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enabling them to calcine and split the stone-work and marble columns, that it became necessary wholly to rebuild the inner wall which we have been considering. Probably this rebuilding is a mere casing of the old nucleus; and an experienced observer may yet find in the aisles and triforium traces enough to discover the exact dimensions of the parts I have been describing ; for the diameter of the new Rotunda is about six feet less than that of the old one. The design is unfortunately wholly different, and of a most heavy and barbarous character, as may partly be seen in the vignette at the beginning of this volume, which shews the wall of the Rotunda in the back-ground. This heaviness may be due to the fact of its being a casing of the old work. A vaulted side-aisle encircles the Rotunda, but is cut off eastward by a straight wall that extends north and south from the piers of the great eastern arch in the manner shewn by the Plan. The aisle is concentric to the Rotunda for rather more than a semicircle westward, and this portion of the aisle is bounded by a thick wall containing three small apses (5, 7, 8) about twenty-three feet in diameter, of which the northern and southern are not placed exactly upon the diametral line, but so that the whole apse lies to the west of that line. This wall appears to have remained from a very early period, as it naturally would do, and may be supposed to have belonged to the church of Modestus, if not even to the original Basilica of Constantine. The three apses are expressly mentioned by Arculfus (A. D. 697) as also containing altars, but when the altars were removed or abandoned does not appear. The southern apse (5) was in the last century assigned to the Abyssinians, and is now, together with the adjoining aisle, in possession of the Armenians. The western apse (7), with the adjacent tomb of Joseph of Arimathapa (6) already described, is in the hands of the Syrians. The northern apse (8) has a door opened in its wall, and serves as a passage to the offices outside the Church, as well as to a cistern (10), termed the well of St Helena, which furnishes an abundant supply of water without any apparent spring or well, as Quaresmius relates". Near this door stands (or did stand before 1808) a marble font (9), square on the outside, but cut into the form of a rose within, the baptisterium of the old Church, in the words of Quaresmius”. In the triforium at the extreme west point was the original west door of the Church, by which it was entered from the contiguous street, before the Mohammedans obtained possession of the city. When they converted this Church into a source of revenue, by taxing the pilgrims, they carefully walled up every entrance to it excepting one door (56) in the south transept, to enable them more conveniently to collect the tax and prevent any person from evading it. The level of this western street is so much higher than the floor of the Rotunda, that it was found more convenient to make the entrance into the triforium at once, than to descend to the lower level by steps from the street. The arch of this doorway may still be seen in Patriarch-street; and is marked in the plan of Jerusalem which accompanies this work. A sketch of it by Mr Arundale, which is lying before me, shews the southern

* “Nullus est fons vel puteus.” vas quadrum, formam rosae intus praese Quar. 371. ferens.” Quar. 371. It is marked in Ber* “Pra foribus ostii est marmoreum nardino's Plan (24) as the Greek font.

half of the hood or porch supported partly on corbels
and partly on a column, the lower part of which is en-
veloped in masonry; and the northern half of this porch
is also walled up and concealed by a bridge which crosses
the street at this point, connecting the two halves of the
Greek convent. My section in Plate 3 exhibits its pro-
bable original arrangement.
This doorway is mentioned by Quaresmius (p. 370),
and also by Edrisi, in whose time it was in use, and as
he says, “The Church is lower than this door, and there
is no descent to the lower part from this side; but on
the north side is a door which is called the door of St
Mary, leading to a staircase of thirty steps”.” The exact
position of the staircase I have not been able to discover;
but it was plainly required for the purpose of affording
access from below to the triforium, as well as to enable
persons who came in at the upper west door from the
street, to descend and enter the church at the door below.
The side aisle of the Rotunda has been already de-
scribed as being concentric only in its western half; for
the portions of this aisle immediately in contact with the
straight wall which bounds the whole to the east, are of
a square form, evidently contrived with respect to the

* From the French translation of Edrisi by Jaubert, Paris, 1836. A

| lamps, and other matters of value for the service of the church. These parnorth triforium door and staircase are ticulars appear from the account of the mentioned by Bernardino, p. 36. Part fire in 1808. (See W. Turner's Journal of the triforium on the north was in of a Tour in the Levant, 1820. Vol. 11. later times fitted up for the use of the p. 597.) The southern part was, and Latins, with four apartments, one of still is, enclosed to serve as the great which contained an altar of St Dida|

rus: behind which were two rooms,

church of the Armenians; and here the fire of 1808 began. There is a staircase (67) in the south-east corner of the aisle of the Rotunda, which leads to this Armenian church.

