« السابقةمتابعة »
symbolic reference to regeneration alone. One of the most important points disputed concerning B., is that of baptismal regeneration. See Regeneration.
Some early Christian sects appear to have rejected B.,on grounds somewhat similar to those on which it is rejected by Quakers (q.v.) at the present day, who explain the passages which relate to it symbolically, and insist that a spiritual B. is the only real B. of Christians.—The Socinians also in modern times have maintained that B. is not an ordinance of permanent obligation, but a merely symbolical rite of little importance.
Much controversy has taken place concerning lay baptism. Wherever there is a recognized ministry in the church, there is a general agreement in referring the ordinary administration of B. to those who hold this office. It might be expected that the more strongly the necessity of the transmission of holy order* by apostolical succession is asserted, the more strongly also would exclusiveness be manifested with regard to the right of the clergy to administer B. But this tendency is counteracted by the belief in the necessity of B., or at least of its great importance to the salvation of infants; so that from an early period lay B. was allowed, although not without a struggle, in cases of apprehended danger; and in the church of Rome, this principle is logically carried out to the fullest extent, and even women are authorized to administer B. in casus of necessity. On the same ground, lay B. was at first permitted in the Protestant church of EDgland; but the prevalence of other views led to a kind of formal restriction of the rightof administering it to "lawful ministers," although in practice the validity of lay B. is still generally recognized.
Another question much agitated in the church from early times, is that concerning the validity of B. by heretics. The opinion ultimately prevailed, that B. by heretics is valid, except in the case of those who do not baptize in the name of the three Persons of the Godhead. This continues to be the almost universal opinion. Few Protestant theologians hesitate to acknowledge the validity of B. administered in the church of Rome.
The B. of bells is a custom supposed to have been introduced about the 10th c, and still retained in the church of Rome. The term benediction is sometimes substituted for B.; but the rite itself is very similar to that of B., and is accompanied with many similar ceremonies—"a sort of exorcism." sprinkling with holy-water, anointing "with the oil of catechumens." and " with chrism," a formula of consecration " in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost," and sometimes also, if not always, the giving of a name to the bell consecrated, and even a kind of sponsorship as by godfathers and godmothers in baptism. This custom has no doubt greatly fostered the notion of an efficacy in the ringing of bells for protection in storms, and "for other benefits; indeed, it is expressly avowed that " the bells are blessed to turn off storms and tempests from the faithful."
BAPTISM, Infant. The chief arguments in favor of infant B. are based upon the proposition that the church is one throughout all changes of dispensation. From this it isargued that as infants were, so they still must be included in the visible church. It is maintained that in all covenants which God has made witli men, their children have been included; that the covenant with Abraham was a renewed revelation of the covenant of grace, the temporal promises made to him being connected with the greatest spiritual promises; that circumcision was a seal of the covenant with respect to these, in which the children of Christians have the same interest that Jewish children had; and that B. is a seal of the covenant now as circumcision was, the things to which it has immediate reference being also blessings which children are capable ofT It is contended that the arguments in favor of infant salvation derive additional strength from that view of the place of infants in the church according to which they are entitled to baptism. The passages which connect B. with faith are regarded as exclusively relating to adults, like the passages which connect salvation with faith and repentance. In reply to the argument that there is no express command for infant B., it is argued that the state of the case rather demands of those who oppose it the production of an express command against it, without which the general command must be held to include it; th^ words and actions of our Saviour (Mark x. 14) with respect to children are quoted as confirming the opinion that the place of infants in the church is precisely what it was under the Jewish dispensation; and it is contended that it would have been a very great restriction of privilege in the new dispensation if infants had been excluded from a place which they held before, as entitled to a seal of the covenant, whereas it is evident that the new dispensation is characterized not by restriction but by enlargement of privilege.—Those who hold the doctrine of infant B. arc styled Pedobaptists.
