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BAHADOOR, Sir Jckg. See page 880.
BAHAMAS, or Lucay'os, a chain of islands stretching in a n.w. direction from the neighborhood of the n. coast of Hayti to that of the e. coast of Florida. From Florida they are separated by the channel through which flows the gulf stream (q.v.); and from Cuba, by the old Bahama channel. These are the principal passages between the open ocean and the gulf of Mexico. The chain extends in n. lat. from 20" 55' to 27° 81', and in w. long, from 72° 40' to 79° 5', having an entire length from n.w. to s.e. of about 550 m.; and it rests mainly on two shoals—the Great Bank to the s., and the Little Bank to the n. There are upwards of 3000 islands and rocks, but only about 30 of any size. The chief members of the group, if reckoned from the n.w., are these: Great Bahama; Abaco; Eleuthera: New Providence; Andros; Guanahani or Cat island, or San Salvador; Wat ling's island; Exuma; Longisland; Crooked islands; Maricuana; Inagua; Little Inagua, Caicos; Turk's island.
The area is 5390 sq.m.; and in 1881 the pop. was 43,521. The pop. of Turk's island, officially separate from the B., is 4723. The revenue of the B. in 1880 was £42.950; the expenditure, £43,650. The value of the total imports in 1880 was £180,800; of the exports, £43,650. The islands generally are of reef-like shape, long, narrow, and low. With very little appearance of soil, they derive considerable fertility from the tendency of the porous rock to retain moisture. Besides excellent pasturage, they yield guineacorn, maize, cotton, pine-apples, lemons, oranges, pimento, and a species of cinnamon. In the larger islands, too, there is excellent timber. Cotton cultivation received a great impulse during the American civil war. During the summer, the temperature ranges from 73° to 93* F.; but in the winter the climate is so delightfully temperate as to be generally prescribed in the United States for pulmonary complaints. The annua! fall of rain is from 43 to 45 in., being heaviest in Oct., Nov., and Dec, but pretty equally distributed over the other months. On Oct. 1, 1866, a furious and most destructive cyclone visited the Bahamas.
The B. were Columbus's earliest discovery. But the precise spot of his first landing has not been ascertained. Guanahani or Cat island has generally been believed to be the San Salvador of Columbus; but recent investigations appear to have transferred the honor to Watling's island, situated a little further to the east. The B. having been depopulated, but not again colonized, by the Spaniards, were occupied by the English in 1629—to whom, after various vicissitudes of fortune in the wars with Spain and France, they were ultimately secured by the treaty of 1783. Nassau, in New Providence, is llie seat of government, and has recently teen greatly improved both as town and port. During the American civil war, Nassau became the station for vessels about to run the blockade of the southern ports, and thence derived unexampled prosperity; and so far as agriculture is concerned, the impulse then received has been maintained by the Bahamas.
BAHAB (also spelt Bf.har and Bihar), one of the old Mohammedan provinces of India, occupying part of the valley of the Ganges, and named after its chief town, a city which in 1872 had a pop of 44,295. B. is now one of the provinces of lower Bengal, and is divided into the two commissionerships of Patna and Bhngulpore, which are again subdivided into 12 administrative districts. The area of the province is 42,417 sq.m., and the pop. (1872) 19,736,101, giving an average of 553 persons to the sq. mile. The name B. was also given to one of the administrative districts, now officially called Gayabi. Roads and bridges can nsithcr be well made nor thoroughly repaired, where, during nearly half the year, the surface of the country is inundated, and torn by innumerable torrents. In the dry season, the beds of the fivers present only detached pools. Among the minerals, the most important are coal and mica. The latter, nearly as pellucid as glass, is sometimes found in blocks, yielding plates of 36 in. by 18. Potatoes, cabbages, cauliflower, lettuces, turnips, etc., have been introduced from Europe, and succeed well. Of indigenous productions, the most considerable are rice, pulse, sugar, cotton, indigo, and tobacco. The district is largely engaged in the manufacturing of muslins, silks, carpets, blankets, tents, tapes, threads, ropes, paper, glass, cutlery, jewelry, leather, ink. soap, and pottery. Ardent spirits, too, are extensively distilled from The flowers of the basxia latifolia (q.v.). Before the days even of Moslem domination B. appears to have been the center of a Hindu empire, which native accounts describe as of matchless splendor, and of fabulous duration.