one for the accommodation of pilgrims, and another which served as a sacristy in which they kept their tapestry,

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chapels, which are erected both on the north and south extremities of the aisle. On the north wall a door (16) opens to a single chapel, but from the south wall projects a range of three chapels (65, 62,61), the access to which from the Church is now blocked up, but it was formerly maintained by a door (66) in the south wall of the aisle, exactly opposite to that in the north wall (16) which still leads to the north chapel. This north Chapel is termed the Chapel of the Virgin Mary of the Apparition', because the tradition of the place is, that on this spot our Saviour appeared to his mother after the Resurrection. The floor is three or four steps higher than the pavement of the Rotunda, and it has a recess to the east which was furnished with an apse, previously to the late repairs, as shewn in my Plan, but is now square, and in this recess is placed the Altar, which is dedicated to the Virgin Mary, and serves as the High Altar of the Latins in this Church; for the Greeks have possession of the real High Altar in the Choir of the Crusaders. The apse was semicircular within, but polygonal without, in the usual form of the Greek apses; and in fact this Chapel is mentioned by Saewulf in 1102; and being therefore in existence before the Crusaders began their buildings, was evidently the work of Greek architects. On each side of the above-mentioned Altar is placed a subordinate Altar, with a recess or niche in the wall above it”. The niche over the northern side altar is said once to have contained a piece of the true cross3. The niche above the southern side-altar contains a portion of a column, nine inches in diameter, and about three feet high”, of fine porphyry, which goes by the name of the Column of the Flagellation, professing to be a piece of the column to which our Saviour was bound and scourged by the order of Pilate".

* Sacellum Sanctae Mariae Virginis exclusive of the altar recess, which is de Apparitione (Quaresmius, p. 568). nine feet broad, and seven feet deep. It is a quadrangular apartment, twenty- * These recesses are about three feet one feet four inches broad, and twenty- high, and two wide. (Bernardino, 31.) eight feet long, according to Mr Scoles, The side altars also recal Greek ar.

rangements, and were probably the
usual side-tables of the Eastern ritual.
In the middle of the chapel there is a
round grey marble slab of three feet
diameter, inserted in the pavement, to
mark the traditional spot where the
three crosses were laid after their disco-
very by St Helena, and where the mi-
racle was wrought by which the true
Cross was distinguished from the others.
(Quaresmius, p. 383.)
* Quaresmius relates that this piece
of the true Cross was left there by the
Emperor Heraclius, when he brought
back that relic from Persia, in the year
623, upon which occasion it was divided
into pieces, and variously distributed,
one of them being left at Jerusalem.
But this piece was lost at the battle of
Tiberias; and when Father Bonifacius
found, as already related, a relic in the
Sepulchre during its repair in 1555,
which he fancied to be a piece of the
true Cross, he deposited it in this
niche, whence, as they say, it was
stolen by the Armenians. At all
events, it is not there now. (Quares-
mius, pp. 383, 514.) The existence
of the chapel is not mentioned before
1102; and the above-mentioned tradi-
tions concerning the deposit of the
Cross here by Heraclius, the place
where Helena caused the three crosses

to be laid after they were dug up, &c.;
are manifestly of subsequent invention,
as well as the tale which Fabri tells,
that this chapel stands on the site of a
house in which the Virgin took refuge
after the Crucifixion. (Vol. 1. p. 286.)
* Alta palmi tree mezo, e di dia-
metro un palmo. (Bern. p. 3]).
* A column, which was part of the
structure of the Church at Mount Sion,
is mentioned with the legend in ques-
tion by St Jerome, by the Bordeaux
Pilgrim, Arculfus, and others. It was
broken by the Mohammedans, but the
pieces are said to have been carefully
collected about the year 1556, presented
respectively to Pope Paul IV., Ferdi-
nand the Emperor, Philip II. of Spain,
and to the Venetian Republic, &c. &c.
One fragment, however, was at the
same time reserved at Jerusalem, and
located in the niche where it is now to
be seen. A rival column of flagellation
is preserved at Rome, in the church of
S. Praxede; but I must refer my readers
to Quaresmius for a discussion of their
respective claims to authenticity. Sae-
wulf, in 1120, immediately after the
Crusaders' conquest, mentions a column
of flagellation which was then placed
between the Carcer Christi and the
place of the Invention of the Cross.

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