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“ run, the surprise will immediately cease. It will be no “ longer difficult to conceive the possibility of internal organs “ of the same dature producing similar actions in different “species of animals."

But I cannot conclude, continues our author, without drawing your attention to the fact, that, in spite of all the obstacles raised against it, Phrenology has ensured its triumph. It has triumphed in spite of the moderate means of its founder, and in spite of the war waged against it by philosophers and journalists. Dr Gall, alone and ungided, by the sole force of genius and perseverance, without the aid of any government, of any academy, or of any rich. powerful patron, has succeeded in securing the reception of his anatomical and physiological discoveries, and enjoys the satisfaction of seeing societies of intelligent men founded for the cultivation of his doctrines in the principal cities of Great Britain, America, and even in Asia. Not only at Edinburgh and at London, but also at Philadelphia and at Calcutta, do Phrenological Societies pursue their labours. The author then notices the Transactions of the Phrenological Society, the existence of our Journal, and concludes by. quoting the rules of the London Phrenological Society, which he approves of, and supposes to be nearly the same in all other similar societies.

In a letter to Dr A. Combe, accompanying the pamphlet, the author, who is in constant and familiar intercourse with Dr Gall, takes occasion to notice the feeling of respect and friendship which Dr Gall has for the Society, and the intention which he entertains of writing them, in regard to some of his views, and to the best means of forwarding the cause of truth. We shall be delighted to see this intention fulfilled, and we know that it would give infinite satisfaction to the Society.

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558 MORBID EXCITEMENT OF THE ORGAN OF NUMBER.

ARTICLE VIII.

MORBID EXCITEMENT OF THE ORGAN OF NUMBER.

BY DR ALDERSON OF HULL.

Master B., a very fine ingenuous youth, about fifteen, complained, on his return from school the last vacation, of an intense pain over the outer angle of each eye, darting obliqaely through the eyeball to the root of the nose, there was not the slightest appearance of inflammation in any of the coats of the eye; his pulse full and hard, his manner highly excited, his tongue creamy, he was costive and chilly.

He had always shown a decided preference for figures, and was highly read in mathematics; but his father (himself eminent for the classics and mathematics, and a high wrangler,) was desirous that his son should persevere, and lay aside his mathematics, in order to perfect himself in classics before he went to Cambridge. To accomplish this wish of his parent,

: he bent the whole of his mind and faculties during theses sion to this end, and at the vacation he returned with every demonstration of having done his utmost, to the entire sätise faction of the master, for he had awarded him the prize for the first classic of the year; but, alas ! this was not obtained without a high degree of morbid excitement in the brain, and that, too, precisely in the places I have already pointed at, as far at least as can be judged of by symptoms: 1 I immediate ly forbade all application whatever to those studies to which he had hitherto addicted himself, and "ordered employment in the trifling amusements of his young brothers ; having put him under the most decided antiphlogistic treatment, he recovered in a few days, and was, to all appearance, perfectly himself again.

In the course of a week I called upon bim accidentally, when he declared himself perfectly well; but I detected him at his favourite pursuits ; he had got a new publication on

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mathematics, and I prognosticated a relapse; the very next day his pain, as intense as before, attended the left eye at the outer angle. He submitted to his former treatment, and was restored, he has remained well ever since, and has gradually returned to a well-regulated course of study.

I have drawn the attention of this Society to this case, because I have no doubt they will see this young man return from Cambridge with the honours that have adorned so many of his townsmen at that University.

ARTICLE IX.

GLASGOW BRIDEWELL.

We recently inspected this establishment, and were very much pleased with the manner in which it is kept, and with the intelligence, frankness, and practical good sense of Mr Brebner the superintendent. From 2d August, 1825, to 20 August, 1826, the total number of prisoners committed was

1389 The four great classes of offences were the fol

lowing, viz.1. Theft, pocket-picking, and attempting to steal, 390 2. Reset of theft, fraud, and swindling,

77 3. Assaults, outrages, breach of the peace, rogues,

vagabonds, vagrants, and disorderly characters, following no lawful employment,

275 4. Disorderly prostitutes, guilty of breaches of the peace,

323

1065 Add returning from banishment, having been for. merly convicted of crime,

194 1259

All other offences,

130 In surveying the heads of the offenders, the difference between the development of the thieves and swindlers, Nos 1 VOL. IV.No VI.

2 N

and 2, and that of the individuals committed for outrages and breaches of the peace, Nos 3 and 4, was obvious and striking. In the former, the organs of Acquisitiveness, Secretiveness, and Cautiousness, predominated; in the latter, the base of the brain, viz. Amativeness, Combativeness, and Destructiveness, evidently held the ascendency; in them there was great breadth across the head, immediately above the ear, with a large portion of brain behind that line.' Of course we speak in general ; for among the prisoners there were some whose development might have led them into either class, according as external temptations prompted them. In a few cases, especially among the young, the moral and intellectual organs were so deficient in proportion to the animal, that we should despair of their reformation 'while they were left open to the suggestions of their own minds, inAuenced by want and profligate society. In many of the criminals, however, these higher organs were fairly developed, although in conjunction with a large base of the brain ; and on them instruction and moral restraint might be expected to produce a decided and salutary effect. *****Enect

All criminals may be regarded as patients. Their offenccs, when traced to their causés, appear to spring either from evil dispositions, or external temptation too strong for them to resist.' Every Phrenologist knows that depraved tendencies are the accompaniments of animal organs predoniinant in size over the moral and intellectual organs; and that, on individuals thus constituted, temptation exerts its greatest influence. Until we shall practically apply these principles, we shall not succeed in preventing, or greatly diminishing, crime. At present, however, all we can accomplish" is to proclaim the truth, and record with approbation, whatever appears to approach to it. The Glasgow Bridewell, we are happy to say, is excellently managed on the old system. With very few exceptions, every prisoner has a sleeping cell and a working cell for himself; and all communication with each other is completely prevented. They are employed in

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picking cotton, spinning, winding yarn, weaving, making shoes, &c., in solitude, during the day, and are locked up in solitude during the night. Even on Sundays they are not permitted to assemble together. On week-days a regular teacher visits each cell, and communicates instruction, and on Sundays some pious individuals teach religion. These meritorious persons have formed themselves into a society, and all their members are freely admitted to the prisoners : ladies visit the females and gentlemen the males.

The effect of this treatment will obviously be to abate the vivacity of the animal propensities, and to rouse the moral and intellectual powers.

Solitude and labour will tend powerfully to accomplish the first end; but the means employed for attaining the second are too limited. The average number of prisoners in confinement is 250, and it is impossible that the teacher and visitors can remain with each a length of time sufficient to make a deep or lasting impression. The periods of confinement also are too short to favour reformation by moral means. While we approve of the practice of preventing the criminals from associating together, we think they would be greatly benefited by more extensive social intercourse with moral characters. Human nature demands enjoyment as its first and greatest want. If the only experience of a state of morality afforded to criminals is characterized by severe privation of animal pleasure, and the almost total negation of moral and intellectual excitement, they must necessarily form a very, unfavourable opinion of the attractions of a virtuous life. We should like to see them, if possible, made acquainted, from experience, with the pure and vivacious joys that flow from activity of the higher faculties of man,

i?" Mr Brebner favoured us with the following tables of commitments:

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