BAHAB', or Behar, a t. of Bengal, 34 m. s.e. by s. from Patna, the chief t. of a British district of the same name (see Baiiar). According to the census returns of 1871, it contains a pop. of 44,295. The original city is nearly deserted, and the present town consists of houses scattered about its remains, and interspersed with fields, gardens, and groves. There arc some remains of fine mosques. The ruin of this town began with its sack by the Mahrattas about 1742, and was completed bv famine some years after.— The present district of Bahar is but a small portion of tlie great province which was called by that name in the empire of Delhi.
BAHI'A, capital of the Brazilian province of the same name. It is otherwise called San Salvador—the more usual term being taken from BnJiia de Tndos-o>-8antos, or bay of All Saints, on which it is situated, iu lat. 13° 1' s., and long. 38° 32' w. B. contained, in 1874. 152,000 inhabitants, pretty equally divided between whites, blacks, and mulattoes. B. has an exchange, arsenal, and imperial dockyard, besides many ecclesiastical Bmhla. 114.
and public institutions; and is the point of departure for a railway line. It is connected by submarine telegraph with Pernambuco, Para, and Rio. The value of imports of foreign goods into B. in 1874, was £1,455,985; and the value of exports in the same year, £1,384,349. The chief exports of B. are sugar, cotton, coffee, tobacco, rice, rum, dye-stuffs, fancy woods,, cocoa-nuts, horns, hides, diamonds, and bullion; and it imports manufactured goods, provisions, flour, salt, iron, glass, and wines. B. is the oldest city in Brazil, having been founded by the first captain-general of the country, and was long the capital of the colony. As a port, B. is unrivaled.
BAHI'A, a province of Brazil, about the middle of the coast, taking its name from its chief city. It extends in s. lat. from 10° to 16°, and in .w. long, from 37° to 44°. Pop. in 1873 was 1,450,000. The wealth of B., consisting in valuable timber, in rich mines of gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, in deposits of potash, alum, etc., is in great measure lost for want of good roads. The interior contains lofty sierras; but the maritime districts are fertile, being well watered by the Itapicuru, Contas, and other rivers. Besides the streams that flow through B.. the ban Francisco, a vastly larger river, forms about half of the inland boundary, dividing this province from that of Pernambuco.
BAHI'A HONDA, a harbor on the n. coast of Cuba, 60 in. w.s.w. of Havana, protected by a fort, and formerly much resorted to by privateers and slavers.
BAHNA'SA, or Behne'seh, a t. of central Egypt, on the Bahr Yousef (Joseph's canal). It is noteworthy as the site of the ancient Oxyrynchus, celebrated for its numerous monasteries, the ruins of which are still to be seen.
BAHR, an Arabic word signifying a large body of water, is applied both to lakes and rivers.—Bahr-el-abiad (the White river), and Bahr-el-azrak (the Blue river), are the chief branches of the Nile (q.v.).—Bahr-assal is lake Assal (q. v.).—Bahr-belaMa (the Sea without Water), a long, deep valley in the desert w. from Cairo. It is completely barren, but has the appearance of having been once a watercourse.
