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the latter in his theater at Great Windmill street. His success in this capacity was so great, that on the death of Dr. Hunter, in 1783, he was found qualified to become his successor. In 1784, he began to lecture, and acquired a high reputation as a vigorous and lucid expositor of the science of anatomy. In 1795, he published a small work entitled The Morbid Anatomy of Some of the Most Important Paris of the Human Body. It made an era in medical science. In addition to the information formerly scattered through the writings of Bonnetus, Lieutaud, Montagni, and others, it contained a multitude of ingenious observations made by his uncle and himself, and greatly enhanced our knowledge of the changes produced on the human frame by disease. It had a remarkable influence on the study of medicine, and excited in a greater measure, perhaps than any other book, a spirit of careful induction among professional men. In 1799, Dr. B. relinquished his anatomical lectureship, and in 1800, his appointment as physician to St. George's hospital, which he had held for 13 years. He now devoted himself exclusively to his duties as a medical practitioner, and by his honorable assiduity succeeded in realizing a large fortune. In one of his busiest years, when he had scarcely time to take a single meal, his professional income is said to have reached £10,000. In 1810, he was appointed physician to the king, and offered a baronetcv, which, however, he declined. At last, worn out with incessant labor, he died on the 23d Sept. 1823.
BAILLIE, Robert, one of the most eminent, and perhaps the most moderate of all the Scotch Presbyterian clergy during the time of the civil war, was b. at Glasgow in 1599, and educated at the university of that city. In 1622, he received episcopal ordination—episcopacy being then nominally the established religion of the country—from archbishop Law, and was shortly after presented to the parish church of Kilwinning. At first a maintainer of the doctrine of passive obedience, he seems to have changed his opinions on this point some time during 1630-36. In 1638, he sat in that famous general assembly of the Kirk of Scotland which met in Glasgow to protest against episcopacy being thrust on an unwilling people, but conducted himself with greatei prudence and temperance than was quite agreeable to his excited brethren. However, he soon threw himself eagerly into the national cause. In 1640, lie was selected by the Scottish leaders, on account of his pamphlet against Laud's party, as a proper person to go to London, along with other commissioners, to prepare charges against archbishop Laud, whose rash and tyrannical measures were alleged to have been the origin of the recent hostilities against the sovereign. On his return to Scotland in 1642, he was appointed joint-professor of divinity at Glasgow, along with Mr. David Dickson, an equally distinguished, but less moderate divine. In 1643, he was again sent to London as a delegate to the Westminster assembly of divines, where he conducted himself in an unobtrusive manner, but cordially concurred in the doctrines which were drawn up. It is curious to notice, in connection with this incident of his career, that though Mr. B. had himself experienced the injustice of intolerance, like almost every other theologian of his age, he vehemently discarded the principle of toleration, and asserted the divine right of Presbytery with as much emphasis as Laud did the divine right of Episcopacy. Alter the execution of Charles I., in 1649, B. was chosen by the church to proceed to Holland, and to invite Charles II. to accept the covenant and crown of Scotland. Though it was not easy to deal with one of Charles's slippery character, B. is admitted to have borne himself in the matter with great prudence and dignity. After the restoration, he was made principal of Glasgow university. He died July, 1662. His Letters are a valuable contribution to our knowledge of the times.
