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The most curious part of this description is that which relates to the series of chapels annexed to the Round Church, and which I have already explained im Section VIII. I shall therefore merely refer to the Plan, Fig. 3, and to that explanation. These were apparently the buildings upon which the Greek Emperors expended their pains and funds. For the other holy places appear to have been merely protected by small oratories, according to the description of William of Tyre already quoted. The Prison was probably then in the same state as it is now, a dry vaulted cistern in the rock. Of the place where the Cross was found, the same may be said. The Church or Chapel of S. Helena seems to have been in ruins, for Sæwulf speaks of it as in this state ; and the anonymous historian, whose Tract is printed in the ** Gesta Dei," and who also writes at the same period, says of this spot, “Near the Sepulchre, a little on one side, there rises a rock, split and gaping open, as it is writtem “ that the rocks were rent,” and beneath it is Golgotha.........A little further is the place called of “Calvary,’ where the wood of the Cross was found by Helena the blessed...and where was founded by the same Queen a Church of wondrous magnitude and workmanship, afterwards destroyed by perfidious Gentiles. The ruins which exist there attest the quality of the work”.” I have already stated my opinion, that the ruins alluded to by Saewulf and this anonymous writer, are those of the present chapel, which was merely restored and revaulted by the Crusaders. Expressions of magnitude must always be taken with caution, for all ancient writers exaggerate in this respect; and we have seen that the plan of the actual Basilica of Constantine was very different from that of the chapel in question which bore its name in the Middle Ages. The Column of Flagellation, and the other places which follow in Saewulf's narrative, were probably in the open air; and even Calvary itself has no chapel given to it by Saewulf; but it is the first of the three oratories mentioned by William of Tyre, of which the second is the place where the Cross was found, and the third is the place of Anointing, which Saewulf describes as the church or chapel of S. Mary. On the whole, however, the general plan of the buildings was not very different from that which they had before the destruction, and it may be supposed that it had been intended to rebuild or repair the other oratories as well as the Round Church, had not the Crusaders conceived and carried out their magnificent plan of uniting the whole under one roof, which I have explained at length in the former part of the Architectural History.
istius Ecclesiae est Dominicum Sepulchrum muro fortissimo circumcinctum et opertum, ne dùm pluit, pluvia cadere possit super Sanctum Sepulchrum, quià Ecclesia desuper patet discooperta. Ista Ecclesia sita est in declivio montis Syon sicut civitas......... *• In atrio Ecclesiæ Dominici Sepulchri loca visuntur sanctissima, scilicet carcer ubi I)ominus noster Jesus Christus post traditionem incarceratus fuit, testantibus Assiriis ; deinde paulo superiùs locus apparet ubi sancta Crux cum aliis crucibus inventa est, ubi posteà in honore reginæ Helenæ magna constructa fuit ecclesia, sed postmodum a paganis funditùs est detrusa; inferius vero non longè a carcere columpna mamorea conspicitur ad quam Jesus Christus Dominus noster in pretorio ligatus fiagris afHigebatur durissimis ; Juxta est locus ubi Dominus Nosteramilitibus exuebatur ab indumentis ; deinde est locus ubi induebatur veste purpurei a militibus et coronabatur spineà coronâ, et diviserunt vestimenta sua *0rtein mittentes. “ Postea ascenditur in montem Calvarium, ubi Abraham patriarcha, facto altari, prius filium suum jubente Deo sibi immolare voluit, ibidem posteà Filius Dei, quem ipse prefiguravit, pro redemptione mundi Deo Patri immolatus est hostia; scopulus autem ejusdem montis Passionis Dominicae testis Juxtà fossam in quâ Dominica Crux fuit affixa multùm scissus, quià sinè
scissura necem Fabricatoris sufferre nequivit sicut in Passione legitur, * et petræ scissæ sunt.' Subtùs est locus qui Golgotha vocatur, ubi Adam a torrente Dominici cruoris super eum delapso dicitur esse a mortuis resuscitatus, sicut in Domini Passione legitur, * et multa corpora sanctorum qui dormierant surrexerunt." Sed in sententiis beati Augustini legitur eum sepultum fuisse in Hebron, ubi etiam postmodum tres patriarchæ sepulti sunt cum uxoribus suis, Abraham cum Sarâ, Isaac cum Rebeccâ, Jacob cum Liâ; et ossa Joseph, quæ filii Israel adportaverunt secum de Egypto. Juxtà locum Calvariæ, Ecclesia sanctæ Mariæ in loco ubi Corpus Dominicum, avulsum a cruce antequam sepeliretur, fuit aromatisatum et linteo sive sudario involutum. “ Ad caput autem Ecclesiæ Sancti Sepulchri, in muro forinsecùs non longè a loco Calvariae, est locus qui Compas vocatur, ubi ipse Dominus noster Jesus Christus medium mundi propriâ manu, esse signavit atque mensuravit, psalmistâ testante, ** Dominus autem Rex noster antè secula; operatus est salutem in medio terrae ;" sed quidam in illo loco Dominum Jesum Christum dicunt apparuisse primo Mariæ Magdalenae, dùm ipsa flendo eum quæsivit et putavit eum hortulanum fuisse, sicut Evangelista narrat. “Ista oratoria sanctissima continentur in atrio Dominici Sepulchri ad Orien
talem plagam. In lateribus vero ipsius ecclesiæ duæ capellae sibi adherent praeclarissimae hinc inde, Scae. Marie scilicet Scique Johannis in honore*, sicut ipsi participes Dominicæ Passionis sibi in lateribus constiterunt hinc inde.
