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débris will enable him to reach without much difficulty". Here a rude pile of Saracenic buildings abuts upon the wall of the Mosk, in one of the deserted chambers of whose basement-story, approached from within the city, the Western end of the frieze and architrave may be distinguished. From this chamber I effected a stealthy entrance into the corridor, on two occasions, under the guidance of Mr. Wolcott, through an accidental hole in the wall, which was afterwards discovered and secured by the Moslem authorities. This mass of buildings are merely offices connected with the Mosk". The ancient cyclopean masonry was traced by Mr. Tipping from the S. E. angle of the Haram wall, beyond its point of junction with the modern city-wall, though only one or two courses are visible. “With the West side of the gateway the bevelled masonry ceases; and up to the S. W. corner we have a fine lofty wall, with a row of windows [those of the Mosk Abu Bekri), and the upper part is of uniform and excellent masonry, similar to what may be seen in later Roman erections. But at the S. W. corner we find again the ancient bevelled masonry, equal to the colossal cornerstones at the other, and already-described angles. Indeed, the lowest course on the west face is the largest anywhere in the wall, measuring full thirty feet in length”.” And here we reach some interesting remains, to which greater importance has of late been attached than to any others in the city"; and it is therefore a subject of congratulation that the pencil of a skilful artist has been employed to aid the descriptions of travellers, which must always fail to convey any satisfactory impression to the mind of the reader”. These remains consist of “several large stones jutting out from the Western wall, which at first sight seems to be the effect of a bursting of the wall from some mighty shock or earthquake;” but on further inspection “the courses of these immense stones, which seem at first to have sprung out from their places in the wall in consequence of some enormous violence, are found to occupy their original position.” Three courses of these stones, commencing at 39 feet from the S.W. corner, have “their external surface hewn to a regular curve; and being fitted one upon another, they form the commencement or foot of an immense arch, which once sprung out from this Western wall, in a direction towards Mount Sion, across the valley of the Tyropoeon".” “The extreme width of the abutting stones is 51 feet: of these stones one measures 24 feet 6 inches in length, and several of them exceed 5 feet in thickness. The chord of the remaining portion of the arch is 12 feet 6 inches, the sine 11 feet 10 inches, and the cosine 3 feet 10 inches'.” Its total span, if restored, (according to the statement of an English engineer",) would be 41 feet 7 inches, supposing it a circular arch with a radius of 20 feet 9% inches. About 100 feet northward of the arch, Abu Se'(\d's house abuts upon the wall, and presents a barrier to further investigation in the same line. The ancient masonry, however, may be traced quite up to this abutment, and is recovered at the Jews' Wailing Place, which extends along the line of wall between the Gate of the Moghrebins and that of the Chain, at the causeway, and is reached by “a narrow lane, through a cluster of humble, one-storied tenements.” Here occur some of the finest and best preserved specimens of ancient masonry in the Haram wall, consisting of “five courses of bevelled stones, and over these four courses of smooth-faced stones, little if at all inferior in size.” “Owing to the continuous mass of houses built up against the west side of the Haram, it is next to impossible to inspect it any further; but from some glimpses stolen here and there, among the houses, Mr. Tipping believes the west side to be the best preserved of the three, and that the covered bazaar (the Cotton Mart) has been, judging from the size of the stones, erected with ancient materials".”

* Wolcott in Bib. Sac. pp. 18, 19. 7 Catherwood, in Bartlett's Walks, The history of the discovery of this p. 169. aperture is given by Mr. Tipping, in * Tipping, in Traill's Josephus, p. pp. xvi. and xvii. xlvi.

' The merit of the priority of the discovery of these ruins, or rather of their importance in an archaeological view, has been warmly and earnestly contested in America between Drs. Robinson and Olin,-and Europe and Asia have been called on for witnesses, in the persons of Mr. Catherwood and Mr. Nicolayson respectively. As I do not attach so much importance to them as either of the combatants, for reasons which will presently appear, the con

test seems rather amusing. I may

mention, however, that my friend Mr.
Young, formerly Consul at Jerusalem.
assures me that when he saw these
stones on his first visit to the city in
1836, he was persuaded that they were
the remains of the bridge spoken of by
Josephus; he declared his convic-
tion to Messrs. Nicolayson and Whit-
ing, and was surprised that the ruin
had not attracted more attention.
* I allude particularly to Mr. Tip-
ping's drawings, pp. xx. and xxv.
* Bib. Res. Vol. 1. pp. 351, 424.

