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could tell it by the deadening of the rattle as occurrence with him that some sort of an the bell came between the upper bar and the apology was necessary for not bringing in breast of the gentle creature.

all four of them. After dinner we returned You always knew, too, when she was try- to the ranch by a somewhat shorter route, ing your front gate, - you could tell it by down a little creek, and as there were hunthe quicker rattle of the falling marbles. dreds of grouse of different kinds in the grass

After a while she would go away and then and bushes, the boys soon shot a grain bag you felt so thankful to your neighbor; for if full. Some distance farther down the rait had not been for the bell you could never vine three wild-cats ran across the path and have felt perfectly sure of a night that she climbed a little tree. Our hunters were out was not quietly feeding on your corn and of gun cartridges, but one of the ugly looking cabbage, or leisurely walking through your beasts was brought down by a well aimed flower garden.

revolver, when the other two concluded to But among the many other praiseworthy seek other climbs. qualities of this noble and highly ornamental The next morning we had our horses shod animal, that of early rising must not be for- and ourselves half soled, and pushed on for gotten. As regularly as the clock struck four Challis. The day proved one of the very her bell was heard just under my bedroom hottest, and we suffered intensely from the window. There was no more sleep, and so merciless


of the red-hot sun. with a feeling of profound thankfulness that I had heard of a hillside in this region I bad saved an hour or two of the very best (which I afterwards saw) where the landscape part of the day (for sleep), I was wont to of the opposite side of the cañon is by some arise and gnaw a post.

secretand mysterious processin Nature's dark

camera photographed on the flat surface of Verily it was a wild place out here on the many of the small slabs of slide-rock ; and I range, and the general effect would not have could not resist the feeling that the image of been much heightened had a band of Indians these fiercely heated rocks and mountain dressed in war paint come whooping over sides would be so seared into the tablet of my the hills.

brain that it would cling to me like a veritaThe boys told us that when they were out ble Old Man of the Sea, and forever refuse here a few weeks earlier they had come upon to be shaken off. Even now, while I write a band of four grizzly bears,--two old ones this page, though a snow-storm is howling and two yearling cubs. The boys were un- without, and the day would do honor to Labarmed, but one of them had a stout lasso rador, so cold is it, — the same dizzy, sickattached to the horn of his great Mexican ening, sinking sensation of exhaustion creeps saddle ; so, riding cautiously up, he threw the over me, as those thrice-heated rocks and noose around the neck of one of the “mid- hills, and mountain sides are called up in slow dle-sized bears ” and brought him into camp review. decidedly out of breath.— By which bit of in- But here we are in Challis at last, and this telligence I mean the bear was out of breath, will be a good place to stop and take breath, - the other party was as cool as though rop- and whatever else is good for the inner ing in grizzlies was so much of an every day man.

William J. Shoup.

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At sunset time we steal away

To where the sky is gleaming ;
To where the light that marks the day

Is all our heaven seaming.
And yet we seem full loth to go,
E'en tho the world is shadowed so.
But look back, with regretful eyes,
To where the world in twilight lies,
To where the world is dreaming.

Julie M. Lippmann.


Noi by the sea tide,

Nor the swift river,
Nor the stars that sweep thro' waste of heaven

Side by side

Forever and ever,
Do we mark man's life with its loss and gain.

Not by the leaf's fall,

Nor by spring rain,
Nor the atoms that drift thro' endless forms

Changing all

Tho' they changeless remain,
Do we count man's life with its hap and bane.

Not by the strong things,

Nor by things sweet,
Nor by the fair light of sun that speeds far

On swift wings,

Nor the wild winds that meet,
Do we time man's life with its dusk and day.

But by the strong will,

But by the soul's grace,
But by the yearnings that thread night and day

Soft and still,

Till they glow in his face,
Do we tell man's life forever and aye.

