ the dance, which stopped the attack. It also ceased upon in“ creasing the rapidity of the beat, till she could no longer keep “ time: and it was truly surprising to see the rapidity and vio“ lence of the muscular exertion, in order to keep time with the

increasing movement of the instrument. Five times I saw her “ sit down the same evening, at the instant she was unable to

keep the measure ; and, in consequence of this, I desired the “ drummers to beat one continued roll, instead of a regular move“ ment. She arose and danced five minutes, when both drums “ beat a continued roll; the motions instantly stopped, and the “ patient sat down. In a few minutes the motions commencing "again, she was suffered to dance five minutes, when the drums

again began to roll, the effect of which was instantaneous ; “ the motions ceased, and the patient sat down. In a few minutes

was repeated with the same effects. It appeared “ certain that the attacks could now be stopped in an instant, “ and I was desirous of arresting them entirely, and breaking “ the chain of irregular associations which constituted the disease. As the motions at this period always commenced in the fingers, and propagated themselves along the upper extremities of the trunk, I desired the drummers, when the patient arose to dance, to watch the commencement of the attack, and roll “ the drums before she arose from the chair. Six times succes. “sively the patient was hindered from rising, by attending to “ the affection ; and before leaving the house I desired the fa

mily to attend to the commencement of the attacks, and use “ the drums daily.

March 2.-She arose at seven o'clock, and the motions com. menced at ten; she danced twice before the drummer was

prepared ; after which, she attempted to dance again for se“ veral times; but one roll of a well-braced drum hindered the “patient from leaving her seat; after which the attacks did not recur. “ This woman, previously to the complaint, could never dance,

even a country-dance, and yet I saw her execute steps which “could not be taught without difficulty. At times she would “ rise upon the toes, and move forward, alternately advancing each heel into the hollow of the opposite foot; at other times, “poising the body upon one foot, and with the heel raised, she “ would beat time with the toe and heel of the other,


" In this case there was no wandering of the intellect, either “ during the paroxysm, or in its absence. The perception and

judgment were accurate and just, and all questions were an“swered correctly. During the intermission she did many “ household affairs, nursed her child, &c. &c. although the “ troublesome curiosity of her numberless visitors undoubtedly “ disturbed her ease.

There was a constant wish to recover; a “ just knowledge of her situation, and of the advantage she “ received from the agency of the instrument, with an anxious - desire to continue its use.

“ How far the mind was in a state of excitement in the coma mencement of this disease it is difficult to decide, since the “ connexion betwixt the involuntary ideas and the involuntary “ motions was only observed on the 27th of February. After “ the dancing commenced, I noticed the patient always to be in good spirits, evidently to enjoy the drum, and to turn to it in

stantly upon the very first stroke, in whatever situation the “ involuntary motions had then carried her.

“ This disease appears to have consisted in an highly-irritable “ state of mind, with which the organs of voluntary motion be

came associated; and the cure was effected by interrupting " this irregular association. It is probable that the noise of the « instrument in a room scarcely six yards square was very ad

vantageous, by interrupting the chain of musical ideas impressed upon the highly-excited mind, and re-establishing the

ordinary relation of the mental operations with external things. “ The voluntary muscles also early associated themselves with “ the instrument, as was shown by the instant cessation of their “ unnatural actions when the time could no longer be kept.

“ The involuntary actions became more frequent, as their du“ration was shortened by the means put in force ; so that it “ would seem as if the disease struggled to renew actions which “ had not been permitted to arrive

at an ordinary period." With this pathological case we conclude; and on summing up the evidence the preceding pages have afforded, we are compelled to admit that there is a primitive faculty of the mind by which we perceive, compare, and remember the divisions or intervals of duration or time, and that the combinations of this faculty with the other powers of the mind are necessary to explain a variety of mental capabilities, of which otherwise no satisfactory explanation can be afforded.*

Some interesting observations in ance with the views stated in this paper will be found the fifth number of this Journal : the article is entitled * Observations on the Faculty of Time, and on the Deaf and Dumb Dancing.”



Sens des Localités, Sens des Rapports de l'Espace, (Ort

sinn, Raumsinn.)

