« السابقةمتابعة »
The best and most satisfactory account of the plan of the Churches at this period is in the work of Adamnanus', which contains a most minute description, leaving scarcely anything to desire; and which, in its abbreviated form by Bede, was so entirely accepted during the early part of the middle ages, that the pilgrims commonly refer to it as an apology for not extending their own accounts. This description, however, was extracted by the diligent cross-questioning of Adamnanus, Abbot of Columba in Iona, from Arculfus the Pilgrim, who paid him a visit, and it was by the Abbot written down in the form in which it was presented to the world; he also induced Arculfus to draw him a rough plan of the churches upon a waxen
' Our principal authorities for the state of the buildings during this period are the above-cited Arculfus, (circa, A. D. 697,) Willibaldus, Bishop of Aicstadt, who was born at Southampton in the year 700, and made his pilgrimage in 765, the Pilgrim-monk Bernardus, A. D. 870; and Eutychius of Alexandria, who died in the year 940. The absurdly credulous Itinerary of Antoninus Placentinus appears to belong to the beginning of this period; but it is quite enough to say of this writer, that even the editors of the Acta Sanctorum are ashamed of the fables it contains, to which they apply the term “anile.” * This plan is wanting in the greater number of the manuscripts both of Adamnanus and of theobridgement by Bede. In fact, I believe the copy of it which is to be found in Mabillon, (Acta Sanctorum, Ord. S. Ben". Saec. 3.
Part II. p. 504) Adamnanus, and also in Quaresmius, is derived from Gretser's edition of Adamnanus, and he tells us that he took it from a Belgian manuscript. Gretser's text has been corrected by Mabillon from other and better manuscripts; but his copy of the diagram differs only from Gretser's in being more neatly drawn and with some differences of proportion; while Gretser's has much more the air of a fac-simile of the original. This original has probably suffered much distortion, from being the result of a series of copies from one manuscript to another; but it has a singular resemblance to the actual site when due allowance is made for the rough method of drawing, and the total want of scale. This Plan has been published so often, that I have not thought it worth while to reproduce it. Copies of it are engraved in the following works –Quar
I shall now proceed to extract and translate from the tract of Adamnanus all that belongs to the churches On this site, omitting only his description of the Sepulchre itself, which I have already given in a previous Section.
“Of the Church of the Sepulchre of the Lord.
“Concerning these things we diligently interrogated the holy Arculfus, and especially about the Sepulchre of the Lord, and the Church constructed above it, of which he delineated the form for me upon a waxen tablet. This great Church, all of stone, of wondrous rotundity on all sides, arising from its foundation in three walls, has a broad passage between each wall and the next. In three ingeniously constructed places of the middle wall three altars are disposed, one looking to the South, another to the North, and the third towards the West; and this round and lofty Church is sustained by twelve columns of wondrous magnitude, and it has eight doors or entrances formed by three walls erected in the intermediate spaces between the passages. Of these, four are turned to the South-East, and the other four to the North-East.” Here follows the description of the Sepulchre already given in Section VII. above. And he then proceeds to say that there are “some things to be said concerning the buildings of the other sacred places.”
*ly Review, March, 1845, p. 355. p. 256. Lastly, Dr. Giles has given *gusson's Jerusalem, p. 149. Qua- one which differs from this, in his *mius, T. 11. p. 585. Acta Sancto- edition of Bede, Vol. vi. p. 439. rum, Ord’. S. Beni. Saec. 111. p. 505. | He found it in a manuscript in the Gretseri Op. Ratis. 1734. T. iv. Royal Library at Paris, No. 2321.
“Of the Church of St Mary. The quadrangular Church of Holy Mary, the Mother of the Lord, is joined on the right side to that round Church described above, and which is called Anastasis or Resurrection, because it is constructed on the place of the Lord's Resurrection.
“Of the Church of Calvary.
“Another Church, of great magnitude (N)', is constructed towards the East in that place which is called Golgotha. In its upper parts there hangs by ropes a certain brazen rota with lamps, beneath which a great silver cross is infixed in the very same place where formerly the wooden cross, on which the Saviour of mankind suffered, was fixed and stood.
“In the same Church there is a cave cut out of the rock beneath the place of the Lord's Cross, where the sacrifice is offered upon an altar for the souls of certain honoured persons, whose bodies meanwhile, lying in the street, are placed before the door (f) of the said Golgothan Church, until the holy mysteries for the defunct are finished.
