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The so-called Basilica of Constantine was perhaps the existing Chapel of S. Helena (W); for I have shewn its similarity to the Byzantine churches; and as Sæwulf and others who describe this spot between Hakem's destruction and the Crusaders' works, speak of this Church as in ruins, it must have been erected during
this second period.
loco ubi fuit crucifixus, apparet cruor
rit lignum Crucis ampullas mox ebullit
is the traveller's step the passus. “Memorandum quod 24 trives to interpret this author so as to
THE BUILDINGS OF THE THIRD PERIOD,
The third period exhibits to us the restoration of the buildings after their malicious and systematic destruction by the fanatic Caliph Hakem, in the year 1010". This restoration seems to have been commenced or attempted almost immediately afterwards by Hakem or his mother, but was not effectually undertaken for several years, when the emperors of Constantinople, Romanus Argyrus, Michael the Paphlagonian, and Constantine Monomachus, in succession opened and concluded the necessary negotiations, and furnished the funds and architects, by which means the buildings were completed in A. D. 1048, or, at least, brought to the state in which the Crusaders found them. The best description of this state of the churches is given by the traveller Saewulf, who performed his pilgrimage in the years 1102 and 1103, and whose account is contained in a manuscript preserved at Corpus Christi College, Cambridge'. As he arrived at the Holy City only two years after the Crusaders' conquest of Jerusalem, he saw and described the spot before the operations of enlargement and restoration, which they undertook so magnificently. It will be necessary, therefore, to give a translation of his entire description. I have constructed the plan, Fig. 3, by comparing this description with the buildings that exist; from which, as I have already shewn, there is little or no difficulty in picking out the portions that were standing before the Crusaders' works were added. “The entrance of the city of Jerusalem is to the West, under the tower of David the king, by a gate which is called David's Gate. The first place to visit is the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, not only on account of the arrangement of the streets, but also because of its great renown above all other churches......In the midst of this Church is the Lord's Sepulchre, girt about with a very strong wall, and covered over to prevent the rain from falling upon the sacred Sepulchre, because the church overhead is left open......In the court of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre several holy places are to be seen, to wit, the Prison (V), in which, according to the Assyrian tradition, our Lord was incarcerated after he was delivered up. A little above this is the place (X) where the Holy Cross, with the other crosses, was found, and where, subsequently, a large Church (W) was built in honour of Queen Helena, but afterwards utterly destroyed by the Pagans; below this, and not far from the prison, is seen a marble Column, to which our Lord was bound in the pretorium, and sorely scourged. Close to this is the place where He was stripped of His clothing by the soldiers; and next, the place where He was clad in a purple robe and crowned with thorns, and they divided His garments and cast lots.
steppys sive gressus mei faciunt 12 virgas,” quoth William Wyrcester: Nasmith. p. 83. It must be presumed, that lxxx. is a transcriber's error for xxxx. ; and 40 paces for one, with 50 paces for the other distance, are not very far from the truth, especially as we do not know the exact points between which the distance was measured. Mr. Fergusson, (p. 126,) confounds the “gres
sus” with the “passus,” and con
give 400 feet between the Sepulchre
* MSS. Corpus Christi Coll. Camb. Paris, 1839; but this transcript appear No. 111. 8. Nasmith's Catalogue, pp. to have been hastily made, and al119, 120. This narrative was printed by though generally correct, has some Michel from Mr. Wright's transcript omissions. I have collated and corin the fourth Volume of the Recueil de rected the portion relating to this Voyages par la Société de Geographie, church with the original.
“After this Mount Calvary (N) is ascended, where Abraham the Patriarch, having made an altar (g), would have sacrificed his only son in obedience to the Divine command; and where, afterwards, the Son of God, whom he prefigured, was sacrificed for the redemption of the world. The rock itself of the mountain bears witness to the Passion, being much split close to the pit in which the Cross was planted, as it is written, ‘the rocks were rent.” Below is the place which is called Golgotha (N), where Adam is said to have been raised from the dead”...... Close to Calvary, the Church of S. Mary (M) stands in the place where the Lord's Body, taken down from the Cross, was wrapped in linen with spices before it was buried.
“At the head of the Church of the Sepulchre, in the outer wall, not far from Calvary, is the place called Compas (a), where the Lord indicated with his own hand the centre of the world, as the Psalmist witnesses, ‘For God is my King of old, working salvation in the midst of the earth”.’ But some say that it was here that He appeared to Mary Magdalen when she took Him to be the gardener.
* See Sect. v. III. above. * Ps. lxxiii. 12. Wide Sect. v1.11. above.
“These most holy oratories are situated in the court of the Sepulchre on the eastern part. But two Chapels (I, C), in honour of S. Mary and S. John, adhere to the very sides of the Church, one on each hand, even as these witnesses of the Passion stood one on each side of the Cross. On the western wall of the Chapel of S. Mary is to be seen painted on the outside a figure of the Virgin, by which Mary of Egypt......was marvellously consoled, as her life relates.
“On the other side of the Church of S. John is the beautiful Church of the Holy Trinity (B), in which is the place of baptism: to this adheres the Chapel of S. James (A), the apostle who first obtained the pontifical chair of Jerusalem. And these are so arranged, that any one standing in the last Church can see all the five churches from door to door.
“Beyond the gate of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to the South, is the Church of S. Mary, which is called Latina, because there Monks perform the Latin service, and the Syrians say that the Virgin stood during the Crucifixion on the very spot where the altar of that Church is fixed.
“To this Church adheres the Church of S. Mary the Less, where nuns serve the Virgin and her Son; and close to this stands the Hospital where the celebrated Church or Monastery is dedicated in honour of S. John Baptist'.”
per portam quae vocatur porta David. Primum eundem est ad Ecclesiam
1 Relatio de Peregrinatione Saewulfi ad Hierosolymam et Terram Sanctam.
Annis Dominicae Incarnationis 1102
et 1103. p. 83.
ad Occidentem, sub arce David regis
Sancti Sepulcri quae Martyrium vocatur, non solum pro conditione platearum, sed quià celebrior est omnibus aliis ecclesiis......... In medio autem