The Roman Catholic and Lutheran churches regard the B. of infants as admitting them into the church, and making them memliers of Christ's body. The reformed (q.v.) churches hold that the children of Christians are included in the visible church from their birth, and therefore entitled to baptism. These are the natural starting-points of very different systems. See Baptists.
BAPTISTERY (Gr. baptuterion. a large vase or basin), the name given sometimes to a separate building, sometimes to the portion of the church itself in which the ceremony of baptism was performed. In the latter case, the B. was merely the inclosure containing the font, to lie seen in most English churches. According to the earlier arrangements of the Christian church, however, the B. seems usually to have been » Baptists. *«"»
building standing detached from, though in the immediate vicinity of the church to which it appertained. Baptisteries, at first, were either hexagonal or octagonal, but afterwards became polygonal, and even circular. The B. of St. Giovanni in Fonte, at Rome, commonly known as the B. of Constauline, is octagonal, whilst the church of St. Constantia, which was originally a B., is circular.
The celebrated B. of Florence is an octagonal structure, measuring about 100 ft. ia diameter. It stands detached from, but in the immediate vicinity of the cathedral. It is built of black and white marble, in the style which Giotto is said to have introduced, and which is still peculiar to Florence. Internally, a gallery, which runs nearly rouad the whole building, is supported by 16 large granite columns, and the vaulted roof is decorated with mosaics by Andrea Tart, the pupil of Cimabue. But the magnificent bronze doors, with their beautiful bass-reliefs, are the most remarkable feature of this famous baptistery. The most celebrated of the three doors was executed by Lorenzo Ghiberti, the earliest being the work of Andrea of Pisa. Fifty years were required for their completion; and it is remarkable that the contracts for their execution are still preserved. Next in importance, and of even greater size, is the B. of Pisa. It is circular in form, the diameter measuring 116 feet. Externally, it is divided into three stories, the two under ones being surrounded by columns, of which the upper are smaller and more numerous than the under. The building is raised from the ground on three steps, and terminates in a pear-shaped dome, whicli is famous for its echo, the sides acting as whispering-galleries. The largest B. ever erected is supposed to have beeu that of St. Sophia, at Constantinople, which was so spacious as to have served on one occasion for the residence of the emperor Basilicus.
BAPTISTS (sometimes called Antipedobaptitts, as opposed to PedobaptUts, or those who advocate infant baptism*). This denomination of Christians refuse to acknowledge any great name as founder of their sect. They trace their origin to the primitive church itself, and refer to the Acts of the Apostles and their epistles as affording, in their opinion, incontestable evidence that their leading tenets had the sanction of inspiration. When Christianity became corrupted by the rise of Antichrist, they point to the maintenance of their scripture practice among the Cathari and Albigeuses and other sects of the middle ages, who, in the midst of surrounding darkness, continued to hold fast the apostolic testimony. They sprung into notice in England under Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. They were persecuted under both reigns, but they received freedom to meet for worship from James II., and complete religious liberty under William III. Ever since, they have diffused their principles extensively in Great Britain and North America; many of their ministers have done good service to the cause of science and literature, and, both as preachers and writers, have taken a position of eminence in society.
The B. hold the plenary inspiration and supreme authority of the Holy Scriptures as a revelation from God; the equal deity of the Son and the Holy Spirit in the unity of the ever blessed Trinity. But, as a condensed view of opinions cannot be expected in this work, it may be as well to state that the denomination are distinguished by almost all the shades of belief whicli exist in other bodies. Thev have among them Calvinists both hyper and moderate, also high and low Arminians, diverging off in every variety of shade from a common center. The great body of them in Britain and America hold the doctrine of Calvinism in a modified form; that is to say, they maintain the mijicienci/ of the atonement for all men; the limitation for which some have pleaded, they consider, lies in its application, to the sinner by the sovereign grace of God through faith. They maintain the necessity of regeneration and holiness of life as essential to true religion, and that " without holiness no man shall see the Lord;" and their conduct, in general, will bear a comparison with any class of their co-religionists.
