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covering of a grave, from its dimensions (about six feet by three"), has been raised to the dignity of the Stone of Unction, upon which they say the Lord's Body was laid when it was taken from the Cross and anointed. It is said to be a green-coloured stone, but a slab of white marble has been cemented upon it, to protect it from the depredations of the pilgrims, and borders of mosaic work set round it, with an iron railing and candlesticks. It is the first object that meets the eye upon entering the church. The earliest mention of the place of Unction is by Saewulf, who says that “close to the place of Calvary is the church of Sancta Maria in the place where the Lord's Body, when taken down from the Cross, was wrapped up in a linen cloth with spices.” He fixes this church or chapel in the atrium of the Rotunda on the East side, to distinguish it from those on the West side. This church of St Mary therefore must be the small oratory over the place of Unction which is mentioned by William of Tyre, and also the quadrangular church of St Mary which Arculfus places in contact with the right (South) side of the Rotunda. As the Crusaders found this station established as one of the Holy Places, they probably did not essentially alter its position, and we may infer that the Church of St Mary stood on the site of the present South transept. The place is first mentioned as a stone (a black stone) by Rudolph von Suchem in 1336°. But it seems that a purplish stone, said to have been employed for the same purpose, had been long preserved at Ephesus, from whence it was conveyed to Constantinople by the Emperor Manuel

* Palmiotto lungo equattro largo. * Reyssbuch der Heil. L. p. 844. ( Bernardino, p. 32.)

(c. 1150)". The present stone is probably a pavingstone originally laid over some spot of the rock that became reputed as the “ locus Unctionis,” and subsequently the stone itself became covered up with another stone to preserve it”. The South or principal entrance-front of the Church, which is, as we have seen, the wall of the South transept, has been so repeatedly drawn and engraved of late years by competent artists, that its appearance has become familiarised to us all. It is a pointed Romanesque composition, which derives a peculiar character from its being attached to a flat-roofed building. The lower story is occupied by a wide double doorway with detached shafts supporting carved and molded arches, with a sculptured hoodmold. The outer order of voussoirs has a radiating ornament, which occurs, amongst other examples, in the Church of the Martorana in Sicily. The second order of voussoirs is richly molded, and the inner shafts carry a transom ornamented with sculpThe western door (56) is the only one that remains open at present, the eastern (55) has been walled up, apparently ever since the Mohammedans expelled the Crusaders. In the upper story are two rich windows, of similar decorations to the doorways below. But their arches are so slightly pointed, that the hoodmolds are very nearly semicircular. The string-courses of this front are richly sculptured. The western side of this court is formed by the campanile and the range of chapels with polygonal apses already described, and the southern side retains the bases of a row of columns that once belonged to a cloister or portico. They stand on the top of a flight of steps that rise from, and extend entirely across, the court. On this South side of the court originally stood the buildings of the Knights Hospitallers, and the monasteries, male and female, of Sancta Maria Latina, the history of which will be found in another part of this volume. The western side of the court is occupied by a range of buildings, probably of no great antiquity, and in this side are three doors, of which the most northerly (57), close to the chapel of the porch, opens to a chapel dedicated to St Michael and All Saints, in possession of the Copts, and through which is the passage to their convent, which, as already described, occupies part of the site of the Crusaders’ convent of Canons. The middle door (58) opens to an Armenian Church of St John”, and the southern door (59) to the Greek monastery of Abraham, which derives its name from the Chapel of Abraham's Sacrifice, attached to these buildings. One of the ancient traditions of this spot is that this sacrifice took place upon the mount of Calvary, and Antoninus Placentinus enumerates the place where Abraham sacrificed, and that where he was met by Melchisedech, amongst those which were visited by the Pilgrims by the side of the place of Crucifixion. Arculfus and Saewulf only mention the first. However, these two localities are still indicated by two Altars in a small Chapel (74) constructed behind the Chapels of Calvary". They are reached by means of a narrow passage and staircase leading through the Greek convent of Abraham; and, to complete the list, the pilgrim is shewn the ancient olive at the back of the buildings, which he is told is the tree in which Abraham's ram was caught by the horns”.


* Nicetas, Lib. vii.; Quaresm. p. 493; Du Cange Constantinopolis Chris

to the Unction, but in stead mentions a place, marked with a white stone, where

tiana, p. 81, Lib. Iv. He placed it in the church of the Pantocrator at Constantinople, and near his own sepulchre.

* The place, according to Quaresmius, was in the sixteenth century still ornamented with a rich mosaic work, and the stone itself was of a greenish colour. Breydenbach does not allude

the Mater Dolorosa sat, with the dead Body of her Son in her bosom taken from the Cross. But his cotemporary, Fabri, describes, in his peculiar way, his horror and remorse at discovering, upon his first entry into this Church, that he had inadvertently trampled upon the stone of Unction.

* Of S. John the Baptist, according Guide of Chrysanthus makes it of S. to W. Wey, Saligniaco, Breydenbach, John the Evangelist. and Quaresmius; but the Pilgrim's


I HAVE now conducted my reader through the buildings that surround the Holy Sepulchre, and must endeavour, in the next place, to investigate the probable form of the rocky surface, as it existed before the buildings of Constantine and those that followed them were undertaken.

For it is evidently shewn by the traces of hewn rock that we have encountered in various parts of our survey, as, for example, in the tomb called of Joseph of Arimathaea, in the Prison, in the Chapel of St Helena and the stairs that lead to it, in the Chapel of the Invention, on Calvary, and in the Chapel of Adam, not to mention the Holy Sepulchre itself”; by all these examples, I say, it is shewn that the site, originally rough and rocky, must have been levelled into platforms for the reception of the first buildings that were erected here; and it is necessary that we should endeavour to discover what the natural form of the ground was. Plate I. Fig. 1, is intended to illustrate this point, and I shall refer to it throughout this Section; I have traced upon it the outlines of the principal buildings, namely, the Chapel of Helena at the east end, and the aisle-wall of the Rotunda at the west with its three apses; also the Prison on the north; and the apse of the Chapel of Adam with the outline of the three vertical faces which at present bound the rock of Calvary on the south. I have also added the four streets which in the present town enclose the site. Upon these I have endeavoured to represent the original undulating surface. The area is bounded by four streets, namely, Sepulchre Street on the north, Palmer Street on the south, Patriarch Street on the west, and St Stephen Street on the east. Sepulchre Street had at its eastern extremity (I) the Porta Judiciaria, of which a column still remains to shew the position, and this street is described as a steep regular ascent from I to K; which, considering the length of the street, would place K about thirty feet higher than I*. Patriarch Street is described as descending very gently and imperceptibly from north to south (from K to L). But at the point L, those who wish to reach the Church of the Sepulchre turn off from Patriarch Street, and after passing through a narrow lane (LM) with

* These are not exactly laid down * Quaresmius, T. 1. p. 281 ; Zualupon any of the plans, but by descrip- lardo, &c. tion must be located in the space indi- * Wide Plate 2, Nos. 1, 6, 23, 28,

cated in my plan at (74). 30, 33, 72, 47.

• For Sepulchre Street is 360 feet in thirty feet for the elevation of K above length, from I to K, which, if the mean I. One in twelve is by no means a inclination be one in twelve, would give very steep ascent.

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