• Tipping, in Traill's Josephus, p. promised careful delineation of the xxvi. and Robinson l.c. Wailing Place was never given, but it * Mr. J. C. Brettell, who measured is well represented by Mr. Bartlett, it in June 1840. Mr. Young has fur- | Walks, p. 154. He also gives the nished me with his restoration. spring-stones of the arch in p. 150. * Traill's Josephus, p. xlvi. The

Vol. II. 21

There is, however, an important fact relating to this western wall, which has escaped the observation of all except Lieutenant Symonds, who surveyed the interior of the city in 1841, with the utmost care, and whose Plan, so far as I have been able to test it, will bear the closest scrutiny. It is this; that the western wall is not continued in an unbroken line from its southern to its northern extremity, but presents two distinct angles in its southern half; the former at a distance of 180 feet from the S. W. angle of the Haram, at the point where the house of Abu Se’ād Effendi abuts upon the Mosk; the latter, at a further distance of 320 feet North, just South of the causeway at the Mehkemeh, or Town Hall of the city. It results from this, that the Jews' Wailing Place is 140 feet West of the wall at the ruined arch, and that the line of the wall from the causeway nearly to the N.W. corner is 90 feet West of the Wailing Place. The importance of this fact will appear in the sequel. It was so wholly unsuspected by myself, so strongly confirmatory of my previously-formed theory, and so subversive of the opposite, maintained by Dr. Robinson and others, that I have taken great pains to test the accuracy of the survey in this part, although the skill of the Officer, the scientific principles on which the survey was conducted, and the minute accuracy of the Plan in all other respects, scarcely allowed room to doubt that its departure from all preceding authorities on this point had not been made without sufficient warrant. The result of my investigation and enquiry has served to justify this confidence, for not only do some ancient and modern drawings clearly indicate a contraction of the area at these points, and so serve to

confirm the testimony of the Plan", but the subsequent observations of Dr.Schultz, to whom I communicated this important discovery, with a request that he would test its accuracy on the spot, appear, though doubtingly, to lead to the same conclusion. At first indeed he was disposed to question the accuracy of the Plan; he writes”: “According to the measurements of your Engineering Officers, this wall does not run in a straight line. They have been able to go into the Mosk, I suppose: I am not allowed to do so, you know : but, as far as I see, they must have made a mistake, not in their measurements, I am sure, but most likely they supposed that the house of Abu Se’ūd Effendi, lying towards the south-western angle of the outer court of the Mosk, did not belong to the Mosk itself, as it really does; or they have, which I think not quite so probable, taken the outer walls of Abu Se’ād's house and the Mehkemeh for part of the Mosko. The latter supposition is somewhat likely with regard to the Mehkemeh. If my survey is correct, the western wall of the outer court of the Mosk is straight and in one line, at least

" I refer particularly to the ancient and accurate coloured drawing of Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives, apparently executed in the early part of the 15th century, now preserved in the Cambridge University Library : to Breydenbach's large drawing, A. D. 1483, which is also very accurate : modern drawings also sometimes betray the fact; which, I may add, my friend Mr. Rowlands suspected at Jerusalem, before he saw the Plan.

* Dated Jerusalem, March 1, 1847.

* This seems to be the fact; and if, as he has just said, this house does

really belong to the Mosk, they were right in doing so; and the error of other surveys is explained by their having excluded this house from the Haram. It is curious, however, that Mr. Catherwood, whose interior survey of this part of the enclosure seems to have been hastily executed, represents angles at the two spots required, though he gives no account of them. See his large Plan of the area in Fergusson's Essay (Plate IV.) I suspect that he ought to have carried out the west wall beyond those angles, instead of continuing it in the same line.

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