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The whole chapel of the Apparition is the chapel of the Latin convent of the Franciscan Friars, and is fitted up with seats as a choir for them. Their dwellings are immediately in contact with the northern and western sides of it, as the Plan shews. They took possession of this locality in 1257', but were not fully established until 1342, when permission for their residence was obtained of the Sultan, at the intercession of Robert, king of Sicily, and his queen. The Greeks had previously established themselves in the large church, of which they have retained their hold to the present time?.
But to return to the square vestibule of this chapel. On its East side was a small chapel of St Mary Magdalen, fitted up in what appears to have been originally a doorway (17), and has in the late repairs been made to return to that purpose. Next to this follows an arch (18), which opens to a long corridor (21) running Eastward and in contact with the North transept of the great Church, but evidently belonging to an earlier period, for it has pillars and arches on its Southern side, the spacing and arrangement of which are totally at variance with those of the greater building with which it is in contact. This appears at once by the plan, and there can be little doubt that this is the remains of a cloister which bounded the open area upon
* Quaresmius, Lib. 1. p. 176. cens, (p. 148, Leonis All. Opusc.) In
* Willibrandus ab Oldenburg, in 1211, found the Church with the Holy Sepulchre, and all that it contained, under the charge of four Syrian priests, who were not allowed to leave the walls, but were left unmolested by the Sara
fact, the whole City was under the rule of the Eastern Church, until the Latins wrested it from them at the time of the Crusaders' conquest, and when the latter were driven out, the Easterns resumed possession of the Holy places.
which the Crusaders' choir and central cupola was afterwards erected. This cloister leads to a small, low, dark apartment (23), wherein our Saviour is reported to have been confined during the preparations for the crucifixion, whence it is called the Prison of Christ. The earliest writer that notices this prison is Saewulf (A. D. 1102), who, enumerating the Holy Places which are to be seen in the atrium of the Church, mentions the “ prison where our Lord was confined, according to the Syrian tradition;” and the next is Epiphanius, a Syrian monk, whose description of the Holy Land is of uncertain date, but apparently about the end of the twelfth century. This prison however is not alluded to by any other authors of this period. In the sixteenth century and afterwards it becomes one of the ordinary stations. It is needless to add that there is not the slightest ground in Scripture, or even in probability, for supposing that such a prison was employed. It is of an irregular form, nineteen feet long, and in width sixteen feet at the West end, and eighteen at the East. It is only eight feet in height”, is three steps below the level of the corridor", has no window, and is described as being excavated in the rock:-I presume only the lower part of it, which, as Zuallardo tells us, seems to have been intended for a reservoir of water. Its roof is supported by two rude pillars which divide it into three aisles as it were, and an altar is fixed against its eastern wall. The southern chapels, (65, 62, 61), which stand directly opposite to the Chapel of the Apparition, are in
* La volta e alta da terra palmi undici. (Bern". 31.) -
Vol. II. 14
number three, and these are placed in a series; they have polygonal Greek apses, and their doors were so arranged that in the original state of this Church, as Saewulf describes it, a person standing in the last or most southern chapel could see through all the five chapels in order from door to door, reckoning in the five the Rotunda, as well as the three southern chapels, and the northern Chapel of the Apparition. This account is perfectly consistent with the plan, which shews, supposing the doors to be now open, that a straight view might be obtained in the manner described". The middle of these chapels (62) is named the Church of the Trinity both by Saewulf and the writer in Beugnot, and both mention the baptismal font which it contains; the latter adding that all the women of the city were married in this Church, and all the children baptized there. Afterwards it became the Chapel of St Mary Magdalene, and is thus mentioned by W. Wey in 1447°, and by Saligniaco, Breydenbach, Quaresmius, and others. It is now the parish-church of the Greeks, and called the Church of the Ointment-bearers, that is to say, of Mary Magdalene and her companions”. In the Pilgrim's Guide it is marked as the “Church of the Resurrection.” The font (63) is indicated in the Plan in the latter volume. The Chapel to the south (61) is termed by Saewulf the Chapel of St James, as also in the Greek plan in
" In Plate 2, the eastern front of the than a wretchedly-constructed Greek chapels which form the west side of the Plan in the IIgorovvurdelow by Chrycourt of the Church, is accurately laid santhus. down from Mr Scoles' measurements. * Itinerarium W. Wey, in the BodThe chapels themselves still exist, leian. He says it was in possession of as do the doors, but I have no other the Nestorians. authority for their interior arrangement * Mark xvi. 1; Luke xxiii. 56.
the Pilgrim's Guide. It appears to be only parted off
* Quaresmius, T. 11. p. 576. * The models in the British Mu
* A tract in Leonis Allatii Opusc. seum appear to offer an exceedingly p. 91, by a member of the Greek faithful representation of it. From them, Church, describes the three chapels of and from Le Brun, I have principally the Arnum as those of the Anastasis, derived the sketch in Plate 3. (Vide the Forty Martyrs, and St James. | Appendix.)
The three lower stories still exist, and have been sketched by Roberts and other modern artists, from whose representation it appears that the arches of the windows are pointed. The lower story has been just described as the Chapel of St John, with a polygonal apse; the next story had on the sides that were free from buildings a single pointed arch, the space of which was occupied by three subordinate arches and a quatrefoil opening over them in the usual Romanesque manner. This arch is shewn in the modern sketches, but is walled up, so that the description of the filling-up is, in fact, conjecturally supplied from Bernardino and Zuallardo ; the third story' rises clear of the roof, and has two plain pointed windows on each face, which still remain : the eastern face has shafts. The fourth and fifth stories have fallen down, but were standing in 1678, when Le Brun's sketch was made. The fourth had two large arches on each face, each arch being subdivided into two, which rested on a single shaft in the middle, and had a quatrefoil over. The fifth story had each face divided into three arches, of which the side ones were panels only, and the middle was open as a window, and was subdivided by a shaft like the arches of the fourth story. Breydenbach (1483) represents the tower complete with a corbel-table, a parapet rising and falling in steps, and the whole surmounted with a leaden octagon dome, having gables on each face. But whether this is supplied from his fancy, or whether the roof really existed in his time, it is impossible to say. The sketches that succeed Breydenbach's exhibit a gradual degradation. The roof
The third, fourth, and fifth story exact height, but it could not have appear, in Plate 3, rising above the been less than 130 feet to the top of the roof. It is difficult to ascertain the parapet.