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(i.e. to the supposed Acra,) “immediately from the adjacent open place, he has before him a considerable ascent, though afterwards the way is more level quite to the Latin Convento.” Indeed, this north-west angle of the modern city-wall is considerably higher than the highest point of Mount Sion; insomuch that the ground here will be found nearly on a level with the top of the Armenian Convent on Mount Sion, which is by far the loftiest building in Jerusalem, and as the native rock is here visible above the surface of the ground, the theory of rubbish can have no place. Lastly. The broad valley which had once parted Acra from Moriah was filled up by the Asmoneans, and these two hills became one; whereas the valley between Dr Robinson's Acra and Moriah has not been at all filled up, except by the accumulation of débris, but remains most distinctly to this day, as he himself constantly testifies. Josephus writes”: “Over against this (Acra) was a third hill, naturally lower than Acra, and parted formerly from the other by a broad valley. However, in those times when the Asmoneans reigned, they filled up that valley with earth, with the view of joining the City to the Temple.” But according to Dr Robinson the valley between Acra and Moriah, though “greatly filled up with the rubbish accumulated from the repeated desolations of nearly eighteen centuries,” is “still distinctly to be traced;” still “Moriah is separated from Acra by the valley which runs from the Damascus Gate;” so that “all the western entrances of the Mosk are reached by an ascent, and some of them at least by steps".” Now I cannot think that a valley filled with earth by the Asmoneans, and greatly filled up with the rubbish of so many centuries, would still exist as one of the principal features of the City; especially while another valley, more distinctly marked in olden time, and never designedly filled, has been obliterated for at least six centuries, which we shall presently see Dr Robinson conceives has been the case with the Tyropoeon. At least the traces of the valley between Sion and Acra might be expected to be more distinctly marked, than of the valley between Acra and Moriah; which is far from being the case if the topography of Dr Robinson is correct. IV. For I never could find any traces of the valley which Dr Robinson calls the Tyropoeon; that which separated between Sion and Acra. He did not himself at first discover it, as he had expected. He examined the high ground between the Pool of Mamilla and the Damascus Gate, to see “whether perhaps the valley of the Tyropaeon extended up at all beyond the City in that direction. There is, however, no trace of any valley, or of any depression in this quarter, before reaching the declivity stretching down to the Damascus Gate”.” He afterwards satisfied himself that he had discovered it in a “depression or shallow Wady, still easily to be traced, coming down from near the Jaffa Gate.” in an easterly direction until it joins the Mill Valley, and “then continues obliquely down the slope, but with a deeper bed, in a southern direction, quite to the Pool of Siloam, and the Valley of Jehoshaphat".” In other words, the Mill Valley, i.e. “the broad valley running down from the Damascus Gate to the Pool of Siloam",” is supposed to receive another valley from the West, just South of the Street of the Temple. And this latter valley, with the continuation of the former, represents the Tyropoeon. But here, as elsewhere, it is difficult, unaided by a plan, to comprehend exactly where Dr Robinson would draw the line of the Tyropoeon, though it is a matter of some moment to ascertain. When writing in his own person, he carries “the street which leads down directly East from the Jaffa Gate, (i.e. David's Street) along the bed of the ancient Tyropoeon':” and elsewhere this street “now occupies the lowest line of depression between the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Mount Sion”:'' but then the testimony adduced to support this view, gives much wider latitude to this valley, and allows us to find it anywhere between the north brow of Sion and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. I have confidence in the accurate observation, in the correct memory, and the fair statement, of Mr Eli Smith, and am content to adopt his account, which I am able to confirm by actual survey. “Draw a line along the ridge from the north-west corner of the city-wall, so as to pass just upon the north side of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; and another along the northern brow of Mount Sion from the citadel; and there would be a decided depression between them, into which water would run from both. This is according to the best of my recollection”.”

7 B. R. i. p. 391. This is not quite west angle of the modern wall, without correct: from being more level at first, which is the large terebinth-tree. p. it becomes steeper as you approach the 345. Casa Nuova and Latin convent, and * J. W. v. iv. 1. See the Greek at *:ll more so beyond, towards the north- the end.