George Le Moine,



PROFESSOR BRYCE notes in a recent paper that when De Tocqueville visited America, in the early thirties, he was struck by the lack of "administration in the practical conduct of our government, and among other instances of this, by the indifference to making and keeping records. When he sought information on this or that statistical, or social, or historical matter, as to which official record would have been kept in European countries, he would find there were no papers to be had on the subject; or, again, he would be given important original papers and told he might keep them, - so little was documentary record then valued by the government. Our practice in this respect has altered very much since De Tocqueville's time: original documents are of course preserved with care; our decennial census collects an enormous quantity of most interesting and instructive data, even though they do not get fully into our hands until it is time for the next census; and the statistical bureaus and annual reports of executive officers, national, State, and municipal, supply reasonably exact information on many subjects. Yet it is still possible every day in the year for the unwary to enter upon important inquiries, supposing that all that is necessary will be to find the proper repository of official record in the matter, or at most to collate three or four records; and to discover that the desired knowledge is not to be had short of something very much like a house to house canvass, to collect the data of the research, item by item, from their primitive, individual sources. No one has better occasion to know this than the editor of a magazine that, like the OVERLAND, counts the social and socialindustrial problems of its region quite as much its affair as pure literature. To talk fluently about race relations, or the labor question, or the land question, or education in California, is a very easy matter; to gather a few facts, by a few days' inquiry, and work them into a superficial paper is scarcely harder, and it is an every-day reporter's trick to spread such facts over the ground with enough air of dignity and research to make them pass for something quite exhaustive. But to get standard information on these and many other things is no small matter. The rich ness of the English reviews in papers of sociological information must remain a matter of envy to us. American readers are not less interested than English ones in such writings; possibly they are more interested. Any one who, like Edward Atkinson, or Professor Hadley, Professor Ely, or Mrs. Campbell, or Dr. Gladden or Mrs. Lowell, takes up for serious investigation questions of fact that bear closely on human life, is eagerly read. Probably we demand a somewhat clearer and keener method of stating

facts and conclusions; doubtless we put up sometimes with a flimsier foundation of fact for the sake of this keener. way of putting it but it is not because we are less concerned to know the facts about ourselves than our British cousins that we get fewer of them It is because they are harder for us to get. Our arrangements for collecting facts for the regular use of the government are very much slenderer; and there are not nearly so many people among us in a position to conduct a private inquiry. It requires a great deal of expenditure of time and money and trouble to find out from the elements up a very few things.

IN several Eastern cities the very considerable amount of force lying unemployed among women is being turned to account in these directions. There has long been in New England a class of intelligent, well educated, energetic women, many of whom are unmarried and more or less at leisure; they have always been at hand and ready to take part in good works. As college education grows more general among them, it is visibly enabling them to turn their public spirit to more efficient account; to find the places in the social mechanism where there is need of more hands; to co-operate far more economically with the various beneficial activities going on in the intellectual world. The alumnæ associations have more than once quietly set to work, and gathered, from individual to individual, through many hundreds, the actual facts about some matter over which people had long been theorizing on a priori grounds. They are likely to continue to do this. It is a work that is needed; it is a work that must be done by educated people; and it is a work that no one without a good deal of spare time and money can do well alone, and one therefore peculiarly suited to the cooperative work of groups of people who understand how to work together.

IN California particularly there are many things that people talk a great deal about, but that nobody has really found out the exact facts about. The standing difficulty of insufficient labor in the State to harvest the fruit crop, and too much in the city to find employment; the controversy as to whether the present tendency here is toward the growth of great land holdings or the breaking up of these; the actual climates and distributions of products on the coast, distinguished from those of real estate pamphlets; and a hundred other matters that involve the collection at much pains of many facts, remain still in want of a collector. The labor commission has a good deal of information about one class of questions; the horticultural societies and boards of trade about another:

