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arches. These arches are not only drawn as pointed arches by Bernardino (who very rarely represents pointed arches,) but he mentions one of them expressly (that over the Eastern door) as a pointed arch, “arco ottuso.” (p. 44). But Breydenbach, Le Brun, and others, draw them as semicircular arches. Nevertheless I incline to think, that the fact of one observer drawing the arches in the pointed form, is conclusive against all the others, who might so probably have missed that peculiarity at a period when the pointed arch had not been made an object of attention. The columns, as Bernardino tells us, were different in diameter and in form ; some were cylindrical, some octagonal, some spiral, and their plinths were of different heights, as if they had been taken from the remains of other structures. The arcade only extended from K to K Westward, and the height of this part of the Chapel was little more than fifteen feet", and was surmounted by a single cornice. The part to the Eastward of KK was a foot lower, and had a similar cornice. The Eastern face contained the only door, and this was square-headed, but had a pointed arch or pannel over it, sunk a few inches. A platform G nine feet wide, shewn in the plan, and raised about a foot above the general pavement of the Rotunda, led to this door, and there was a stone seat E on either side of the doorway. The Eastern half of the Chapel has been now wholly rebuilt, and the Western re-cased, so as to alter its appearance entirely, and to increase its height. But this arrangement of the platform and seats has been preserved, as the plan, Fig. 8, shews, although they have been constructed in a more commodious and handsome form, and the platform is also now flanked by two large candlesticks at FF. But to return to Fig. 7, or to the Chapel at the period of that plan. The Western half was surmounted by a light pavilion, erected over the sepulchral chamber. This consisted of a plinth of white marble, on which were placed twelve small columns in pairs, of the finest porphyry, with white marble bases and capitals of metal, of irregular design, (according to Bernardino, which may be rendered as applying to mediaeval work). Upon these stood six pointed arches of wood, and a cornice of multiplied mouldings, capped by a cupola of lead. This little fabric, nineteen feet high in all, and eleven in diameter, appears to have been of exceedingly mean design and disproportionately small dimensions, though perhaps scarcely deserving Dr Clarke's epithet of a “dusty pepper-box.” The present dumpy dome which replaces it, is not worth much more consideration. The original Angel Chapel was, as the plan (Fig. 7) shews, a small parallelogram, ten feet by five, with a semicircular apse to the West. The parallelogram was vaulted with a groined vault, the apex of which was only ten feet from the floor, and the apse was still lower. The Eastern door was eight feet five inches to the crown of its pointed arch, but the Western door, which gave admission to the inner or sepulchral chamber, was only three feet four inches in height, and the passage was cut obliquely on account of the arrangements of the Sepulchre within'. Its pavement and its walls were covered and lined with marble, and there were two small windows on either side, and an ambry in which
* Twenty-one palms, (Bernardino, p. 44.)
were kept some of the sacred vessels for the service of the Sepulchre”. The present Angel Chapel (D, Fig. 8) is an entirely new structure, of slightly increased dimensions, and of a different form. The principal interest of comparing the two plans, is to prove that the apse of the old one was certainly no part of the rock; for the present chamber completely encroaches upon that apse, and it is not likely that the rock itself would have been meddled with by the modern architect, if he had found it in his way. In the middle of the Chapel is fixed the stone whereon the Angel sat, upon which it is scarcely worth while to waste words, as it has been repeatedly changed. It is, manifestly, only a representation even of the one which Bede alludes to, as will be shewn below 3. The inner apartment, or Cave of the Sepulchre, was not affected by the fire of 1808. It is a four-sided chamber very nearly square, six feet eight inches English in length, and six feet one inch in width, according to Mr Scoles. Its vault is eight feet six from the floor. More than half of this chamber on the North side is occupied by a kind of altar or pedestal, two feet ten inches in height, which covers and protects the real Sepulchral couch, where the body of our
* Quaresmius, Tom. 11. p. 510, and Cotovicus.
* “The stone which now stands in the ante-room of the tomb, and which is set forth to be the great stone that was rolled to the door of the Sepulchre...is a square block of white marble, yet the holy fathers declare this to be the tdentical stone; and it is exhibited as a rostly spectacle, and kissed, and vene
rated accordingly. When strictly questioned on the subject, however, the guide informed us that the true stone was stolen by the Armenians, and it is exhibited by them in a chapel that occupies the site of the palace of Caiaphas, on Mount Zion, but that the polished block of marble served their purpose equally well.” Richardson, Vol. 11. p. 335.
Lord was laid. The entrance to the chamber is on the East, and close to the side of this altar. The sides of the chamber are not exactly at right angles to each other; its North-Eastern and NorthWestern angles being slightly acute, and the others the reverse, according to Bernardino's plan, and to his verbal description quoted below'. The chamber is asserted to be hewn out of a rock, but its surface is so covered with ornamental decoration, and blackened with the smoke of the lamps which are continually kept burning therein, that no part of the rocky surface appears to be visible”. Quaresmius, who is certainly not inclined to weaken or withhold evidence, and would have mentioned the rock if he could, says that the sides of the chamber within and without are clothed with squared slabs of marble of an ash colour, and the roof incrusted with rough mortar; but that he doubts not that it was once covered with the most elegant Mosaic work”, of which traces and remains might be still seen, as far as the thick black smoke of the lamps would allow. As to the Holy Sarcophagus itself, he informs us that it was covered with white marble slabs", by Father Bonifacius (A.D. 1555), after much consideration, in order to protect this sacred tomb from the droppings of lamp-oil and other uncleanness, and from the indiscreet zeal of the faithful, who were continually knocking off small particles to carry away. The upper slab was in one piece, but was marked across to make it appear as if broken, to deceive the Turks, who would certainly have appropriated so beautiful a piece of marble, if they had seen it entire". It is used as an altar for daily mass. This is Quaresmius' account, and it is worth remarking, because it proves that the best informed writers do not pretend that the altar, which is shewn as the Sepulchre, is the real tomb, but only that it covers the real tomb". What the form of the Sepulchre beneath really is, or was, is a curious subject of enquiry, which we shall presently examine. The inner chamber remains now much in the same state as it did before the fire of 1808; unless, indeed, the decorations have been renewed or repaired, which, comparing the plans, Figs. 7, 8, appears to be the case. Modern travellers are too apt to assume that the altar exhibited in the inner chamber is asserted to be the original Sepulchre; and probably the priests who shew the wonders of the place, are not very careful to
* “Il vano del S. Sepolcro è per li suoi angoli acuti et ottusi pal. otto e mezo lungo, e otto larga...” p. 32. “Il S. Sepolcro è quattro palmi, e di qui alla volta sono otto; talche in tutto sono palmi dodici, e la porta è quattro palmie mezo.” Bernardino, p. 44. In Mr Scoles' plan (Fig. 8) this peculiarity is omitted; but that gentleman informs me that he thinks it probable it may exist, and that it may have escaped his observation.
* Cotovicus, for example, says the interior surface of the cave is hidden by its marble covering, and as for the roof, the smoke of the fifty lamps, which burn there day and night, has
so obscured it, that no one can tell
* It will be shewn in the next section, that the sepulchre was covered
Jerusalem, p. 98.
with marble for the first time, after the
marble altar occupies the greater part of