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nitude as the others are'.

It is not alluded to by

Antoninus Placentimus, or by Eutychius, who only speaks of three Churches whenever he has occasion to refer to this group: namely, the Resurrection, the Calvary,

and St Constantine *.

illud imponens lignorum struem; et, ut Isaac immolaret filium suum, evaginatum arripuit gladium ; ubi nunc mensa habetur lignea non parva, super quam pauperum eleemosynæ à populo offeruntur......Inter Anastasim, hoc est, Ecclesiam suprà memoratam et Basilicam Constantini quædam patet plateola, usque ad Ecclesiam Golgothanam, in qua plateola die ac nocte semper lampades ardent.

De alia E redra in Ecclesia Calvariae.

** Inter illam quoque Golgothanam Ecclesiam et Martyrium quaedam inest Exedra in qua est calix Domini, quem à se benedictum propria manu in cœna pridie quàm pateretur, ipse conviva Apostolis tradidit convivantibus. Qui argenteus calix sextarii Gallici mensuram habet duasque ansulas in se ex titraque parte altrinsecus continet compositas. In quo utique calice inest spongia, quam aceto plenam hyssopo circumponentes Dominum crucifigentes obtulerunt ori ejus. De hoc eodem calice, ut fertur, Dominus post Resurrectionem cum Apostolis convivans bibit. Quern S. Arculfus vidit, et illius scrinioli ubi reconditus habetur operculi foramen pertusi manu tetigit propria osculatus.........

** De lancea militis.

** Et illam conspexitlanceam militis, quâ lancea latus Domini in Cruce pendentis ipse percusserat. Hæc eadem lan

cea, in porticu illius Constantini Basilicæ insertahabetur in cruce lignea cujus hastile in duas intercisum est partes. ' It seems to be the same which Saewulf afterwards placed over the stone of Unction, and which W. of Tyre mentions as a small oratory. If so, it may have been at M in the plan. Or perhaps it was nearer to the campanile, as the stone would be considered as a moveable relic. * Eutychii Ann. pp. 212, 219, 243. The earliest testimony of this period of the buildings is given by Antiochus the monk, who lived about 630, in the time of Heraclius. Describing the buildings of Modestus, he mentions three churches in this spot. ** Modestus....templa Salvatoris nostri Jesu Christi, quæ quidem barbarico igne conflagrarunt, in sublime erigit omni prorsus digna veneratione, puta aedes sanctæ Calvariae ac sanctæ Resurrectionis ; domum insuper dignam omni homore venerandæ Crucis, quæ mater Ecclesiarum est.” Ant. Mon. Epist. ad Eustachium Mag. Bib. Patr. Par. 1644. Tom. xii. p. 10. Willibaldus, A. d. 765:—** venit ad Hierusalem in illum locum ubi inventa fuerat Sa Crux Domini. Ibi nunc est Ecclesia in illo loco qui dicitur Calvariæ locus, et haec fuit prius extra Hierusalem. Sed beata Helena quando invenit, collocavit illum locum intus intra Hierusalem. Et ibi stant tres

Bernardus describes the group as of “four churches connected together by walls, that is to say, one to the East which has Mount Calvary ; and (one in) the place in which the Cross of the Lord was found, which is called the Basilica of Constantine; another to the South, and a fourth to the West, in the middle of which is the Sepulchre of the Lord.”.........“ Between these four Churches is a Paradise without a roof, the walls of which shine with gold, and the pavement with precious marble. In the midst of it is an enclosure of four chains, which proceed from the aforesaid four Churches, and in it is said to be the center of the world'." This enumeration of four churches agrees with that of Arculfus, if we suppose his southern church to be the Church of St Mary. The description which is given by Arculfus of the construction of the Round Church and its entrances is very obscure and strange. Of its three walls it appears certain that the middle one was, properly speaking, the external wall, for it contained the apses that still exist for the altars; and the outer wall of his description was probably an external peristyle or cloister, as in the Church of St Fosca at Torcello”. In the Plan” (Fig. 3, Plate 1) I have dotted a circular wall (a b c d) in the probable position of this peristyle, and I have carried it concentrically round the Western end of the Church (b. c. d), for the mere purpose of shewing that the rising ground and rock at the West makes it very improbable that the circuit was so carried round at this end. Arculfus is but a loose describer, or rather, perhaps, his interpreter and amanuensis, Adamnanus, was not successful in extracting his meaning; and, after all, his work was merely the result of recollections, recalled to oblige the Abbot after his return from the pilgrimage. His description of St Sophia at Constantinople may shew how far his usual expressions are to be literally understood; for he actually uses the same words as in his account of the Round Church of the Anastasis. He says it is a “triple stone church, rising from its foundations in three walls,” upon which the dome rests, and that there is “between each of the above walls a broad space",” &c. By the outer space in this case he must mean the first narthex or vestibule of St Sophia, which extends only along the front. But the whole phraseology of this sentence is sufficient to shew how large a licence we may assume in explaining his descriptions. I presume, therefore, that the outer passage in the Church of the Anastasis was confined to the Eastern half of the rotunda. His entrances to the North-east and South-east would differ but little in position from those of the subsequent Church, as shewn in the plan at D and H. The nature of the ground forbad a convenient entrance to the West, and the reverence due to the Sepulchre seems to have equally hindered a central Eastern Entrance. Indeed, an altar was placed opposite to the door of the Sepulchre at F, as Arculfus relates. The pilgrims were therefore naturally admitted at the South-west (at D), so that they might pass across in front of the Sepulchre, and after visiting it be dismissed in a similar manner at the North-east door (at H), to visit the other “holy places.” But the quadruple construction of these entrances is very difficult to understand. Perhaps by the three walls we must understand three piers; and thus we get a group of four arches in the outer wall of the peristyle; and the middle wall might only have had a single