Bib. Res. 1. pp. 414, 393, 394. To avoid the obvious difficulty, Dr Robinson omits the word “formerly,” and inserts the word “partly,” p. 413, i.e. Josephus says, that the valley had formerly separated the two hills, but was filled up ; Dr Robinson, that it still separated in the time of Josephus, and had been only partly filled up. Again, p. 410, professing to follow Josephus, he says, “they threw earth into this valley, intending to connect, &c.,” and again omits the word formerly separated. After this, it is somewhat hard to charge me with a petitio principii, because I follow Josephus implicitly, in the sense in which he has been understood by all writers who had no theory to support. Theol. Rev. p. 427. Or if it be a question of interpretation, I submit that we are not competent expositors, swayed as we must needs be by private partialities; and I appeal to two eminent scholars, deeply read in this question, and quite

impartial, to decide, first, Whether Acra was a distinct hill; and secondly, whether or no it was joined to the Temple-mount by the filling up of the intermediate valley. See Lightfoot, Prospect of the Temple, cap. i. Works, Vol. 1x. p. 214, “the valley between well raised and filled up with earth;" and Chorog. Cent. cap. xxii. iv. Vol. x. p. 47 and 52, 8vo edition. Compare Reland's Palestina, p. 846, 852, “valle repletăuturbem Templo conjungeret,” and p. 853: “Erat etiam Templum conjunctum urbi a parte Acrae : nam vallem inter Acram et Moriam repleverunt Chasmonaei eum in finem imminutà Acrae altitudine.” Jos. de Bell. v1.6. [al. v. 5.] They evidently understood Josephus's language of the Totros \dopos (Čue pyäuevos d\\n orpoTepov, and Tiju papayya exogav) to imply that they were no longer separated: but Dr Robinson says, “There is not a word about a valley obliterated, and two hills made one.” Th. R. l. c. * Bib. Res. 1. p. 353. * Ibid. p. 383. * Bib. Res. 1. p. 393.

The accuracy of this statement may be seen by an extract from a letter of my friend Dr Schultz, now residing at Jerusalem, in reply to a communication of mine, enquiring how the waters of Patriarch Street, and the streets to the North of this, flow off in rainy weather? These streets running into Patriarch Street steeply from the North, I named Copt Street and Greek Street, from the great convents of those two Communities situated in them respectively. “I have examined the question about the water running down Patriarch Street, Copt Street, and Greek Street. The receptacle of the rain-water of all these streets is a large cistern belonging to the tannery opposite the palace of the Knights of St John. Its mouth, I mean the mouth to receive the water, is on the eastern side of the outer court of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, near the entrance of a small Greek Convent there. In rainy days, the water is rushing down that small street, [Palm Street] which leads from Patriarch Street (ruga balnei Patriarchae of the Crusaders) to the open Court Yard of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre".” Now from these notices it appears that the lowest line of depression between the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and Mount Sion, is not the Street of David, but Palm Street, immediately to the South of the Church; so that we have here no evidence for the Tyropoeon of Dr Robinson, but decidedly against it. Indeed it is admitted that “this ravine has become gradually and wholly filled up with the ruins and rubbish of

Ibid. p. 388. * Th. Rev. p. 419. * Ibid. p. 434, being an extract acknowledge, how very discordant this

must express my surprise that Dr Ro

binson did not see, or seeing did not

from a MS. letter of Mr E. Smith. I testimony is with his theory.

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eighteen centuries”—which Brocardus will reduce to thirteen, for “the valley was completely filled up” in his day, though “vestiges of its former concavity still remained".” And I find another argument against this ravine in the course of a large and very ancient sewer? which traverses Mount Sion from South to North, makes a sharp angle to the East, near the Castle of David, and runs past the premises of the Jews' Society on

Mount Sion to the bazaars. For surely had there been

* MS. letter dated Jerusalem, May by Dr Robinson, ibid. 8, 1847. 7 I shall again fall in with this * Th. Rev. p. 419. drain below ; it is fully described (as * Brocardus, cap. viii. “Nunc vo- an aqueduct) by Mr Johns, in a paper rago ipsa tota repleta est, relictis tamen in Mr Bartlett's Walks, with a section vestigiis prioris concavitatis.” Cited and Plan. pp. 87–90. 1st Ed.

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