BAILLIE, Robert, of Jerviswood, happily described as the Scottish Sydney, was a native of Lanarkshire, and distinguished himself during the latter part of the reign of Charles II. by his bold opposition to the tyrannical misgoverumeut of the duke of Lauderdale. "Having on a certain occasion (June, 1676) rescued a relative, the Rev. Mr. Kirkton, from the clutches of archbishop Sharpe's principal informer, a wretched profligate of the name of Carstairs, who pretended that he had a warrant for the apprehension of the clergyman, but refused to show it, B. was actually prosecuted for interfering to prevent the "illegal capture of his friend. For this purpose an antedated warrant was furnished to Carstairs, signed by nine of the councillors. The marquis of Athcle afterwards admitted to bishop Burnet that he was one of the nine who lent their names to this infamous document. The case was therefore made out to be a tumult against the government. B. was fined in 6000 marks (£318). He refused to pay, and was sent to prison: but so strong was the indignation of the Scottish gentry tliat'he was released at the end of four months, in consideration of payment of one half of his fine to Carstairs. In 1683, B. took a prominent part in a scheme of emigration to South Carolina, as he saw no other refuge from the degrading tyranny of the government. About the same time, however, he entered into correspondence with the heads of the new puritan party in London, whose leaders were Russell, Sydney, and the duke of Monmouth, and subsequently repaired to that city to concert measures for a vigorous insurrection against the government, not, however, so far as he was concerned, with a view to revolution, but as the only means of securing adequate reforms. On the discovery of the Ryehouse plot, B. was arrested and sent down to Scotland. Accused of conspiring against the king's life, and of being hostile to monarchical government, B. was tried at Edinburgh, and condemned to death upon evidence at once insufficient and illegal. His bearing both on his trial and during
his imprisonment was such, that his cousin, bishop Burnet, declared "it looked like the reviving of the spirit of the noblest of the old Greeks or Romans, or rather of the primitive Christians and first martyrs;" and the celebrated Dr. Owen speaks of him as a "great spirit," "apersonof the greatest abilities I almost ever met with." The sentence was carried into execution on the 34th Dec, 1684. It is to be regretted that so few opportunities were afforded B. of achieving anything really great, for he seems from all accounts to have possessed a remarkable strength of character and noble fearlessness of spirit.
BAILLY, Antojne Nicolas. See page 880.
BAILLY, Jean Bylvain, a distinguished French savant, president of the national assembly of 1789, and mayor of Paris, was b. in that city Sept. 15,1736. Originally intended by his father for an artist, he first turned aside into literature, until, becoming acquainted with Lacaille, he was fortunately induced to study astronomy, which proved to be the true sphere of his genius. In 1763, B. presented to the academie des sciences his Lunar Observations; in 1766 appeared his Essay on the Satellites of Jupiter, with Table* of their Motions; and in 1771, a treatise on the light of these satellites, remarkable for the profundity of its astronomical views, and which classed him at once among the greatest astronomers of his time. His historico-scientific works, especially his IEstory of Indian Astronomy, are full of learning and ingenious disquisition, and written with great elegance. In 1777 he published his Letters on the Origin of tiie Sciences; and in 1799 his Atlantis of Plato. In 1784 he was elected a member of the academie francaise; and in the following year, of the academie des inscriptions. The eloges which he wrote about this period for the academie des sciences on Charles V., Moliere, Corneile, Lacaille, Leibnitz, Cook, and Gresset, were very highly praised. Fontenelle was the only Frenchman before him who had enjoyed the honor of being a member of the three academies at once. The revolution interrupted his peaceful studies. During the earlier part of it he occupied a very prominent position. Elected president of the national assembly, June 17,1789, and mayor of Paris on the 15th of July, he conducted himself in these capacities with great integrity and purity of purpose; but at last lost his popularity by allowing the national guard to fire on the masses who were assembled in the Champs de Mars, on the 17th of July, 1791, to demand the dethronement of the king. He now threw up his mayoralty, considering it impossible to satisfy either party, withdrew alto
fether from public affairs, and went to live first at Nantes, and afterwards with his friend .aplace at Melun. Here he was seized by the Jacobin soldiery and brought to Paris, where he was accused of being a royalist conspirator, condemned and executed with the usual Jacobin preliminary of savage insult. Nov. 11, 1793. Among his papers were found, and afterwards published, an Essay on the Origin of Fables and Ancient Religion* (1799), and Memoirs of the Revolution by an Eye-Witness (1804). There cannot be two opinions regarding the merit of B.'b style, but his historico-astronomical speculations are now considered fantastic.
BAILMENT, an English law term, defined to be "a delivery of goods for a particular purpose, upon a contract, expressed or implied, that the purpose shall be carried into effect, and that, when that is done, the goods shall be restored by the bailee, or person to whom they are delivered, to the owner or bailor, or according to its directions."— Tomlin's Did.
