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the cornice gives access to a stair of entrance. The thickness would admit of an arched recess on this side, but if it exist, it must be lower than the others and entirely concealed by the rubbish. The ceiling of the chamber is flat, and decorated with an ornamental panel, and a Greek moulding as a cornice. The obstructed state of the lower part makes it impossible to see whether there be any provision for the reception of the dead in the recesses, which, to judge by the upper parts, are deep enough to receive a body; the northern one being two feet three inches. It is probable, from the usual lowness of these sepulchral chambers, that another apartment exists below this with a more ample entrance, if indeed this entrance has not been walled up. In the chamber that remains above-ground there is no apparent means of introducing a dead body, much less a sarcophagus. But my principal reason for introducing this monument, besides the pleasure of presenting to the public, for the first time, these accurate drawings of Mr Scoles, is, that it affords to us, close to the walls of Jerusalem, an example of the very system which appears to have been pursued by the architects of Constantine in the decoration of the Holy Sepulchre; with this difference, that in the latter case, the cave had existed for centuries before they began their external operations; whereas in the former case, the chamber and the external form were probably parts of one design. Moreover, Constantine clothed the rock with an artificial casing of rich marble, and in our present example, the ornaments are worked out of the solid limestone. But they each exhibit an example of the detaching of a complete monolithic representation of a structure, by the levelling away of the original rock on all sides. The unmerciful ridicule and contempt which has been cast upon those who have ventured to suppose such a process possible, in the case of the Holy Sepulchre, is at once disposed of, by thus shewing that examples of this process exist in the immediate neighbourhood of Jerusalem; for the tomb of Zachariah is exactly formed in the same manner. And whatever may be the age of these works, they certainly are prior to the time of Constantine. But away from Jerusalem there are many examples, especially in Asia Minor". Robinson also found “several isolated monuments, the counterparts of the monolithic tombs in the Valley of Jehoshaphat” at Petra?.


The Holy Sepulchre itself is in its present state, as I have already stated, a small chapel or edicula in the centre of the Rotunda, about twenty-six feet long and eighteen broad. As the diameter of the interior of the Rotunda is sixty-seven feet, the chapel stands quite free in the midst of it.

The Eastern end is square, and the Western polygonal. The external aspect of it has been completely altered by the repairs that followed the fire of 1808; for the original exterior casing of marble, greatly damaged by that fire, has been of necessity entirely removed, and a new one substituted of a totally different design. The comparison of its present plan with that of its former state proves also, that at least the Eastern half of it has been completely rebuilt, so as also to change the interior". But, in fact, the interior of the Chapel is divided into two apartments. The only entrance is at the East, where a small door admits to the first apartment, which is called the Chapel of the Angel; for here, as they say, the Angel sat upon the stone that was rolled from the door of the Sepulchre. stone about a foot high and two feet square is exhibited

* Vide especially Texier, Pls. 197, wrought into the form of a Doric temple. 198, for a monolithic tomb, detatched * Robinson, Vol. 1. p. 521. They from the rock precisely in the same are sketched in one of Roberts's views manner as that of Absalom, and I of the Necropolis of Petra.

And, accordingly, a

in this Chapel, as the identical stone in question, or rather as a piece of it. At the Western extremity of the Angel's Chapel, a narrow low door opens to the second or inner apartment, which is the Sepulchre itself, a quadrangular room, about six feet by seven, and eight or nine feet

in height.

This inner apartment is asserted to be the original

* Figs. 6, 7, 8, Plate 2, shew the Chapel of the Sepulchre, as it has appeared at different periods; Fig. 6, the supposed original arrangement of Constantine; Fig. 7, is that of the Crusaders, as given by Bernardino and as it remained until 1808. Fig. 8 is its present plan; for which I am indebted to Mr Scoles.

In these three figures the same letters of reference are used: A, the altar of the Sepulchre, B the rockchamber, C the low door, D the Chapel of the Angel, having the stone in the midst, EE stone benches, FF candelabra introduced into the present structure, G a platform of approach to the Sepulchre, raised three steps above the

Vol. II.

floor of the rotunda, H the Chapel of the Copts.

The probable rocky part of the structure is distinguished from the masonry and marble covering by different shading. In Fig. 6, the sepulchral chamber, not having been lined with marble, appears larger than in the others. In Fig. 8 a narrow staircase is shewn to the right and left of the entrance of the Angel Chapel, which serves to give access to the roof. For this information I am indebted to a Russian plan. It is probable that a similar staircase existed in the earlier building, although Bernardino has omitted it.


Rock-cave, which was shaped and pared down on the outside by Constantine's architect, and the surface of the rock levelled all round it, so as to leave it standing up in the midst, like an artificial construction. The outside was then also decorated with a marble casing and with columns, which casing has been destroyed and reconstructed in various forms, until it has assumed its present appearance. As for the Angel's Chapel in front of it, it is confessedly a building of stone, and has never been described as a rock-cavern, like the inner room, by any writer of authority, although some travellers have assumed this, and perhaps the inferior priests who shew the Sepulchre may say so. But in examining the traditional accounts of the whole of these buildings, and the pretences that are put forth by their guardians with respect to them, it is quite necessary to confine ourselves to the writings of educated men. The marvellous tales of the priests who shew the wonders of the spot to the pilgrims, are about as worthy of attention as the histories that are delivered by a Cathedral verger in our own country, some of which are nearly as preposterous as the legends of the Holy Land, although not so revolting, because the subjects of them are not so sacred. The wood-cut at the beginning of this volume shews its present appearance, which is that of a Russo-Greek Chapel, in a very bad taste, surmounted by a swelled dome, of a form, happily, peculiar to the Russian Churches. In the drawings of Breydenbach, and others from his time down to the fire of 1808, the Western part of the Chapel has a simple arcade against its sides, the columns of which are seen in the Plan, Fig. 7, from which it appears that there were nine

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