** In muro autem Occidentali ipsius capellae Sanctæ Mariæ conspicitur imago ipsius Domini genitricis perpicta exterius, quae Mariam Egyptiacam olim toto corde compuncuam atque ipsius Dei genitricis juvamen efflagitantem in figura ipsius cujus pictura erat, per Spiritum Sanctum loqueiido mirifice consolabatur sicut in vita ipsius legitur.
** Ex alterâ vero parte Sancti Johannis ecclesiæ est monasterium Sanctæ Trinitatis pulcherrimum, in quo est locusbaptisterii, cui adheret capellaSancti Jacobi apostoli, qui primam cathedram
pontificalem Jerosolimis obtinuit; ita
* The passages in Italics are omitted in the French transcript.
" I subjoin part of the passage at length, “Paululum remotior ab eodem, est locus dictus Calvariae, ubi lignum
erit. Pars autem ligni preciosi in his locis a fidelibus retenta, diligenti veneratione adoratur et exaltatur.) Juxtà Dominicum trecentesimo octogesimo crucis inventionem a Meridie est Ecclesexto anno post Passionem Christi à sia Genetricis Dei quae Latina nuncubeata Helena, Juda praemonstrante, in- patur, eo quod a Latinis semper sit ventum est: ubi etiam ab eadem Re- culta; ubi fertur eadem Virgo plogina Ecclesia mirae magnitudinis et rasse atque scidisse crines, cum vidisset Filium suum unigenitum patibulo
affixum ” (Gesta Dei per Francos,
operis fundata, postea a perfidis Gentilibus destructa est; (ruinae cujus adhuc existentes indicant qualenam opus fu
ON THE IMITATIONS OF THE HOLY SEPULCHRE IN THE MIDDLE AGES.
It has been asserted by some writers that the Holy Sepulchre became the primitive type of all other churches of a circular form". If my restoration of the Basilica of Constantine be correct, it is plain that their opinion is destroyed, because I have shewn that no Round Church at all was erected at first about the Holy Sepulchre, but that the Round Church on that spot originated with Modestus, about the year 629. It is true, that in all probability the external form of the Sepulchre was round. However, the Mausoleum of Helena, and that of Constantia at Rome, are sufficient to shew that the circular form of Church was adopted in the time of Constantine, and there is not the slightest reason to suppose that the imitation of the Sepulchre ever entered into the thoughts of the architects of these and similar buildings; for if it had, the fact would have been handed down to us by the ecclesiastical writers of old. One such instance is recorded ; for Codinus relates that the Church of the Virgin at Constantinople, called of the Curator, apparently from the office of the person who superintended the building, was erected by Verina, the wife of Leo Macela, in the form of the Holy Sepulchre”. But as the Church has disappeared, we cannot tell what the plan of it was ; but from the expressions employed it must have been in imitation of the Sepulchre itself. In fact, the circular or polygonal form naturally occurs when a building is required for the preservation or enclosure of any single object, such as a tomb or a font; and accordingly baptisteries have been erected in this shape from the period of Constantine downwards. But in the case of the Holy Sepulchre the buildings had the double purpose of enclosing that monument, and of providing a separate house of prayer in its neighbourhood, and hence the more magnificent plan of placing it in the midst of an atrium surrounded by colonnades. In addition to which an opinion seems to have been entertained, that it would be irreverent to cover this monument with a roof. This opinion is constantly alluded to by the mediaeval writers; but I am unable to shew that it had an origin so early as Constantine, although
* See Quarterly Review, March, I kvptov. (Codinus, p. 53, ex Originibus 1845, p. 356. C. P. as quoted by Du Cange, Con
* is 73 oudwua row tdopod row stantinopolis Christiana, p. 86.)