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“a narrow ravine, immediately under the northern brow of Sion, serving as a drain for the waters falling on the adjacent part of Sion, and also for those on the southern declivity of the ridge';” this cloaca marima would have followed that natural course, to the saving of considerable labour and expense. And with respect to the evidence of Brocardus, and those who follow him, I may in passing, express my regret that the first attempt to identify the topographical features of ancient Jerusalem, as described by Josephus, should have failed so decidedly; and still more that the failure should have been perpetuated through so many centuries, owing to the repute in which the tract of Brocardus was held in the Convents”. It may be laid down as a rule, that notwithstanding his “most diligent investigation of its ancient disposition,” he is invariably wrong where he follows his own judgment; as the plans which have been framed on his notions abundantly prove. It is only as a witness to the existing traditions of his day that he can be allowed any authority: and it is only by comparing his tract with earlier notices that it can be ascertained whether he is a faithful witness, for he occasionally altered existing traditions to support his own theories—a most evil example, and of very mischievous consequence. The testimony then of Mr Eli Smith, and of Dr Schultz above adduced, go to prove that the supposed valley along the Street of David (acknowledged by all to have been long since filled up) has no real existence”; and I shall presently have occasion to shew that much earlier writers than Brocardus were so profoundly ignorant of any valley running in that direction, that they regarded the site of the Holy Sepulchre as a declivity of Mount Sion. For the depression along Palm Street is extremely small, enough to carry off the rain-water, but no more. The ground occupied by the Christian quarter is not unaptly called “a rocky projection or promontory setting in from the West":” “being the southeastern end or point of the long swell, which forms the high ground on the north-west of Jerusalem, and sinks down gradually towards the Temple as it enters the City; this lower extremity being more steep and rocky than the higher portions".” The effect of this is, that the whole ground North of Sion declines equally to the East, so that Patriarch Street, the three lines of bazaars, and St Stephen Street running from South to North, are completely level; David Street, the Street of the Holy Sepulchre, and those between them, to wit, Greek Street, Copt Street, and Palm Street, passing from West to East, deep declivities". The brow or crown of the ridge so often mentioned, may, as Mr Smith intimates, follow a line drawn from the N.W. angle of the city-wall North of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and this would form the water-shed”; or there may be, as Dr Schultz suggests, a bay running in from the Mill Valley, between Sion and the Church", forming a crevasse in the rocky promontory, along the line indicated by the drain; but there is certainly no distinct valley, nor is it now pretended that there is. But when it is remembered that the Tyropoeon was a marked feature in the topography of ancient Jerusalem; in the first instance dividing, as it would seem, two cities one from the other, and ever afterwards presenting a distinct line of separation between the two hills of the incorporated city, it seems scarcely credible that the accumulation of rubbish and such like accidental causes should so far have obliterated it, as to leave no distinct traces behind, but permit us to doubt where, between Sion and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the bed of this valley lay; a doubt resolved by the flow of the rainwater against the course assigned it by Dr Robinson. Lastly, I find a strong objection in the very language of Josephus to taking such a valley, supposing it to exist, for the Tyropoeon. He is by no means a loose writer: indeed his expressions, so far as I have been able to test them, are remarkably close and accurate: and if he had been speaking of this imaginary rectangular valley, made up indeed of two valleys, I am persuaded that he would not have described it as one ertending (kabīket) down to Siloam ; because it was, and still is, the Mill Valley that extended down through the City in a most unmistakable line of continuity, as Dr Robinson, in common with all other writers, abundantly testifies. On these grounds then—that the gate Gennath must have been some distance East of Hippicus; that the Acra of Josephus is a complete contrast in altitude and character with the ridge North of Sion; that no distinct valley now exists, nor can be proved ever to have existed, between this ridge and Sion, I am obliged to reject the topographical identifications of Dr Robinson, and to propose a theory more consistent with the representations. of the Jewish historian. But nothing has yet been said of the Pool of Hezekiah, which, if rightly placed by Professor Robinson, would bring that part of the modern city, and so the Holy Sepulchre, within the ancient walls, which could scarcely have passed between the Pool and the Sepulchre. The following is the Professor's notice of the Pool of Hezekiah ; “The Reservoir, now usually so called, lies some distance north-eastward of the Jaffa Gate, just west of the street that leads north to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre".” It lies, in fact, in the angle which David Street makes with Patriarch Street, and Copt Street winds round it on the West and North. With regard to its name, and the authority of the tradition which assigns it to Hezekiah, it is admitted that “the native name is Birket el-Hämmäm, the Pool of the Bath”;” and that “no tradition exists, or ever has existed, in respect of this Pool, except on the lips of the monks.” In confimation of which I may remark, that I inquired diligently of the most learned Jews, of the most intelligent Greeks, of native Christians and Mahommedans, and never in one instance did I receive the name which Frank travellers now give it. The Pool of the Bath, or the Pool of the Holy Sepulchre, are the only names by which they know it. On what authority then do the name and the tradition rest? It is singular that with so strong a prejudice against “monkish traditions,” especially if they happen to be “comparatively recent,” Dr Robinson should here follow a tradition which, above all others in Jerusalem, is “monkish ’’ and “comparatively recent.” Quaresmius, a monk and superior of the Frank Convent at Jerusalem at the beginning of the seventeenth century, appears to be the first writer who dignified this Pool with the name which he has adopted; and he speaks with great hesitation. It was commonly known as the “Pool of the Holy Sepulchre;” he thinks that this is the pool spoken of in Isaiah xxii. 9, and believes
* Th. Rev. p. 419.
* See the notice of this writer in the first Appendix A. to the Biblical Researches, p. 9, Vol. 111. I did not intend to represent the theory of the Tyropaeon adopted by Dr Robinson as new or singular, but I did not think that he would care for the support to be derived from Brocardus, (Theol. Rev. p. 434) who is followed by Adrichomius and Villalpandus, and they again by Lightfoot and other writers; whose plans, presently referred to, I for one should be very sorry to adopt. But the important difference between Brocardus with his followers, and Dr
Robinson, is this : that although they drew the Tyropaeon from the Jaffa gate, they did not place the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on Acra, but on Gihon, and saw no inconsistency between the tradition and the topographical notices of Josephus. See Brocardus, as quoted B. R. I. p. 391, on which I would remark, that the assignation of the valley is worth no more than the “modern tradition" of Gihon. Both are equally wrong. Dr Robinson mentions another “supposed but fabulous valley,” of this untrustworthy antiquary. Th. Rev. p. 435.
Both own the same author.
* With regard to the drawings appealed to by Dr Robinson, (T. R. p. 433), I remark: that as Mr Bartlett had been led to expect the valley, and drew it in his very pretty fancy sketches, *o Dr Robinson, wishing to find it in Mr Roberts' drawing, saw it. I quote no friendly author. “It certainly is impossible in any representation of the
City, not drawn by a Tyropoconist, to
* This is admitted, Bartlett'sWalks, the water (I think) would be found 2nd Ed. App. p. 247, (cited in T. R. flowing off quite rapidly towards the p. 433). Dr Robinson himself, p. 429, South; certainly never towards the says only, “this strong averment must North.” Dr Schultz has corrected this. be taken with some grains of qualifica- * See the extract from his letter tion;” but his qualifications do not above, p. 30, and compare Th. Rev. affect my argument: and in p. 431 he 429, 432, where note 2, see Mr Wolwrites, “now although these two streets | cott's letter. [Patriarch street, and St Stephen's] for * Dr Schultz, p. 54, as quoted in some distance North of Sion, may be Th. Rev. p. 428, note 1. apparently nearly level, yet after rain,