and there are several busy inen and women here who are exceedingly rich in well-assorted information on matters they have themselves come into connection with. But of people disposed to investigation in sociological or natural science, and able to go about and collect with judgment a great many facts from different sources, and to fairly and clearly systematize, generalize, and present to others' minds, these facts, - there are very few; and it would not be possible to make a long list of articles ever published here that could be called "standard authority" on subjects requiring research. The OVERLAND has special reason to perceive this, finding itself constantly confronted, when trying to obtain an article about some important matter, by the fact that there is no one who knows all about it, and no one with the time and equipment to find out all about it. There are always plenty of people who could gather cleverly and quickly a sort of reportorial knowledge of the whole subject and "write it up" with some skill; there are always several who could give sound and thorough contributions toward a knowledge of it; but rarely any more than this. By way of a single illustration: The OVERLAND has recently had a hand in an inquiry as to what was the poverty needing relief in San Francisco, and the charity occupied in relieving it. San Francisco has been notorious for lavish giving since its early days, and decided views about the amount of our charities have not lacked expression, in public cr in private. It was, therefore, surprising to find that no one had even the materials for a conjecture as to what that amount was. There are men and women in San Francisco whose whole time is given to the administration of charity, and who are reservoirs of information within their own lines; but not one, so far as we can find, who has ever known what were the other organizations and institutions for relief working alongside them, still less what these were doing, and but one or two who even came very near to knowing. In a city of 360,000 inhabitants and no widespread poverty such knowledge cannot be so very hard a thing to get : in a city of a million, with such social conditions as in London, or even in New York, it would be a different matter. The recent Associated Charities organization, and the college alumnæ association of this coast are both at work at present to bring together and put into serviceable shape the scattered information to be had relative to poverty and charity in this city. A preliminary report presented at the last meeting of the alumnæ estimated the annual expenditure of the various organized charities of the city, excepting those of the Catholic clerical orders, whose figures were not accessible, at over half a million dollars. The individual giving, at doors, and offices, and on the streets, and to private pensioners, is said to be larger in San Francisco than elsewhere; and altogether the amount

of money thus used is evidently enough to make organization in its use and accurate information as to its expenditure worth having.

Two Views of California.

You said you would like my impressions,
As soon as I'd taken them in,

Of all that is strange, in this country
Of dust and original sin.
To follow the true evolution,
From less things, to greater, I'll go, -
Their oysters are Eastern transplanted,
And seem less for taste than for show,
Their roses, though lovely, are scentless,
Their berries seem tasteless to me,
The birds sing all night, without ceasing,
All night, too, there biteth the flea,-
The mountains seem nude in their grandeur,
The climate 's a trifle too dry,

The natives are handsome but thriftless,
They let all their chances go by.

They have no assistance to culture,
Society 's still somewhat crude,

I've been here just three weeks next Tuesday;
I'm awfully homesick.-Gertrude.


IN answer to my last effusion

You send me this letter, to show

My thoughts of this country and people
Those five years, so long, long ago.
The dust that I spoke of is golden,—
And as to original Sin,

The best Chinaman in the country,
I'm pleased to have taken him in,
The oysters, like everything Eastern,
Brought out to this glorious land,
Grow larger, and better, and richer,-
Excepting, indeed, when they 're canned.
The roses, sweet things, do seem scentless,
The tuberose and orange so fill

The air with their perfume o'erpowering,
'Tis treating the other blooms ill.

The mocking-bird sings in the night-time,-
The nightingale's melody 's his,
The flea is an hallucination,

Your science can't prove that he is.
Our mountains, like beauty ungarnished,
Stand up in their nakedness grand,
The climate indeed is perfection,
Its praises are sung through the land.
The natives don't lose all their chances,
Since one of them captured your friend.
And now to my knee comes a wee one,
Who puts to this letter an end.

Helen Elliott Bandini.