Particular B., so called because holding that Christ died for an elect number, and General B., who maintain that he died for all men, constitute the two leading sects into which the body is divided. English B., in their church order and government, are the same as Congregationalism, the rite of baptism excepted. Scotch B., properly so called, insist on a plurality of pastors in every church, and the exercise of mutual exhortation by the members in their public assemblies. There are Baptist churches in England, however, who are Scotch in their order, and English B. in Scotland who are English in theirs. Seventh-day B., we believe, are to be found almost wholly in America, who observe not the first day of the week, but the seventh, as a day of rest. There are, besides these great divisions, various small associations of B. scattered over Great Britain, America, and the continent of Europe, whose opinions caunot be gathered up into systematic arrangement, and who would not approve of being identified with any of the sectarian designations here set down.
The particular tenet which characterizes B. among their fellow-Christians is, that baptism is an ordinance the validity of which depends on an intelligent faith on the
* The Baptists of Great Britain and America reject the name of Anabaptists, as expressing r>nly an accidental cttcumstanoeof their tenets—viz.. thervbapilzingut converts from other st-cts. who happen to hnve been baptized in infancy, and also as assoctatinK tnrm with the scandals of the German Aduba^tlsts ' ij. v.) of th'- 16 li o., f rum whom they claim to be historically distinct. From the same feeling, the modern sect In Germany and Holland utyle themselves Taujgtnnntt.
part of the recipient. Their views on the matter of baptism may be reduced to two heads—the subjects and mode of baptism. The subjects of the baptismal rite they hold to be believers in the Lord Jesus Christ. They ground their faith in this matter on the following positions—namely: 1st, The Lord in his commission to his apostles associates teaching with baptism, and limits the administration of the rite to the taught. 2d, The Acts of the Apostles shows how they understood their Master, for the}' baptized none but believers, or such as appeared to be so. 3d, That the kingdom of Christ as it appears in tbis world is restricted to credibly converted persons, as is shown in hij discourse with Nicodemus: "Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God;" and his subsequent statements on to the hour when he emitted his memorable confession before Pilate, "My kingdom is not of this world," uniformly proves that its subjects and institutes form a distinct and separate community from the Jewish theocracy, which embraced parents and children in nonage iu one commonwealth. 4th, They maintain that the ordinance, as explained in the New Testament, always points to a moral and spiritual change, apart from which it were indeed a meaningless ceremony.
As respects the mode, the B. hold that only immersion In water is baptism. They argue, that the original term baptizo conveys this meaning, and no other; that nothing less can possibly answer to the apostle's explanation in Rom. vi. 4, 5, and Col. ii. 12, "buried with him in baptism, wherein also ye are risen with him;" that the many allusions in the epistles to the churches manifestly bear out this interpretation; and, finally, that the fact of John baptizing at a spot selected for the purpose "because there was much water there," is perfectly conclusive.
Their form of church government is congregational. They maintain that the only order of officers remaining in the church since inspiration ceased are pastors (otherwise called elders and bishops), deacons, and evangelists; that the number of official persons in each of the apostolic churches cannot be ascertained from the record, but must of necessity have depended—and always must depend—on circumstances; that each church is possessed of the power of self-government under its exalted head, Jesus Christ, subject to no foreign tribunal or court of review; that discipline is to be exercised by the rulers in presence and with the consent of all the members, and parties received or excluded at their voice.
The B. are divided among themselves regarding communion—one portion receiving conscientious Pedobaptists to the Lord's table and membership; the other refusing this privilege to any but Baptists. The churches of the former are called open commuuionlsts; the latter, strict communionists.