BAHR, Jon. Christian Felix, an eminent German philologer and critic, was b. 1798, at Darmstadt. He was educated at the Heidelberg gymnasium and university, where he gained the favor and friendship of Creuzer, whose symbolic system of interpretation in mythological matters he himself pursued at a later period. He was elected a professor in 1826. Previous to this, he had occupied himself chiefly with the elucidation and criticism of Plutarch, the result of which was an annotated edition of AlcUxiade* (Heid. 1822), and of Philopoemen, Flaminius, Pyrrhus (Leip. 1826). At the same time, he collected and published the fragments of Ctesias. But a greater interest was excited by his History of Roman, Literature (1828), which is noted for its clearness and comprehensiveness. Three supplements to this work also appeared: The Christian Poet* and Historians of Rome (1836), The Christian-Roman Theology (1837), and the History of Roman Literature in the Carlotingian Period (1840). One of his most important works is his version of Herodotus 1832-35. In 1835, he published his De Universitate Constantinopoli Quinto Smculo Conditd. He likewise contributed numerous articles to Jalm's Jahrbilcher far Philologie, and other works. He d. 27th Nov., 1872.
BAHRDT, Karl Fiuedrich, a German theologian of the extreme skeptical school, was born, 1741, at Bischofswerda, in Saxony, and studied at Leipsic, where he soon displayed extraordinary talents, and some restlessness of disposition. His early theological writings betrayed the skeptical tendencies which were afterwards more fully developed. On account of his immoral conduct, however, he was, in 1768, compelled to leave Leipsic, where he had been a popular preacher. In Erfurt, his next residence, ho was appointed professor of philosophy and Hebrew antiquities, and wrote Letters on a Systematic Theology, and Aspirations of a Mute Patriot, two works whose heterodoxy involved him in controversies, and made his position untenable. In 1771, he went to Giessen, where he delivered theological lectures, and preached with approbation. His translation of the New Testament was regarded as so dangerous, that the author was deprived of the privilege of teaching. His creed, in fact, was simple deism, and one of the chief points in his theology was his rejection of miracles. Even the immortality of the soul was not positively maintained in his works. Ultimately, after attempting to establish various institutions, he was reduced to the position of a tavern-keeper; and as he still persevered in his attacks on orthodoxy, he was imprisoned for one year at Magdeburg, where he wrote an autobiography. Among his other works are The Religious Edict (a satire on the Prussian religious edict of 1788), and The German Union. He died at Halle, April 23, 1792.
BAHRDT, Karl Friedricr, D.d., 1741-92; a German professor of theology, whose attacks upon orthodoxy and the clergy resulted in a year's imprisonment at Magdeburg. He contested the authority of miracles, and was in every way a severe critic of Scripture. His conduct was notoriously irregular; atone time he lectured on moral philosophy in the forenoon, and in the afternoon officiated as landlord of a publio house.
BAHREIN ISLANDS, or Aval Islands, a group of islands lying in the Persian gulf. The most important of these is Bahrein, or Avfil, about 27 m. long, and 10 broad. It is hilly in the center, but the soil generally is fertile, and produces dates, figs, and other eastern fruit, besides wheat and barley. Bahrein is badly cultivated. 1 1 K HBhl».
Spring-water is plentiful in the Interior, but on the coast it can only he procured from the bottom of the sea, where it springs up quite fresh, and is brought up by divers in skins. Manama, the capital, in lat. 20° 12' n., and long. 50° 39' e., has a good harbor on the n., but a safer though smaller one on the south. The B. I. are chiefly remarkable for their peart fisheries, which were known in ancient times, and whicli employ, during the season, from 2000 to 3000 boats, each manned with from 8 to 20 men. The annual value of the pearls is estimated at from £200,000 to £300,000. Tortoise-shell, sharkfins, and dates are also articles of export. The islands, which have been subject to a good many political changes, are now inhabited by Arabs. Pop. 68,000.
