« السابقةمتابعة »
chapel, and the Cross afterwards raised up and fixed in the hole of the northern chapel. The south chapel (71) is, nevertheless, an upper floor, raised upon a vault, and the apartment below it is used for a vestry, and appears to be held in no veneration whatever. This anomaly is alluded to by Quaresmius', and he suggests that the earth beneath the pavement has been removed for the convenience of the structure, or because St Helena conveyed it to Rome, so that the spot above, upon which he would have us believe the crucifixion to have taken place, is yet in the true position in space, although the ground has been taken from under it. But, in fact, this especial tradition is not mentioned by any of the pilgrim-writers, until long after the expulsion of the Crusaders; and the probable explanation of its history is, that when the Latins, upon their return to the Church in 1257, found the Greeks in possession of the hole in the rock and its chapel, they set up a claim in the side-chapel to a spot of similar sanctity in connexion with the events that took place on this locality. And the same may be said of the absurd tradition mentioned below, that places the witnesses of the Crucifixion upon the upper landing of the porch which was built by the Crusaders. The two chapels, as well as the porch, were elaborately decorated with mosaic-work and pavements of marble. These chapels, especially the northern one, suffered exceeding damage from the fire of 1808; for immediately to the East, on the spot marked (75) as
* Notandum, locum istum subtus sacri montis ab Helena Romani asporexcavatum esse, et non ob id negan- tata fuit, tum quia alia adhibita pro dum, vere locum esse crucifixionis; templi structura. (Quar. 444.) nam id ita accidit, tum quia terra
the Greek kitchen, there stood a wooden building in the form of a tower, in six or seven stories, which served as a dwelling for the Greeks in charge of the Church, and of course fell an immediate prey to the flames”. The porch (70) on the right hand of the entrance-doors in the court, is in the form of an elegant turret, in two stories, surmounted by a cupola. It is in the same style as the front of the Church, and evidently the work of the Crusaders. The upper story has rich pointed arches, which were apparently open in the original design. This story, the floor of which is on a level with that of the chapels of the Exaltation of the Cross and of the Crucifixion, was intended for a vestibule to them, and the external staircase (54) still remains which led to this upper floor. The vestibule itself, not ten feet square, has had an altar placed in it at some modern period, and is dignified as the place or station where the Virgin and St John stood during the Crucifixion; and hence is called the Chapel of the Virgin and St John the Evangelist. The first mention, however, of such a station, is by Saewulf and the anonymous chronicler of the Crusaders”. They fix its position at the altar of Sta Maria Latina—a Church known to have stood on the south side of the street that bounds the front court of the Church of the Sepulchre. The location of this station in the porch at the stair-head, occurs in the later pilgrim-writers only; and it may be supposed, that when the Christians lost Jerusalem, and the Church of Sta Maria Latina was ruined and abandoned, the station was removed to the porch. It is mentioned very doubtfully by most of these writers, and there
• Account of the fire by the Latin * Recueil de Voyages. Tom. Iv. p. monks in Turner's Levant. 842. Gesta Dei per Francos, p. 573.
seems to be some confusion between this chapel and the neighbouring Chapel of Adam, to which the same dedication is assigned'. The lower story (53) of the porch is converted into a chapel of the fourth-century saint called Maria Egyptiaca. Having now described the chapels of the mezzanine floor, it remains to examine the vaults below them. Of these, the southern vaults (51, 52) were apparently never used as chapels; but the northern vault (47) has been already mentioned as the Chapel of Adam. A little consideration will shew that this chapel is placed immediately beneath the western brow of the rock, near the margin of which above, is the so-called foot-hole of the Cross. This is best seen in the section, Fig. 10; and in the general plan of the Church, Plate 2, the position of this hole is marked with a circle. The chapel has an apse at its eastern extremity, and the apse is described by all travellers, ancient and modern, as being hewn out of a rock and not constructed of masonry. Moreover, there is a fissure in the face of it, which also appears in the rocky surface above, close to the south side of the foot-hole”. This fissure is of course appealed to as having been formed when “the rocks were rent” at the Crucifixion. It is easy to see that this projecting rock must have been artificially squared on its western face, which contains the apse, and also on its northern and southern faces; só that if the buildings were
To a much later period belong (68), opposite the Stone of Unction, two similar stations, which are, or were, where the “acquaintance and the womarked in the pavement by circular men stood afar off beholding.” (Quastones, the one in the south apsidal resmius, T. 1. p. 496.) They are not chapel (5) of the Rotunda, said to be mentioned by any early writer. the spot where Mary Magdalene and * This is exhibited by means of a others “beheld where He was laid,” hole left for the purpose in the pavethe other in the aisle of the Rotunda ment.
removed, it would now appear like a wedge, rising gradually from the east; and bounded by these artificial vertical surfaces on the three sides of its western extremity. This shall be examined presently, when the description of the buildings has been concluded. In the middle ages, the term Calvary was applied to the entire surface of this hill, extending from the place of Crucifixion to the Chapel of St Helena and of the Invention; but the term Golgotha was limited to the spot immediately below the western brow of Calvary, which we are now considering, or at least only included in addition the upper edge of this brow, where the Cross was planted. The chapel is said by Quaresmius to have its vault decorated with mosaic work, and its pavement with marble slabs and tesselation. There is a small altar in the apse. Bernardino denominates it the Chapel of Godfrey, from one of its most remarkable characteristics, namely, that it was chosen as a sepulchral chapel by the first Crusading kings of Jerusalem”, who thus chose their resting-place at the foot of their Saviour's Cross. The tomb of Godfrey de Bouillon, the first king, stood at the entrance of the chapel (48) against the north pier, and
* The expressions made use of by Will. of Tyre shew that, in his time, the term Golgotha was restricted to the lower ground immediately in front of the Rock upon which the Cross was fixed, to which the term Calvary was appropriated. King Baldwin...“ sepultus est inter praedecessores suospiae recordationis Reges sub Monte Calvariae ante locum qui dicitur Golgotha.” W. Tyr. Lib. xiii. p. 851; also Lib. 11. p. 816. Saewulf also mentions “Mons Calvariae ... subtus est locus qui Golgotha dicitur.” The dedication or title of this
chapel is somewhat uncertain. Ar-
the tomb of Baldwin I. (49), his brother and successor, exactly similar to it, against the south pier. Other kings were entombed against the south wall of enclosure of the choir. But these sepulchral monuments were subsequently defaced and injured by the Charizmians in 1244, as already described; and by the Greeks' because they commemorated Latin sovereigns; and it seems that, in the late restoration, they have been wholly destroyed or obliterated, from a similar motive”. In the pavement of the South transept there is a remarkable stone (50) fixed, not in the middle of the transept, but rather opposite to the middle of the present entrance-door. This, which appears simply to have been an ordinary marble slab, probably the
only say that the head of Adam was
fire and its consequences.
of Godfrey and Baldwin is given by Zuallardo. They were alike, with the exception that the first had twisted columns, and the second, plain, and the design consisted simply of a roofshaped stone of fine porphyry, with vertical gable ends, and ornamented on its edge with carving and moldings. The inscription was placed on the sloping surface. The stone is supported upon four dwarf columns, two feet six inches in height, which rest on a base or plinth of marble, about a foot high, of the same horizontal dimensions as the upper stone, that is to say, eight feet by four. Within the chapel, on the right hand of the entrance, is a sarcophagus of white marble, which the Greeks say is the tomb of Melchisedech. The screen-wall, which contained the door of this chapel, projected into
the south transept, so as to enclose
the tombs of the kings, as shewn by the dotted lines in Plate 2.