The taste which I had for natural history says Dr Gall, (in the 4th volume of his work, Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau), induced me to go very often to the woods to catch birds and to seek out their nests. I was very successful in the latter object, because I had often observed towards which of the cardinal points each species of birds was in the custom of building its nest. I succeeded equally well in laying out my nets in the proper places, because I had acquired the habit of divining the canton or ground of the bird by its cries and by its movements; but, when I wished to go in search of the birds which were caught, or to take possession of a nest ten or fifteen days afterwards, it was generally impossible for me to find either the tree I had marked, or the nets which I had set; and yet, after having set them, I purposely approached them by different roads branching in different directions, before finally leaving them, and stuck branches in the earth, and made incisions on the trees, to guide me,-but all in vain. I was therefore forced to take one of my schoolfellows, who, without the least effort of attention, went always straight to the place where the net was lying, although we had often ten or fifteen set at one time in a country not at all familiar to him. As this youth had very moderate abilities in other respects, I was the more struck with the facility with which he extricated himself. I often asked him how he contrived to guide himself so accurately? to which he answered, by asking how I contrived to lose myself everywhere ?

In the hope of one day throwing some light on the matter, I took a cast of his head, and set about finding out persons distinguished for the same power. The great landscapepainter, Schønberger, told me, that in his travels he usually made only a very imperfect sketch of the countries that interested him, and that afterwards, when he began to convert his sketch into a regular landscape, every tree, every shrub, and every stone of any magnitude presented themselves to his imagination in their natural order. I took a cast of his head, and placed it beside that of my schoolfellow Scheidler. At this time I became acquainted with M. Meyer, author of the romance of Dia-na-sore, who is happy only when wandering. Sometimes he goes from one country house to another; at other times he attaches himself to some rich man going on his travels; and he also has an astonishing facility of recollecting the different places which he has seen. I made a cast of his head, and placed the copy beside the other two. I then compared the three with great attention; they offered remarkable differences in many points, but I was struck with the singular form which the region immediately over the eyes and at each side of the organ of Individuality presented in all of them. Here two great prominences commencing at the root of the nose, and rising obliquely outwards towards the middle of the forehead, were very conspicuous.

It was then that the idea involuntarily occurred to me, that the power of recollecting places might also depend on a fundamental faculty, the organ of which might be situated in the part of the head alluded to. Granting this to be true, every thing that is said about local memory becomes explicable. This then furnished abundant matter for new reflections.

But, before proceeding, I must remove a difficulty which will often present itself to those of my readers who are unacquainted with anatomy. In some human heads, and especially in some heads of men, the external table of the bone is separated from the internal immediately above and on each side of the root of the nose; and, as in these cases the external lamina projects externally and not internally, as in the age of

. 1

decrepitude, two very sensible prominences thence arise. And the opponents of Phrenology maintain that it is these two prominences which I mistake for the external indication of Locality. I had formed the answer to that objection long before it was made to me. My adversaries, or anatomists in general, are wrong in admitting that frontal sinuses exist

in every individual. In women they are rarely found; they • are often wanting also in men up to an advanced age, when

the internal table falls in, but without causing any external
prominence. It is true that these apparent ridges formed by
the frontal sinuses are at the place where the external mark
of the organ of Locality begins; but then they are placed in
an almost horizontal direction, in general immediately be-
tween the eyebrows, and sometimes extend to the two sides
as far as the middle of the superciliary ridge. The pro-
minences arising from a large organ of Locality are, on the
contrary, more uniformly rounded, without inequalities, and
extend to the middle of the forehead, following an oblique
line from below, upwards and outwards. ....jos ses comp. 1,
\ To guard against confounding the development of the or-
gans of Locality in the lower animals with the prominences
produced by the frontal sinuses, it is necessary to study very
minutely the structure of the head in the different species.
In some, all the adults have large sinuses, as in the bull, the
buffalo, the elephant, the bear, and the sow. :: In others, as
in man, the sinus exist in some individuals and fit in others.
Some varieties of the dog, and often individuals of that very
variety, seem to have large frontal sinuses, when anatomy
demonstrates that they have none, and that in them the brain
is placed immediately behind very thin cranial bones. : ill.,
: The first idea being once obtained, continues Dr Gall, we
immediately find ourselves in possession of riches, the exist-
ence of which we never before suspected. Long before I
made these observations, I had two dogs, the one of which,
little as he was, often left home to make excursions, and
never failed to return. The other lost himself whenever he
turned his eyes from me in the street, and I could never find

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