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ner of a theatre'.” Now if we suppose that he spoke of the general appearance of the city and Temple as they existed in his time rather than in Herod's, no comparison could possibly be more happy, as a glance at the plan will shew. Let the form of an ancient theatre be remembered, let the Temple-area be regarded as the scene—the city surrounding it on three sides as the tiers of seats for spectators, sloping down from all quarters (except the South) in the direction of the Temple ; Bezetha on the North—Acra on the Northwest—then the eastern declivity of the Tyropaeon to the West—separating between Acra and the Upper City or Sion on the South-west, and the space filled up by the ridge of Ophel to the South. The exactness of the language in this as in other passages is to me perfectly astonishing; and I do think that this author, to whom the Christian Church is perhaps more largely indebted than to any unbelieving historian, has not been appreciated as he deserves; I am convinced that, in almost every case where he has been charged with mis-statement, our ignorance rather than his knowledge is in fault. With fair allowance for Oriental hyperbole in his descriptive accounts (of works of art rather than of nature,) he is, as far as my experience goes, a most invaluable guide. Before concluding this chapter, I would remark on an objection which some devout minds may possibly feel to a theory which would go to prove that any part of the ancient Temple can still be identified. Such an hypothesis may be thought to militate against the predictions of our Blessed Lord, which have been already referred to, and therefore the objection deserves, as do all objections prompted by reverence, the most tender consideration; and I would hope that the following beautiful passage from Eusebius on this very subject, will serve to allay any undue apprehensions, and to set the matter in its true light. Having discoursed on the words “Behold, your house is left unto you desolate”,” on which he remarks that “it is right that we should wonder at the fulfilment of this prediction, since at no time did this place undergo such an entire desolation” as shortly followed this denunciation; and that “to those who visit these places the sight itself affords the most complete fulfilment of the predictions;” he thus proceeds to notice another prophecy of our Lord: “Walking by the side of the Temple, and His disciples pointing out to Him the greatness and beauty of the same, He answered and said, ‘Behold, see ye not all these things? I say unto you, stone shall not be left here upon stone which shall not be thrown down”.” The Scriptures do moreover shew that the whole building and the extreme ornamenting of the Temple were indeed thus worthy of being considered miraculous; and for proof of this there are preserved to this time some remaining vestiges of these its ancient decorations. But of these ancient things the greatest miracle of all is the Divine Word, declaring the foreknowledge of our Saviour which fully announced to those who were wondering at the buildings the judgment that ‘ there should not be left,'

* Avrukpu Yap i tróAts exeiro row iepoo Beatpoetóris overa. Ant. xv. xi. 5.

* Luke xiii. 35. * Matth. xxiv. 2.

in the place at which they were wondering, “one stone upon another which should not be rased.' For it was right that this place should undergo an entire destruction and desolation, on account of the audacity of the inhabitants; because it was the residence of impious men. And just as the prediction was, are the results in fact remaining: the whole Temple and its walls', as well as those ornamented and beautiful buildings which were within it, and which exceeded all description, having suffered desolation from that time to this With time too this increases; and so has the power of the Word gone on destroying, that in many places no vestige of their foundations is now visible ! which any one who desires it may see with his own eyes. And should any one say that a few of the places are still existing, we may nevertheless justly expect the destruction of these also, as their ruin is daily increasing; the prophetic Word daily operating by a power which is unknown. I know too (for I have heard it from persons who interpret the passage differently) that this was not said on all the buildings, but only on that place which the disciples, when expressing their wonder upon it, pointed out to Him: for it was upon this that He spoke the prophetic Word?.” Thus far Eusebius. For myself, I look for the accomplishment of the prophecy in its widest and most literal sense; and expect that if there be still one stone left upon another, which at least is not certain, the mighty, though silent, operation of that wonder-working Word will in due time bring it down : and who can tell whether, before the time of the end, some second Julian may not renew the attempt to rebuild the Jewish temple, which antichrist alone shall rear”, and whether this attempt may not result in the destruction of such portions of it as remain 2

* This remark of Eusebius seems &nudata kau Béarpov kal Tolkā

decisive against Dr Robinson's theory of a restoration of the Temple Walls by Hadrian. Herr Krafft has the same idea; and wishes to identify the 30&ext{TrvXov of Hadrian with the fortress Antonia, on the ground that the 8wčekdrv\ov was formerly called dwaBabaot. But he fails to prove that Antonia was ever called by that name; and it is very arbitrary to extend the name of the steps (see above, p. 404, note 2) to the whole fortress. The buildings, &c. erected by Hadrian, are thus mentioned in the Paschal Chronicle: Kate Mov row vačv ráðv 'Iovčatww

röv čv "IepooroMüuous oxruce ra öðo

uepov kai retpdvvuqov kai 300Čekdrv\ov Trpiv čvouağuevov avaBabuoi kai Triu köðpav, Kai éméptoev riv tróAw els &nta duopoća" k. A. In ann. 3, Æl. Adriani. Ind. I. p. 254. ed. Paris. Tom. 1. p. 474. Ed. Niebuhr. Bonna, 1832; and see Du Cange's notes in loc. Tom. 11. p. 327, and the references. Orosius (cir. A.D. 416), having related the suppression of the Jewish revolt under Hadrian, says, “ Christianistantum civitate permissa, quam ipse in optimum statum murorum extructione reparavit, et MEliam vocari jussit.” Hist. cap. xv.

* Theoph. B. iv. c. 18. Lee's Trans. p.247. * St. Cyril foretold the defeat of

Julian's attempt, from his interpretation of 2 Thess. ii. 4. See the passage cited in Vol. 1. p. 254, note 1.





The necessity of any further remarks on Mr. Fergusson's theory may be thought to be superseded by the examination to which it has been submitted in the second Chapter of this Volume: for if I have there proved that the Dome of the Rock cannot be the Church of Constantine, the question is so far settled.

But Mr. Fergusson might feel aggrieved, were I to pass by without notice what he considers his strongest argument; and it is right that he should have the full benefit of it, if it may palliate the error which he has committed: for should his premises, founded on the architecture, prove to be correct, his conclusions, however false, will yet deserve indulgence. I proceed, therefore, to notice the conclusions which he attempts to establish on supposed architectural data.

Having assumed the Dome of the Rock as the Church of the Anastasis, and the Golden Gate as the Propylaeum of the Basilica of Constantine, of which Basilica no traces remain, he was compelled to shift the whole site of the Temple, (with its appurtenances, and all the traditions connected with it,) and of the Mosk which Abd-el-Melik erected over its ruins. The process was very simple, when historical and antiquarian testimony might be received or rejected ad libitum'. Supposing Dr. Robinson's theory of the ruined Arch to be correct 2, and the Jews' Wailing-place to be in the same line with it *, these remains must be taken, he thinks, to mark the west wall of the Outer Temple: then from the S. W. angle of the Haram he measures on the south and west walls 600 feet (= one stadium, = 400 cubits), and, from the extremities, draws the north" and east walls equal and parallel to the south and west walls respectively, (the S.W. angle being a right angle), and thus he forms a square of the dimensions required—by Josephus, at least, if not by the

* The Theory of the Temple is * Essay, pp. 11–13. propounded in the first part of the Es- * Ibid. pp. 16, 28. say, with which compare Plate VI. of * He finds this northern wall still

Restored Plans. existing ; “running parallel to the

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