cruces ligneæ foris in Orientali plaga
Ecclesiae secus parietem, ad memoriam
sanctæ Crucis Dominicæ et aliorum qui
cum eo crucifixi erant.
“Illæ non sunt intus in Ecclesia, sed
foris stant sub tecto extra Ecclesiam.
Et ibi secus est ille hortus, in quo
fuit Sepulchrum Salvatoris." Acta
Sanctorum, Ord. S. Ben., Saec. 3.
' * Intra hanc civitatem (Hierusa-
lem,) exceptis aliis ecclesiis, quatuor
eminent ecclesiæ, mutuis sibimet pa-
rietibus cohærentes : una videlicet ad
Orientem quæ habet montem Calvariæ,
et locum in quo reperta fuit Crux
Domini et vocatur Basilica Constan-
tini ; alia ad Meridiem, tertia* ad Occi-
dentem, in cujus medio est Sepulchrum
Domini, habens ix. columpnas in cir-
cuitu sui, inter quas consistunt parietes

ex optimis lapidibus; ex quibus ix.
columpnis, iv. sunt ante faciem ipsius
monumenti, quæ cum suis parietibus
claudunt lapidem coram sepulcro posi-
tum, quem Angelus revolvit, et super
quem sedit post perpetratam Domini
resurrectionem. De hoc sepulcro non
est necesse plura scribere, cùm dicat
Beda in historia sua inde sufficientia,
quæ et nos possumus referre...... Inter
prædictas igitur iv. ecclesias est Para-
disus sine tecto cujus parietes auro
radiant; pavimentum verò lapide stru-
itur pretiosissimo, habens in medio sui
confinium iv. catenarum, quæ veniunt
è prædictis quatuor ecclesiis, in quo
dicitur medius esse mundus." Acta
Sanctorum, Ord*. S. Ben. Tom. iii.
p. 2; also Recueil de Voyages, Tom.
1 v. p. 789. Par. 1839.

* I have substituted fourth for tertia in translating this passage, as the readiest mode of correcting the evident obscurity of it ; for as it stands, four churches are mentioned and only three described ; but there are other obvious symptoms of careless transcription in it which are not worth discussion.

* Wide Agincourt, pl. 26, Gally Knight. Ecc. Arch. of Italy, pl. 29. v. 1. The round church or mausoleum of Constantia at Rome had also an exterior peristyle. (Ciampini, de Sac. Æd. p. 135.)

* This plan is drawn from the account of Saewulf, to illustrate the state of the churches in the subsequent pe

riod. But that state differed so little from the churches of Arculfus, that, by the help of a few dotted lines, I have made it also subservient to the illustration of the second period, which we are now considering. The long range of chapels, A, B, C, I, are the principal points of difference between the two.

“Caeterum de celeberrima ejus- camera. Haec arcubus suffulta grandem civitatis rotunda mirae magnitu- dibus, inter singulos supra memoratos dinis lapidea Ecclesia,......quae abimo parietes latum habet spatium, vel ad fundamentorum in tribus consurgens inhabit andum, vel ad exorandum parietibus triplex, supra illos altius Deum, aptum et commodum.” L. 111. sublimata, rotundissima et nimis pul- | c. 3. p. 275. chra, simplici consummatur culminata

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doorway, as usual. What he calls the inner wall is,
of course, the circle of columns as at present; but
Arculfus mentions twelve columns. I presume that in
fact the Eastern apse F, which is shewn in Fig. 3, did not
exist in the buildings of Modestus. If the plan of the
columns be completed in the eastern half, in the same
manner as it stands in the western, we obtain twelve
columns divided into four groups by four pair of square
piers ; which is a probable arrangement; for twelve
columns alone would scarcely have been sufficient to
carry the wall. The present three western apses
(J, K, L) are, in all probability, upon the same foun-
dations as the old ones”.
The Golgothan Church is described as a very large
one, and can scarcely, therefore, have occupied less
ground than I have assigned to it at N in the outline,
where it appears with three aisles. The cavern in the
rock under the place of the Cross was, of course, the
present apse of the Chapel of Adam, and the other
exedra or apse, where the relics were kept, may have
been placed at P, as I have indicated it. This Church
was not rebuilt after Hakem destroyed the whole, for
the Crusaders found only a small oratory over the place
of the Crucifixion. Probably some remains of it are
worked up into the present chapels, and may account
for their irregularity of plan *.

* It may be supposed, on the other * To complete the authorities I subhand, that the inner circle of this join the account which Antoninus Plachurch was smaller than the present centinus gives of these buildings. one, and that the outer circle was of “A monumento usque Golgotha the same diameter; but I do not think | sunt gressus Lxxx. Ab una parte this so probable as the explanation I | ascenditur per gradus, unde Dominus have given above. ascendit ad crucifigendum. Nam in

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