Next to the Moravians, the B. were earliest in the field of missions. They have been honored to plant Christian churches in many parts of continental India, Ceylon, in the Bahamas, the West Indies, Africa, and China. No mission band has arisen in any denomination, within the century, who have surpassed the agents of the B. missionary tocietv in ardent zeal, patient perseverance, and invincible fortitude, in carrying out their Lord's commission to preach the gospel to every creature. The names of Curey, Marshman, Ward, and Knibb will be had in grateful remembrance by all succeeding generations; and their footsteps are now being trod by a long list of Christian missionaries of all evangelical persuasions, who are "the messengers of the churches and the glory of Christ."
This section of the Christian church was probably less zealous than their brethren, at one time, in preparing their ministers for their work by a sound course of study in theology and general literature; but this reproach has been long rolled away. They have schools of learning inferior to none for training young men of piety for pastoral duties, presided over by men of great ability. At Bristol, Rawdon (near Leeds), Regent's park. (London), Pontypool, Haverfordwest, and Nottingham, there exist seminaries of learning which are entitled to give certificates qualifying for matriculation nt the university of London; and many of the students have already taken degrees and honors there." There are also the Pastor's college, in connection with the Tabernacle, London, and theological institutions at Edinburgh, Manchester, and Llangollen.
In the Baptist TIandlAmk for 1876, the returns of B. churches and members are as follows: British, 2620 churches, 263,729 members; colonial, 1084 churches, 98,149 members; foreign, 22.124 churches, 1,815,868 members; total, 25.828 churches. 2.174,746 members. The United States possessed, in 1874, 21,510 churches anil 1,761,171 members. England, in 1882, had 1893 churches and chapels, with 203,304 members; Wales, 534, with 67,843 members; Scotland, 88, with 9234 members; Ireland, 30, with 1251 members.
BAPTISTS (ante). The history of this denomination in the United States can bo traced far back towards the first colonizing of New England by the pilgrim fathers. The first B.churches, however, were founded by Roger Williams, in Providence, R. I., and by John Clark, in Newport, R. I., during the year 1639. Williams at first met considerable opposition and persecution for declining to recognize the power of the civil magistrate in matters of religion; but in 1644 he obtained a charter for the land which he and his followers had colonized. It is now called Rhode Island, and was among the first states to grant religious liberty. In the other colonies the persecution of the Bantu-Is lasted many years, occasioned not altogether by their religious views, but in part Baptist*. 200
by their extreme views regarding civil government. Laws were made against them in Massachusetts in 1644, and some of them were banished in 1669; they were proscribed in New York in 1662, and in Virginia in 1664, but about the beginning of the 18th c. the authorities became more tolerant. It may be said here that the article on religious liberty to be found in the amendments of our constitution is in no small part due to the strenuous efforts of the B. in 1789.
The B. in the United States are divided into several denominations. After the revolution their cause steadily advanced; and the regular or associated B. denomination has now in the United States alone, according to the Baptist Tear Booh for 1885, 1178 associations, 28,599 churches, 16,678 ministers, 10,994 Sunday-schools, with 792,780 pupils,' 82,247 officers and teachers, and 2,507,753 church members; 9 theological seminaries: 2 in New York, at Hamilton and Rochester; 2 in Illinois, at Upper Alton and Morgan Park; 2 in Kentucky, at Georgetown and Louisville; 1 at Newton Center, Mass.; 1 at Upland, Pa., and 1 at Liberty, Mo.; the total number of students being 467, and 48 instructors. They have 83 colleges and universities, of which Brown university, founded in 1764 at Providence, R. I., is the most celebrated. The more prominent of the others are Colby university, at Waterville, Me.; Madisou university, at Hamilton, N. Y.; Columbian university, at Washington, D. C.; the university of Rochester, N.Y.; the university of Chicago, 111.; and Vassar college for women, at Poughkeepsie. N. Y. Total number of students in all the colleges, 4897, with 269 instructors. Among benevolent societies, are the American Baptist missionary union, organized, 1814, as the Baptist foreign mission society; the American Baptist homo missionary society, organized 1832 ; and the Baptist Bible and publication society, organized 1824. According to the Tear Book, they have 60 academies, seminaries, institutes and female colleges, with 16,000 students; a property value of $8,170,449, and endowment of $7,896,525 for all educational institutions. Statistics for 1883 were, for the five continents, as far as reported:
Associations. Churches. Ministers. Members.
