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has disappeared in Zuallardo's view, 1586; Le Brun's,
in 1678, appears to be in the same state; but now the
two upper stories have fallen.
There are four buttresses, which project in the
east and west direction only, and rise nearly to the
top of the fourth story; the general style of the archi-
tecture appears similar to that of the churches in
Sicily; for example, to the campanile of the church
called La Martorana in Palermo”.
I have now described the Rotunda with its adhering
chapels, and with the corridor, which leads to the so-
called Prison. All this group existed when the Crusaders
entered Jerusalem, erected especially with reference to
the great object which originated the whole mass of
buildings, namely, the Holy Sepulchre. But three other
principal Holy Places were situated in the immediate
neighbourhood, besides several subordinate ones. To
use the words of the cotemporary chronicler William of
Tyre, “Previous to the entry of our Latin people into
Jerusalem, the place of our Lord's Passion, called Calvary
or Golgotha, and the place where the wood of the Life-
giving Cross was discovered, and lastly, the place where
the Lord's Body, when taken down from the Cross, was
anointed, embalmed, and wrapped in fine linen, were
exceedingly small oratories on the outside of the great
Church. But after, by the Divine assistance, our people
had obtained possession of the city, the aforesaid Church
appeared to them too small. Having therefore augment-
ed it with the most solid and lofty work, working in and

* Engraved by Gally Knight, and chaud, Eglises Byzantines de la Grèce, * "allhabaud in his Monuments for a view of the tower of the Church Anciens et Modernes. See also Cou- of the Virgin at Mistra.

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connecting the old with the new, they marvellously contrived to include the aforesaid holy places'.” Of these places the Calvary or projecting rock, upon which it was believed the Cross was planted, is situated immediately to the east of 47 in the plan, and to the west of it is the place of Anointing (50). The place where the Cross was found by St Helena, is at the eastern extremity of the buildings (33), and on a much lower level, as the section (Plate 3) shews. These places were brought into the present connected series of buildings in the following manner. Removing the apse, which I have supposed to have closed the short chancel (4) of the Rotunda, the present choir, furnished with its circumscribing aisle and radiating chapels, was erected to the east of it in the form then employed in many parts of western Europe, and with pointed arches. A central cupola was placed upon four piers, so adjusted in position that the south transept should include the place of Anointing, and range properly with the three south chapels, so as to form a court of entrance. Room was also then left on the eastern side to adjust the chapel of Calvary, in connexion with the new transept.

* “Porró ante nostrorum Latinorum introitum locus Dominica passionis qui dicitur Calvaria sive Golgotha, et ubi etiam vivificae Crucis lignum repertum fuisse dicitur, et ubi etiam de Cruce depositum Salvatoris Corpus unguentis et aromatibus dicitur delibutum et syndone involutum, sicut mos erat Judaeis sepelire, extra praedictae ambitum erant Ecclesiae, oratoria walde modica. Sed postguam nostri, opitulante divină clementiá, urbem obtinuerunt in manu forti, visum est eis praedictum nimis

angustum aedificium : et ampliata ex opere solidissimo et sublimi admodum Ecclesia priore, intra novum a dificium veteri continuo et inserto, mirabiliter loca comprehenderunt praedicta.” W. Tyr. Lib. v. 111. c. 3.

King Godfrey also instituted Canons with Prebends, and gave them habitations about the Church, Lib. 1x. c. 9 : and caused bells to be cast for the Church. Alb. Aquensis, Lib. v 1. c. 40. (p. 285.)

The place of the Invention of the Cross was necessarily excluded from the new church, which however was so connected with the chapel of St Helena as to afford access to it by means of a door (28) and stairs leading from the eastern aisle or “procession path,” in a manner that will be fully explained as we proceed, and which indeed is shewn by the different tints of the plan.

The great eastern arch (4) of the Rotunda communicates immediately with the central lantern (43) of the choir. This lantern stands upon four noble piers, the centres of which are distant forty feet from east to west, and forty-three from north to south.

The opposite faces of the piers were distant thirtyone feet ten inches, and their height including base and capital was fifty-two feet; which, being by a singular coincidence the very dimensions of the tower-arches of Winchester and Peterborough, may at once give a correct idea of the magnitude of this church, and shew that its proportions were Romanesque”. The form of these piers too was strictly Romanesque, having square pier-edges alternating with shafts in a manner that is sufficiently familiar now to the merest tyro in architecture; but seems sorely to have puzzled the draughtsmen and engravers of old, to judge from the various representations which are given of them. In Bernardino's plan the plinths only are seen. In Zuallardo's plan the

* The piers of Winchester tower are apart. Thirty feet, more or less, is a

fifty-three feet in height, from the floor of the transept, and their opposite faces thirty-two feet asunder, which are also the dimensions of Peterborough. The church of S. Martin at Cologne has piers fifty-tive feet high, thirty feet

very common width for large churches, and may probably be derived from the twenty cubit width of Solomon's Temple; a cubit being about eighteen inches.

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attached shafts are distinctly shewn, but not very accurately, and they appear in some of Bernardino's elevations, but not in others, evidently not being understood by the engraver. In Le Brun's interior view of the choir they are delineated as well as could be expected for that period, and his text describes them unmistakeably. “By grouped columns I understand great columns composed of several smaller ones attached one to the other; or rather, one great column which seems to have others attached to its outer surface. These are alternately square and round; and some of those in question are so large that they appear made up of ten, and even as many as sixteen, of these smaller ones'.” The great eastern tower-piers have actually sixteen, if we reckon shafts and square edges, proceeding in order round its circumference”. Upon the pointed arches of these four piers was erected a circular tambour-wall or lantern, resting on pendentives, and crowned with a cupola. The wall was ornamented with an arcade, which, as shewn in the section, consisted of sixteen arches decorated with shafts, three to each pier, and forty-eight in all, as Le Brun describes. The arches are circular, at least they so appear in Le Brun's view, (grievously distorted by his bad perspective,) as also in the model in the British Museum. They were alternately pierced for windows. and the outside of the wall had four broad pilasters opposite to the cardinal points respectively, with two of these windows between each. Breydenbach's view also shews the ruins of a small

Le Brun, p. 289. Ed. 1714. the four great pointed arches above them, * These piers still exist, as well as but the cupola was destroyed by the fire.

arched lantern on the top of the cupola. This cupola was ascended by a spiral external stair formed upon its northern surface, as Le Brun's view shews it. The altitude of the crown of the cupola from the pavement was 156 palms or 114 English feet. The great tower arches were pointed and had three orders of voussoirs as well as all the arches and windows of this part of the Church. This character, which never appears in the arches of Greek mediaeval buildings, effectually identifies these portions with the Crusaders, and separates them from the Rotunda and the chapel of Helena, in which the arches are simple.

The eastern tower-arch opens to the presbytery of the cruciform structure, which is terminated by an apse. The seats of the choir are placed under the central lantern. It must be remembered that this Church was erected for the Latin service; that when it was finished a convent of Augustinian Canons was placed in possession of the whole; and that after the Latins were driven out by Saladin, the Greeks obtained this choir, and have retained it ever since. Accordingly it is now fitted in their manner with a huge Iconostasis, or screen with three doors, cutting off the apse and half the remainder of the presbytery where the high altar is placed, and having its side tables against the piers from whence the apse springs. But, apart from these characteristics, the Altar (38) stands evidently on its Latin site upon the diametral line of the apse; and the Greek choral stalls under the lantern cupola are in the very position that the Latins would have placed them, and probably did soo.

* The length of the choir and pres- apse wall, is ninety-eight feet, and the bytery together, from the screen to the breadth is forty feet, more or less.

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