BAIJE a small t. of antiquity, on the coast of Campania, 10 m. w. of Naples, where the present castle of Baja stands. When the Roman empire was in its greatest •plendor, the beauty of its situation, the fineness of the surrounding scenery, and the excellence of its mineral springs, made B. such a favorite resort of the Roman nobles, that for want of space for their baths and villas they encroached on the sea. Julius Caesar, Piso, Pompey, Marius, Julia Mammu-a, and others, had country-houses at Bain;. Horace preferred B. to all other places in the world. Seneca warned every one who desired to maintain dominion over his passions, to avoid this watering-place. Cicero thought it necessary to excuse himself for undertaking the defense of Marcus Coalius, a man who had often visited B., for B. was considered by the stricter moralists of those times as the abode of voluptuousness and luxury, and a den of vice. The ruins, still standing on the desolate coast, or rising from the sea, are now the only evidence of the former magnificence of B., whose population, dwelling in mean hovels, only amounts to 800. The ruins of three supposed temples—one of Venus, one of Mcrcury( and one of Diana Lucifera—as well as the remains of a few tlierma, or warm baths, still attract the attention of archaeologists. The harbor, one of the largest belonging to the Romans, is now much destroyed. The surrounding country is covered with the ruins of Roman villas, sepulchral monuments, and other buildings.
BAIKAL (in Turkish, Bei-kul, i.e.,.Rich Lake) is, after the Caspian sea and the sea of Aral, the largest lake of Asia. It is a fresh-water lake, and is situated m the s. of Siberia, in the gov. of Irkutsk, near the great military road between Moscow, Kiuchta, and the mines of Nertschinsk. Lat. 51° 20' to 55° 30' n., long. 103° to 110' e. It somewhat resembles a sickle in shape, and varies considerably in breadth. Between the mouths of the Selenga and the Buguldeicha, it is only 19 m. across. Its length is 370 m., and its breadth 20 to 70 m.; height above the sea, 1363 ft.; depth in center very great. The Baikal mountains, a spur of the Altai, inclose the lake, which is fed by numerous streams, the chief of which are the Selenga and Bargusin. Its outlet is by the lower Angara, a chief tributary of the Yenisei; but the river is inconsiderable in size compared to those which flow into the lake. It has several islands, the largest of which, Olkon, has a length of 30 miles. B., which forms an important link in the chain of communication between Russia and China, has two commercial ports, and of recent years, steamboats have given a considerable impetus to its trade. Its sturgeon and seal fisheries are valuable, and large quantities of a fish resembling a herring are also caught in it. A peculiar fish, called the golomynka (caUionymu* biiimhims), which is almost one mass of fat, yielding beautiful train-oil, was at one time caught, in immense numl>ers, but it is now much scarcer. The surface of the lake is frozen from Nov. to April, but the traffic is carried on over the ice. Besides the Russians settled on the banks of the Selenga and Angara, the shores of lake B. are also inhabited by tribes of the Burates and Tuuguses. BAIKIE, "william Balfour, 1825-64; a native of the Orkney islands. He joined the British navy, in which his father was a captain, and was made surgeon and naturalist to the Niger expedition in 1864. The senior officer died before reaching Africa, and B. took command. He explored the Niger for 250 m. in a small steamer, making a voyage of 118 days. In 1857, he was in a second expedition, the vessel of which was wrecked, and »11 except himself returned to England. He remained and settled for a time, with none but native assistants, at the confluence of the Benue and the Quorra. He formed a sort of commonwealth, in which ho was not only a ruler, but teacher, priest, and physician. Within five years he opened the Niger to navigation, made roads, and established a market for the native trade. He studied and made vocabularies of nearly 50 native dialects, and translated into Hausa portions of the Bible and prayer book. Only once during his residence was he compelled to use armed force against the surrounding tribes.
BAIL is a technical term in the practice of the law both in England and Scotland, witli this difference, that, in England, it is used both in civil and criminal procedure, whereas in Scotland it is applied exclusively to the latter. By B. is understood the security given by sufficient sureties for the appearance in court on a day, and at a place certain, of a person arrested or imprisoned, and who, in consequence of such security or B., is in the meantime set at liberty, Such security, however, involves the assumption of the custody of the arrested or imprisoned party by his B., the meaning of the rule being that the party arrested or imprisoned is delivered into the hands of those who bind themselves for his forthcoming, in order that he may be protected from prison until he has to make his personal appearance; and in this sense, it differed from the old terra, mainprize, now obsolete, and which signified a mere security without any other or corresponding guarantee, as in the case of bail. A technical and necessary distinction