BAILMENT (ante), the delivery of something of a personal nature by one party to another, to be held according to the purpose or object of the delivery, and to be returned, or delivered over, when that purpose is accomplished. B. may be divided into three kinds: 1. For the benefit of the bailor, or some person whom he represents. 2. For the benefit of the bailee, or some person represented by him. 3. For the benefit of both parties. In the first class, the bailee is required to exercise only slight care, and is responsible only for gross neglect. In the second he must exercise greater care, and is held for slight neglect. In the third he is to exercise ordinary care, and is responsible for a neglect not extraordinary. A person receiving the goods of another to keep without recompense, acting in good faith and keeping them as he would his own, is not answerable for their injury or loss; for, as he derives no benefit, he is responsible only for bad fault or gross neglect. This responsibility may be more or less by special acceptance, and a spontaneous offer on the part of the bailee may require him to be more careful. But tne borrower who receives the entire benefit of the B. must use extraordinary diligence in the care of the property, and may be held for the slightest neglect. It must be used by him only for the purposes for which it was borrowed; he cannot keep it beyond the specified time, nor hold it as a pledge for demands otherwise made against the bailor. In the third class, the benefits are reciprocal, and advantage accrues to both parties ; the parties stand upon equal footing, and neither can require more than ordinary care and prudence. In B. the depositary has the right of possession against any but the true owner. A borrower has no property in the thing borrowed, but may proteet his possession by action against a wrong-doer. The hire of things for use transfers a special property in them for the use agreed upon; the price paid is tho consideration for the use, and the hirer becomes for the time proprietor of the things bailed, having the right to keep them for the time agreed upon. In general, the hire of labor and services is the essence of every species of bailment in which compensation is to be given for care and attention bestowed upon the things bailed. The contracts of.
■warehousemen, carriers, forwarding and commission merchants, factors, and all who receive goods to deliver, carry, forward, sell, or keep, are of this nature, and involve the hiring of services. In a more limited sense, a B. for labor and services is a contract by which materials are delivered to a laborer or artisan to be wrought into some other form. The title remains with the party delivering the goods, and the workman acquires a lien upon them for his services. The owner may reclaim his property after the work is done, but the laborer can hold it until he is paid. Inn-keepers and common carriers are held responsible for goods intrusted to them except against inevitable accident, or against the public enemy. They are in effect insurers. The inn-keeper is responsible for the property of a guest, though it may be lost by theft. The common earner is responsible in case of loss by fire, unless caused by lightning or tempest.
BAILLY, Joseph A. See page 881.
BAILT, Edward Hodges, R.a., an eminent sculptor, was b. at Bristol on the 10th Mar., 1788. In 1807 he went to London, saw Flaxmau, and entered his studio. In 1809 he gained the silver medal at the society of arts and sciences, and the silver and gold medals at the royal academy. His works during this part of his career were chiefly, if not altogether, classical figures. They exhibit great care in execution, and are simple and pure in conception; but it was not till his twenty-sixth year that the full power and originality of his genius manifested itself in his celebrated "Eve at the Fountain," a figure of exquisite grace and loveliness. His next works were, "Hercules Casting Lycus into the Sea," "Apollo Discharging his Arrows," and " Maternal Love." George IV. also employed him, along with other artists, to execute the sculpture in front of Buckingham palace, the figures on the marble arch, and the "Triumph of Britannia," as also the bami-relievi that surround the throne-room. Besides these, B. executed a great number of busts and statues of distinguished contemporaries, such as Telford the engineer, earl Grey (14 ft. high), and Sir Astley Cooper. The statue of Kelson, in Trafalgar square, is likewise the work of his hands. His " Eve Listening to the Voice," and the " Sleeping Nymph " are among the finest efforts of his genius. I). 22d May, 1867.
BAILT, Francis, an eminent English astronomer, was b. at Newbury, Berks, in 1774, and d. in London, in 1844. In the midst of active business as a London stockbroker, he laid the foundation of his scientific fame, and during the years of life usually devoted to repose, underwent labors and rendered services to astronomy, which entitle him to be regarded as one of the most remarkable men of his time. Among the chief of these services were his share in the foundation of the astronomical society, and in the improvement of the Nautical Almanac, his laborious repetition of Cavendish's pendulum experiments, and the production of the astronomical society's star-catalogue. The latter, says his biographer, Sir J. Herschel, "put the astronomical world in possession of a power, which may be said, without exaggeration, to have changed the face of sidereal astronomy." In addition to several standard works on life-annuities, etc. (1808-18), and an immense mass of contributions to the Memoirs of the Astronomical Society, he wrote a valuable Life of frlamsteed (1835), which gave rise to much hot discussion on the subject of that eminent man's connection with Newton.