North America 1,191 26,931 17,090 2,394,742
Furope 60 3,103 2,247 842,240
Asia 1 650 322 53,«10
Africa 87 38 6,632
Australia 4 124 83 10,122
Total 1,256 80,895 19,779 2,807,146
Inl877... :. 1,132 28,513 17,931 2,472,790
As to doctrine, government, and worship, the Calvinistic B. in America, as in England, agree in all essential points, except as to the subjects and mode of baptism, with the evangelical Congregationalists. They require baptism by immersion to entitle them to church membership, denying that any other mode is scriptural or valid. They disallow the baptism of infants, administering that rite to none but believers on the confession of their personal faith. In respect to communing at the Lord's supper with persons not regularly immersed, there is difference of view and of practice among B.—some holding to "open"and some to "close" communion. Open communionists, common among English B., are in this country a very small minority of the denomination.
The B. have been distinguished for zeal and success in evangelizing the newer portions of the country, and must bo recognized as supplying much of the Christian force with which American society has been molded. As a denomination, they are positive and aggressive. They are represented in nearly all the great cities by powerful, wellequipped, and rapidly augmenting churches. In missions among the heathen, they have shown great zeal; and though they have not sought to cover a great number of fields, they are not surpassed in modern times in diligent and persevering efforts. In some countries, notably in Burmnh formerly, and in northern India recently, their success in missionary labor has risen to grand proportions.
The associated B. in the United States meet annually in stated conventions for the
fromotion of missions, education, beneficence, etc. They have a publication society at hiladelphia.
BAPTISTS, ANTI-MISSION. See Baptists, Old School.
BAPTISTS, CAMPBELLITE. See Disciples Op Christ.
BAPTISTS, FREE-WILL, had their origin in a discussion which arose (1779)among B. in New Hampshire on the doctrines of Calvin, during which Benjamin Randall, one of Whitefield s converts, was called to account for preaching a general atonement and the ability of sinners to accept Christ. Having united with a church which agreed with his views, he was ordained at New Durham (1780), and, in connection with others of like faith, labored with zeal and success in preaching and establishing churches. They wished to be known simply as Baptists, but their opponents called them " free-willers," and both names having been combined, the denomination has adopted "Free-will Baptists" as their distinctive appellation. Their government, like that of the regular Baptists, is congregational, and they hold that scriptural baptism is the immersion of believers. Their peculiar doctrinal views are the general extent of the atonement, tha free offer of salvation to all men, the freedom of the will (involving ability to accept or Baptirta,
refuse Christ), and the right of true believers to participate in the Lord'c supper. By this last tenet they rank as " open communionists. In 1784, the first quarterly meeting was organized among them; in 1792, the first yearly meeting, composed of delegates from the quarterly meetings; in 1827, a general conference was formed, which now meets triennially. In 1841, the Free-communion Baptists, a denomination which had arisen in the 18th c. in Rhode Island and Connecticut, and owed its origin to Whitefield's preaching, united with them. The whole body have uniformly held anti-slavery views, and, a few years before the war of the rebellion, withdrew fellowship from 4000 members in North Carolina because they were slave-holders; and, for the same reason, declined to receive 12.000 members in Kentucky who sent delegates to their general conference. At the fifth conference (1831), the subject of foot-washing having been discussed, liberty was given to the churches to retain or give up the ordinance, as each might prefer. Many of them have since chosen to give it up. They have flourishing literary institutions in several states; among which are Bates college at Lewiston, Me.; Hillsdale college, Mich.; a theological seminary at New Hampton, N. H.: and a printing establishment at the same place. They had, 1884, 1496 churches, 1445 ministers, and 80.900 members, most of whom are in the northern states and Canada.
