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bound together with lead, within which he raised a bank of earth to a level with the native rock. On this was erected a cloister, which with its successors ever retained the name of “Solomon's Porch”,” in memory of the great king who had first reared it on an artificial embankment. This process was continued by subsequent kings, so that the dimensions of the area were continually enlarged until the days of Herod the Great, who, not satisfied with a complete reconstruction of the Holy House, further enlarged the outer court to double its former extent", and adorned it with stately cloisters", that it might be in better keeping with the Temple which he had erected. Of these cloisters the Royal Portico on the South deserves a fuller notice, as one of the most remarkable of all Herod's magnificent works. It consisted of four rows of Corinthian columns, distributed into a. central nave and lateral aisles—if I may be allowed, for convenience, to use terms (intelligible to all, though not so applied until a much later period,) borrowed from Christian Churches, which certainly borrowed much of their architectural arrangement from this and other Basilicas. Each aisle was 30 feet in width and 50 in height, and the nave was half as wide again as either aisle", and double the height, thus rising into a clerestory of unusually large proportions. The shafts of the columns were monoliths of white marble, 27 feet in height, and of such ample circumference, that it required three men with their arms extended to compass them. They had a double base moulding and Corinthian capitals; the roofs of the cloisters were of cedar elaborately carved. The cloisters on the other three sides of the area were only double, and their entire width only 30 cubits. This outer court had four gates on its western side, towards the city'. It had also gates in the middle of the South side”, and one entrance on each of the other sides”. Such was the first enclosure, in the midst of which and not far from it was the second", to which was an ascent by a few steps. This court had a wall and cloister of its own, and was entered by one great gate at the East, and three at equal distances in the northern and southern walls. It was distributed into several members, assigned to the various orders of the Hebrew Community, but was all sacred; and inscriptions in Greek and Latin, set on pillars about the wall, forbade foreigners under pain of death to violate the sanctity of the precinct". The Women's Court, occupying the East of this second enclosure, was a square of 135 cubits, with gates in the middle of its four sides, and chambers at the angles, each 40 cubits square, assigned to different purposes". It was on a lower level than the

* John x. 23; Acts i. 11; v. 12. oriav, duérpots utv xonorduevos rois Lightfoot's Chorographical Inquiry dva Mauaow divvreeBAire & ro row

Cap. vi. Sect. ii. vol. x. p. 350, &c. rexeig.
Pitman's ed. * Fully described in Ant. xv. xi. 5.
"This is not admitted by Dr Robin- * So also Dr Robinson understands

* (see B. R. Vol. 1. pp. 418, 427, the term evoos utv judotov–i.e. 45 ft, *) Josephus says (Bell. Jud. Lib. 1. Bib. Res. i. p. 429. Krafft, however, *P. *xi, ap. init.) IIevrekaićextrip makes it 67 ft., and in an 127, instead row ore, ris Baori Aetas, abrów re rôv of 30 x 2+ 45=105 feet. Topographie, ****ace, Kai Tov repi ord, p. 70.

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* Tolovros utv 6 rparos replgoNow with the optopaxtos Albinov reiroxv. over uéro &, dréxiew ot, woxv, &etre- ułv toos, K.A. Bell. Jud. v. v. 2. pos, reorgarðs Batutoru d'Aoyals' r.A. * The measures and distributions of Ant. I. c. the Temple, its courts and chambers, is fully given in the tract of the Mishna 7 Bell. Jud. v. v. 2. These were named Middoth (i.e. Measures), the the Corinthian Gates, where the portent 10th Tract in the 5th Book, in cap. 11. took place. J. W. vi. v. 3. sect. 5, chiefly, and cap. v. sect. 1.