BAIN, Alexander, writer on mental philosophy, was b. at Aberdeen in 1818. He entered Marischal college and university in 1836, and graduated in 1840. From 1841 to 1844, he assisted the professor of moral philosophy in Marischal college, and in 1844-45, taught the class of natural philosophy. In the winter of 1845-46, he lectured on natural philosophy in the Andersonian university, Glasgow. In 1847, he became assistant-secretary to the metropolitan sanitary committee, and was thence transferred to the same office in the general board of health, which office he resigned in 1850. From 1857 to 1862, and from 1864 to 1869, he was examiner in iogic and moral philosophy in the university of London. For several years he acted as examiner in mental philosophy at the India civil service examinations. In 1860, he became professor of logic in the university of Aberdeen. In 1881, he resigned his chair and was elected rector of the university.
Mr. B. began as a writer in 1840, by contributing to the Westminster Renew. He also contributed a considerable number of treatises to the publications of W. and R. Chambers, especially in the educational department; among them was an edition of the Moral Philosophy of Paley, with Dissertations and Notes (1*52). In 1855, he brought out Hi* Senses and the Intellect, and in 1*59, The Emotions and the Will, completing a system of the human mind. In 1861, appeared The Study of Character, including an Examination of Phrenology. In 1863, he published an English Grammar, and in 1866, a Manual of English Composition and R/ietoric. In 1868 appeared his Mental and Moral Science, a Compendium of Psychology and Ethics; in 1870, Logic, Deductive and Inductive; in 1872, A Higher English Grammar; in 1874, Companion to the Higher English Grammar. In 1872, he acted with prof. Robertson in preparing for publication Mr. Qrote's posthumous treatise on Aristotle; and, in 1873, edited Grote's minor works. Among other works are : Education cut a Science (1873); James Mill, a Biography, and John Stuart Mill, a Criticism (1881).
As a thinker and writer, B. is remarkable for the subtlety and minuteness of his analysis, and the clearness of his exposition. He belongs decidedly to the empirical or exnerimental school of philosophy, in opposition to the a priori, or transcendental. His riiief work. The Senses and the Intellect, together with The Emotions and the Will, is tho most complete systematic exposition of the phenomena of the human mind in the
English or perhaps in any language. B.'s psychology is based on physiology, after the manner of Hartley's; but instead of considering the human organism as capable only of receiving impressions and of acting in response thereto, he finds in it a power of originating active impulses (see Spontaneity), and thus obviates many of the defects alleged by a priori philosophers to inhere in the system of sensationalism, as hitherto exhibited.
BAIN, Alexander. See page 881.
BAINBRIDGE, William, 1774-1833; b. N. J.; a naval officer commissioned lieutenant in the reconstruction of the service in 1798. In that year his vessel was captured by the French, and he and his officers were kept prisoners for more than a year. In 1800, he transported a large sum of money to the dey of Algiers, who compelled him to convey an embassy to Constantinople. In the war against Tripoli he commanded the frigate Philadelphia and captured a frigate from the enemy; but his ship got aground, and he and over 300 men were kept prisoners until the close of the war. He was captain in 1806; and commodore in 1812, when he took command of the Constitution as his flag-ship, and went on a cruise with the Essex and Hornet. Off San Salvador, Dec. 26, he captured the British frigate Java. In 1815, he commanded a fleet of 20 ships intended to move against Algiers, but the impending war was avoided. During his career he was in command in the Mediterranean some half a dozen times, and settled several disputes with the Barbary rulers. For the capture of the Java congress gave him a gold medal, and distributed $50,000 to his men. In later life he was president of the board of naval commissioners.