“Of the Basilica of Constantine. “To this Church, constructed on a quadrangular plan in the place of Calvary, there adjoins on the Eastern side that neighbouring stone Basilica (W), erected with great magnificence by the royal Constantine, called also the Martyrium, which was located, as they say, in the place where the cross of our Lord, with the other two crosses
' This and the following letters of reference belong to Fig. 3, Plate 1.
of the thieves, concealed under the earth, was found by the gift of the Lord, after two hundred and thirty-three years. Between these two Churches occurs that famous place (g) where Abraham the Patriarch erected an altar for the sacrifice of Isaac.........where now there stands a small wooden table upon which people offer alms for the poor......... Between the ‘Anastasis,” that is, the above-described Church, and the Basilica of Constantine is a small court (S) extending as far as the Golgothan Church, in which court lamps are kept constantly burning day and night. “Of the other Eredra in the Church of Calvary.
“Between the Golgothan Church and the Martyrium is a certain “Exedra,’ or apse (P), in which is the Cup.” This Arculfus goes on to describe as the Cup of the Last Supper, and also to state that he saw the “sponge” and the “lance”.”
* I subjoin the original text of Adamnanus from Mabillon (Acta Sanctorum, Saec. 111, p. 2, 504), which he derived from the Vatican and Corbeian Manuscripts and from Gretser's edition which is published in his Works. Ratisbon, 1734. T. lv. p. 254.
“De Ecclesia Sepulcri Domini.
“De quibus diligentius interrogawitnus sanctum Arculfum, praecipue de Sepulchro Domini, et Ecclesia super illud constructa, cujus mihi formam in tabula cerata ipse depinxit. Quae utique grandis Ecclesia tota lapidea, mira rotunditate ex omni parte collocata a fundamentis in tribus consurgens parietibus, inter unumquemque parietem et alterum, latum habens
spatium via ; tria quoque altaria in
Thus we have a group of four churches, (1) the Anastasis ; (2) the Church or Chapel of St Mary ; (3) the Golgothan Church ; and (4) the Basilica of Constantine. But the Church of St Mary appears to have been small and insignificant, for it is mentioned with no epithet of praise, either for magnificence or mag
** Nota •.
** In eadem verò Ecclesia quædam in petra habetur excisa spelunca, infrà locum Dominicæ Crucis, ubi super altare pro quorundam honoratorum animabus sacrificium offertur, quorum corpora interim in platea jacentia, ponuntur ante januam ejusdem Golgothanæ Ecclesiæ, usque quo finiantur illa pro ipsis defunctis sacrosancta mysteria. Has itaque quaternalium figuras Ecclesiarum, juxta exemplar, quod mihi ut superius dictum est, S. Arculphus in paginula figuravit cerata, depinximus, non quod possit eorum similitudo formari in pictura, sed ut Dominicum monumentum tali, licèt vili figuratione ; in medietate rotundæ Ecclesiæ constitutum monstretur et quæ huic propior Ecclesia vel quæ eminus est posita declaretur.
** De Ecclesia B. Mariæ. ** Cæterum de sanctorum structuris locorum pauca addenda sunt aliqua. Illi rotundæ Ecclesiæ suprà sæpius memoratæ, quæ et Anastasis, hoc est, Resurrectio vocitatur, eò quòd in loco Dominicæ Resurrectionis fabricata est;
à dextra cohaeret parte sanctæ Mariæ Matris Domini quadrangulata Ecclesia.
** De Ecclesia Calvariae.
**Alia verò prægrandis Ecclesia Orientem versùs in illo fabricata est loco, qui Hebraicè Golgotha vocitatur, cujus in superioribus grandis quædam ærea cum lampadibus rotain funibus pendet, infra* quam magna argentea crux infixa statuta est eodem in loco ubi quondam lignea crux, in qua passus est humani generis Salvator, infixa stetit.
** De Basilica Constantini.
** Huic Ecclesiæ in loco Calvariæ quadrangulata fabricatæ structura, lapidea illa vicina Orientali in parte cohaeret Basilica, magno cultu, a Rege Constantino constructa, quæ et Martyrium appellatur; in eo, ut fertur, fabricata loco, ubi Crux Domini, cum aliis latronum binis crucibus sub terra abscondita, postducentorum triginta trium cyclos annorum, ipso Domino donante, reperta est.
** Inter has itaque duales Ecclesias ille famosus occurrit locus, in quo Abraham Patriarcha altare composuit, super
* The ** Nota " is evidently intended to follow the chapter ** De Ecclesia Calrarier,** or the conclusion of the whole description, and I have accordingly transposed it in the
f This concluding sentence, ** infra...stetit,'* is in Gretser's copy placed at the end of the preceding article, and thus applied to the Church of St. Mary. I follow Mabillon*s text, which also agrees with Bede's abridgement.