Court of Israel, which was accessible from its West side, by an ascent of fifteen semicircular steps through the large brazen gates'. This Court was assigned to the Hebrew males. It extended in length along the whole breadth of the Court of the Women, but was only 11 cubits in width. To the West of this again, was the Court of the Priests, of like dimensions, rising two cubits and a half above the Court of Israel. Immediately within this stood the brazen altar, its base being 32 cubits square, removed 22 cubits from the Porch of the Temple, and situated before its eastern door. The Temple proper (vaos) extended 100 cubits westward, leaving a space of only 11 feet between the western wall of the inner enclosure and the Most Holy Place, thus giving to the third or inmost court a total length of 187 cubits, with a width of 135. The arrangements made for the orderly performance of the sacrifices, the distribution of the Temple into the Porch, the Sanctuary, and the Most Holy Place, with the dimensions of each, and their furniture and adornment, the account of the surrounding chambers and their several uses, belong rather to a book of Jewish antiquities than to such a work as the present, and cannot here be detailed. I have collected as much as will aid me in attempting to ascertain the exact position of the Temple with reference to the present Haram. But before I proceed to this, another investigation will be necessary: for undoubtedly the task would be much facilitated by any trustworthy historical records or traditions respecting the old Temple; especially could we find reason to believe that any of the still existing remains had been identified with the Temple at a period when its desolation was comparatively recent. The following remarks will, I apprehend, enable us to form a fair estimate of the comparative value of Jewish and Christian testimony on this subject: for that of the Moslem writers is clearly worthless, as they could know nothing of the localities prior to Omar's conquest, except what they learnt from the others. First then for the Jews. It has already been noticed that, within about 50 or 60 years after the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus and the slaughter and dispersion of the entire nation, they were again in a position to attempt a restoration of their civil polity, and to endanger for a time the Roman tenure of the country, and that their insurrection was not crushed without the most strenuous efforts on the part of the government". In order to account for this, we must suppose that they had returned to their old seats very shortly after the desolation of the city, and had been permitted by the Roman garrison to establish themselves among its ruins; as we have seen good reason to believe that the Christians also had done": and I can no more doubt that a continuous tradition of the site of the Temple was current during this interval, than I can question the same concerning the site of the Holy Sepulchre. The attempt of the revolted Jews to rebuild the Temple at this time”, intimates that the tradition of its

For the insurrection under Ha- Kara Ioudatov B. Tom. v1. pp. 333 drian, see Vol. 1. p. 207, &c. and 237, Ed. Eton; where he speaks * Vol. 1. p. 202. of three attempts to rebuild the Temple, * Mentioned by S. Chrysostom, viz. under Hadrian, Constantine, and

site was still retained ; and it would be perpetuated after their reduction, and during the period of their jealous exclusion from the city and its neighbourhood", by the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, erected by the Emperor to desecrate the spot”; as in the parallel case of the Holy Sepulchre, polluted by a Temple of Astarte": so that however long the law of Hadrian continued in force, there would be no danger of a breach in the tradition. the time of Constantine; but two equestrian statues of Hadrian still marked the spot, and were seen by the Bordeaux Pilgrim A.D. 333, when the site of the Temple and Altar and the extent of the area seem to have been clearly determined’. At this period, too, the Jews were accustomed to resort once a year to the site of the

The Idol Temple was probably demolished in

Julian. Other authorities are quoted for the first by Bishop Münter, Translation in Bib. Sac. p. 431, note 3.

* See the references in Vol. 1. p. 213, notes 4 and 5. The terms of the law were very stringent: thus Aristo of Pella (ap. Euseb. H. E. Iv. vi.) to rāv ovos o oxeivov kal ris trepi ra. TepozáAvua yńs trautrav Štripaivetv eipyeTai' véuov 36) uatu Kai čuatd{egiv'Aéptavoo, as āv uri 8'é8 airótr Tov Betopoiew ratpanov č8aqos, & yrexévequévov. The parallel passage in the Apology of Tertullian is well known, and proves that the edict was still rigorously enforced, “Dispersi, palabundi, et coeli et soli sui extorres vagantur per orben, sine homine, sine Deo Rege, quibus nec advenarum jure terram patriam saltem vestigio salutare conceditur.” Cap. xxi. p.20. Ed. Rigaltii, 1634.

* Dion Cass. Lxix. 12. čs róv row 6eov Tótrov, vaēv to Ali & repov divreyetpavros. The well-known coin of AElia Capitolina, representing Jupiter in a tetrastyle temple, is conclusive on this point. It is quoted by Vaillant and Eckhel, under the reigns of Hadrian and his successors. See Doct. Num. Vet. Pars 1. Tom. III. p. 443: a copy will be found at the foot of this chapter.

* See Vol. 1. pp. 240,41; and for the coin, p. 128 of this volume.

* “In a de ipsa ubi templum fuit, quod Salomon a dificavit, in marmore ante aram, sanguinem Zachariae ibi dicas hodie fusum. Etiam parent vestigia clavorum militum, qui eum occiderunt, in totam aream, ut putes in cera fixum esse. Sunt ibi et statua dua Hadriani.” Itin. Hierosol. ed. Wesseling, pp. 590, 91.

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