BAINI, Giuseppe, one of the most distinguished scientific musicians of modern times, was b. in Rome on the 21st Oct., 1775. In 1795, when still only a pupil in the Seminario Romano, he was admitted among the singers in the Papal chapel, on account of his fine voice and his musical acquirements. Having been initiated by G. Zannaconi into the art of composition, he soon gained distinction by his compositions. The severe gravity and profound science of these contrasted strongly with the careless style and shallow dilettanteism of the modern Italian masters. B: has secured for himself a prominent place in musical literature, less, however, by his compositions than by his historical researches, which he found both encouragement and opportunity to make, when he was appointed director of the papal concerts in 1804, and general director of the choir in 1S14. His principal work is his Memorie SUrricocritiche della Vita e delle Opere di Giov. Pierluigi da Palestrina, etc. (2 vols. Rome, 1828). It is a val liable work, although disfigured by prejudices. The German edition of B.'s work, additions and explanations by Kandler, published by Kiesewetter (Leip. 1834), is especially deserving of notice, as very soon after its first publication it became a rare book on account of the small number originally published. Wuiterfeld published an edition with critical remarks (1832). B. died in 1844.
BAIBAKTAB', or, more correctly, Bairak-dar, signifying standard-bearer, is the title of the energetic grand vizier Mustapha. He was b. in 1755, and was the son of poor parents. He entered the military service at an early age, and soon distinguished himself by his valor. When he was pasha of Rustchuk in 1806, he fought not without success against the Russian army, which had advanced into Moldavia and Wallachia, and had taken Bucharest. After the revolt of the janizaries in 1807, by which Selim III. (q.v.) was deposed from the throne in favor of Mustapha IV., B. at hrst concealed his attachment to the deposed monarch, and marched with his troops apparently against the revolted Servians; but as soon as he reached Adrianople, he compelled the grand vizier to return with him to Constantinople, in order to restore the throne to sultan Selim, On their return, they found this prince murdered, and his dead body lying in the first court of the seraglio. Filled with rage at this sight. B. caused all those to be executed who had had any share in the murder. He deposed Mustapha IV., and proclaimed the brother of this prince, Mahmoud II., sultan on the 28th July. 1808. B. was now appointed grand vizier. In the exercise of this office, he deposed the grand mufti, the leader of the janizaries, and all the ulemas who had taken any part in the hist revolution; while at the same time he was careful to secure the tranquillity of the capital, and strengthened the regular army. His chief object was the annihilation of the janizaries; but. like the unfortunate Selim, he also fell a victim to these fierce bands of soldiery, who resisted everything like military discipline. Favored by the fanatical people, the
i'anizaries rebelled, and, with the support of the fleet, attacked the seraglio on the 15th Jov., 1808, and demanded the restoration of Mustapha IV. B. defended himself bravely; but when he saw that the flames threatened to destroy the palace, and that he was m danger of falling alive into his enemies' hands, he strangled Mustapha, threw his head to tlie besiegers, and then blew himself up.
BAIRAM. See Beiram.
BAIRD, Absalom, b. Penn., 1824; an officer in the union armies during the rebellion, a West Point graduate, captain in 1861, brig.gen. of volunteers in 1863. He was in constant service during the war, accompanied Sherman in the march through Georgia, and was at the surrender of Johnston's army at Durham station. He was brevctted maj.gen. of the regular army, and also of volunteers.
BAIRD, Charles Washington, D.d., b. N. J., 1828; son of Robert; graduated at the university of New York in 1848, and at Union theological seminary in 1851; Ameri
can chaplain in Rome, 1861-53; pastor of a Reformed Dutch church in Brooklyn, 1859-61 ; after that time pastor of the Presbyterian church at Rye, N. Y. Dr. B. is the author of a work on Presbyterian liturgies, A Book of Public Prayer, a History of Rye, N. T.; and published an extensive and valuable history of the Huguenots (1885), entitled, A History of the Huguenot Emigration to America. He d. 1887.