BAPTISTS, GERMAN, commonly called Dtjnkers or Ttjnkers (from the German tunicen, to "dip"), and, among themselves, Brethren, originated at Schwarzcnan, Germany, 1708, but were driven by persecution to America about 1725. In 1790, a party who held universalist views having separated from them, the whole denomination were, lomcwhat perversely, supposed to agree with them. But they have always denied the charge and, with the Meunonites, appeal to the confessions of faith published in Holland two centuries ago. They practice trine immersion (placing the candidate forward instead of backward) with the laying on of hands while the person is in the water. Their officers are bishops, elders, teachers, and deacons. The bishops are chosen from among experienced and faithful teachers. It is their duty to itinerate among the congregation, preach, officiate at marriages and funerals, and be present at love feasts, communions, ordinations, elections of teachers and deacons, and when an officer is to be excommunicated. An elder is the oldest teacher in a congregation where there is no bishop. His duties are to appoint meetings, exhort, preach, baptize, travel occasionally, and to per form all the work of a bishop when none is present. Teachers are elected. Their duties are to exhort and preach at stated meetings, and, when requested by a bishop or an elder, to officiate at baptisms and marriages. The deacons take care of the poor widows and their children, visit the families of the congregation to exhort, comfort, and instruct them, reconcile offenses and misunderstandings; and, upon occasion, to exhort, read the scriptures, and pray at meetings. An annual meeting of bishops, teachers, and delegates is held about May, at which a committee of five bishops decide cases presented to them by the teachers and delegates. In plainness of speech and dress German Baptists resemble the society of Friends. They do not go to law, will not fight, and seldom take interest on money loaned to their poorer brethren. They are opposed to statistics, as savoring of pride; but, according to recent reports, they have 500 churches, 1,200 preachers, and 50,000 church members, chiefly in Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, and Indiana.
BAPTISTS, OLD SCHOOL, a sect frequently called Anti-mission or Anti-effort B., from their opposition to missionary societies, Sunday schools, and all religious
Xizations that make man's salvation dependent on human effort. They have neither ^.•es nor theological seminaries. They are mostly to be found in the western and south-western states. They have 900 churches, 400 ministers, and, '86, 30,000 members. At present they are not increasing.
BAPTISTS, SEVENTH-DAY, as their name implies, are distinguished from other Baptists and other denominations by regarding the seventh day of the week as the Sabbath. They believe that the first day was not generally observed as such in the Christian church before the time of Constantine. Traces of seventh-day keepers are found in the days of Gregory I. (590), Gregory VII. (1075), and in the 12th century. In Germany they appeared late in the 15th century. In England they were organized as a denomination in 1650, under the name of Sabbatarians, and, at the close of the c, had 11 churches, of which only thre°. remain. In America they date from the last quarter of the 17th c, having formed tueir first church at Newport, R. I., about 1671. They commenced their yearly meetings at the opening of the 18th c, and their general conference at the beginning of the 19th c, holding it at first annually, but now triennially. In 1818 they adopted the name ScPenth-day Baptists instead of Sabbatarians; and in 1845 arranged themselves in five associations, eastern, western, central, Virginia, and Ohio. They favor total abstinence from strong drink, and other reforms; have a department for publishing tracts and books, and support missionaries in China and Palestine. At the general conference in 1M78. 55 churches were represented by letter. They had 75 churches, 82 ministers, and 7,336 members. Their literary institutions are a university at Alfred Center, N. Y., colleges at Shiloh, N. J., and Milton, Wis., De Ruyter institute, X. Y., and several academies. Statistics, 1883: churches, 99; members, 8,611.
BAPTISTS. SEVENTH-DAY GERMAN, a denomination in the United States which seceded from the German Baptists, or Dunkers. They recommend celibacy as