Two Books of American Biography. Edward Everett Hale's Life of George Washington1 and McMaster's life of Benjamin Franklin treat of their subjects from somewhat different standpoints. Mr. Hale's endeavor is to penetrate the haze that veneration has cast about George Washington and to find the man within. He would have liked, he says, to write "the life of Washington, with the omission of the French War, the Revolution, and the Presidency."

Washington's public career has been written sufficiently in Irving's Life, and in all the good histories of this country, but his private life is less known to the general reader. For the presentation of Washington in this light Mr. Hale finds abundant material in Washington's diaries and letters, much of it never having been printed before. By the aid of copious use of Washington's own record concerning himself, which is naturally more abundant in those quieter times in his life that left room for friendly correspondence, there is presented to us a close review of George Washington, the man. Not that his character loses anything of its large proportions when so viewed; rather that we learn what there was in the man behind his public functions that enabled him to present so imposing a front to friend and foe in all vicissitudes of victory and defeat.

It is encouraging rather than disappointing to ordinary mortals to find that this man who was so great and good could write a stinging letter to an unfaithful agent, and that he bought lottery tickets and was interested to know whether or no he had drawn a prize. It is, moreover, well for this generation to read of the simple, healthful home life that afforded scope for the development of the virtues that stood his country in such good stead.

Thus, while not powerful in the sense of exciting wonder or surprise, the book is, like all of Mr. Hale's work, full of that gentle power that makes the good beautiful, and it will be a decided help to Americans that realize the value of the heritage left to them in the lives of the fathers.

But what shall be said of McMaster's Franklin? In the "American Men of Letters" series, it treats of its subject chiefly as a writer, and yet not so exclusively that it leaves the man untouched. Perhaps, indeed, it would be better if it had. It is hard to

"The Life of George Washington Studied Anew. By Edward Everett Hale. New York and London: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1888. For sale in San Francisco by Samuel Carson & Co.


2Benjamin Franklin as a Man of Letters. By John Bach McMaster. 'American Men of Letters" Series. Boston Houghton, Mifflin, & Co. 1887.

understand the character of Franklin, or how such a man could have had origin in Puritanic Boston. Absolutely free from all prejudices even in favor of the right, he is full of strange contradictions, a libertine and a moralist, a spendthrift and Poor Richard, the patriot, statesman, and scientific discoverer, and yet the pet of the French society of before "the deluge." He wore the garb of the Quaker and yet suffered from the gout. Some of his writings will live as long as the English language, and some have been found too indecent to print, and these latter not written in the flush of youth, but when he was approaching his three score and ten.

Now for the net result of the book. Is it well to study into the defects of a character that presents many points of greatness, and to destroy illusions regarding the man who, next to Washington, made America? The reader must answer for himself, and Mr. McMaster's book must stand or fall by the de


Professor Peabody's Moral Philosophy.s

This is a series of lectures delivered before the students of Harvard Divinity School. The effort has been to present ethical science in popular form, and with sufficient of applied ethics to keep the interest of the reader engaged. The position regarding ethical truth is, that it is closely allied to religion, and more especially to the Christian religion.

Nearly all questions of the day having ethical bearing are mentioned as they occur in the discussions of the principles on which they depend, and we have Professor Peabody's thought on dress reform as well as on many graver subjects.

The ground of the distinction between right and wrong, a crucial point in every ethical system, is found in fitness; the right is that which accords with the natural order of things, the wrong that which does not so accord, the fitting and the unfitting. Other systems are shown to have no such ground for the distinction.


In the vexed question whether it is ever justifiable to lie, Professor Peabody takes the ground that there may possibly be such circumstances as to make it right, but that they are so entirely exceptional, and any admission of doubt in such matters so sure to be stretched to cover unwarranted cases, that as teacher of morals, he can lay down no class of circumstances that justify a departure from truthfulness,

8 Moral Philosophy. D., LL.D., Professor in Lee & Shepard. 1887. Samuel Carson & Co.

By Andrew P. Peabody, D. Harvard University. Boston: For sale in San Francisco by

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