BAIRD, Sir David, Bart., a general in the British army, was b. 6th Dec, 1757, at Newbyth, Scotland. He entered the service in 1772 as an ensign in the 2d foot, was promoted to a lieutenancy in 1778, and immediately after obtained a company in the 73d, a Highland regiment just raised by lord Macleod, with which he sailed to India. In the course of a few months, the young officer was<plunged amid the perils of a sudden and sanguinary war. The English had excited the hostility of Hyder AH by a gross breach of faith; and in the July of 1780, the latter burst into the Carnatic at the head of 100,000 men, disciplined ana commanded by French officers. On the 10th of Sept., a portion of the English army fell into an ambuscade at Peramboucum, and was cut to pieces. Among the few who remained alive to be taken prisoners was Baird, whose heroism had actually startled the French officers who were opposed to him. He was thrown into a dungeon at Seringapatam, where he endured a captivity of four years, that must have been peculiarly galling to a spirit so fierce, restless, and resolute as his. Released in July, 1784, he obtained the majority of the 71st in 1789, and in the Oct. of the same year visited England. In 1791, he returned, a lieutenant-colonel, and took part in several important sieges, attacks, and skirmishes; in 1795, he received a colonelcy; in 1798, he was raised to the rank of major-general; and in 1799 memorably signalized himself at the victorious assault of Seringapatam. He led the storming-party, having obtained that perilous honor at his own urgent request, col. Wellesley (afterwards duke of Wellington) commanding the reserve. In requital of his brilliant services, ho was presented by the army, through the commander-in-chief, general Harris, with the state-sword of Tippoo Saib, and also with a dress-sword from the field-officers who served under him at the assault. His merit was likewise acknowledged by the horns government. In the following year, he was appointed to the command of an expedition against Batavia, but which was afterwards sent to Egypt. On his return to India, he found that the star of Wellesley was in the ascendant; and B., who had alrendy complained of the preference given to that officer, and who was, besides, of opinion that his own merits were constantly overlooked, applied for leave of absence, and sailed for Europe in 1803. He was received at court with great distinction, knighted in June, 1804, and made a K.c.b. in the following August. In 1805, he commanded an expedition against the Dutch settlements at the cape of Good Hope, which was successful; in 1807, he commanded a division at the siege of Copenhagen; and in 1808, was sent to Spain with an army of 10,000 men, to assist Sir John Moore. He distinguished himself in the battle of Corunna, Jan. 16, 1809. Moore having been killed in the action, Sir David succeeded to the chief command, and had the honor of communicating the intelligence of the victory to government. On this occasion he received, for the fourth time in his life, the thanks of parliament, and was created a baronet. After this period, he retired from active service. He d. Aug. 18, 1829.
BAIRD, Henry Caret. See page 881.
BAIRD, Robert, D.d., 1798-1863; b. Pcnn.; a clergyman and author, graduate of Jefferson college in 1818. He passed several years in Europe, laboring especially for temperance and the revival and consolidation of evangelical Protestantism. He was agent and secretary of the American and foreign Christian union. Among his works are Religion in America, A Visit to Northern Europe, Protestantism in Italy, History of the AUngerues, History of Temperance Societies in the United States, etc.
BAIRD, Spencer Fcxlerton, Ll.d., b. Penn., 1823; a naturalist, educated at Dickinson college, where he was professor of natural science. After being for a time assistant secretary of the Smithsonian institution, he became secretary in 1878. on the death of Joseph Henry. His works are a translation of the Bilder Atlas (in which he was assisted by others), published here as the Sonographic Encyclopaedia; papers on natural history forming part of the Reports of the Survey of Railroad Rovtes to the Pacific, The Birds of North America, The Mammals of Nort/i America, and many papers in tho scientific magazines. He d. 1887.
BAIBET/TH, a city, with a pop., in 1881, of 22,072, capital of the province of Upper Franconia. Bavaria, and formerly the capital of the principality of the same name. B. is beautifully situated on the Red Mayn, about 126 m. due n. from Munich. Its streets are broad and well paved, and are interspersed with groves, promenades, fine gardens, and public fountains. Its principal buildings are the old palace, the new palace, containing a gallery of paintings; the mint, opera-house, riding-school, infirmary, and town-ball. A magnificent new opera-house for the performance of Wagner's music, finished in 1875, was in the following year opened with a grand representation, lasting several days, of a new work by that composer. B.'s chief articles of industry are leather, cottons. w"oolens, linen, tobacco, parchment, and porcelain. Jean Paul Richter d. here in 1825, and a monument has been erected to his memory.
EAIT00L', or Britool, a fortified t. of British India, in the presidency of Bengal, and territory of Saugor and Nerbudda, 50 m. n.e. from Ellichpoor.