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management of orchards and gardens, and commanded that every newly-married pair should, within the first year of their marriage, plant two fruit-trees. The Dresden library owes its origin to him, as do also most of its galleries of art and science. His own favorite private pursuit was that of alchemy, in which the elcctress Anna also took a part. In the Jan. of 1586—the electress having died in the previous year—A. married a young princess of Anhalt, but died a month after, and was buried in the cathedral of Freiberg. He was succeeded by his son, Christian I.

AUGUSTUS n., Frederick, commonly called the Strong, elector of Saxony and king of Poland, second son of the elector, John George III., and of the Danish princess, Anna Sophia, was born at Dresden in 1670. His extraordinary strength was developed by a careful physical education, and his mental faculties more successfully cultivated than his morals. From 1687 to 1689 he traveled over the greatest part of Europe, but was prohibited by his father from visiting Rome. Upon his father's death (1691), he went to Vienna, and there formed an intimacy with Joseph, king of Rome, which materially influenced his politics. When, in 1694, he succeeded to his brother George as elector, instead of turning his arms against France, according to previous arrangement, he Undertook the command of the Austro-Saxon army against the Turks in Hungary. After the battle of Olasch, in 1696, he returned to Vienna as a candidate for the throne of Poland, vacated by John Sobieski. Bidding higher than prince Conti for the crown (10 million Polish florins), and adopting the Catholic faith, he was elected king by the venal nobles; and having, by his imposing force, awed the adherents of Conti, he was crowned at Cracow, 15th Sept., 1697. On ascending the throne, he promised to regain, for his new kingdom, the provinces that had been ceded to Sweden; but his efforts to do this only led to the defeat of himself and his allies, his own deposition as king of Poland, the election of Stanislaus Leszcynski, and the ignominious peace of Altranstadt in 1706. So complete was his humiliation, that A. was compelled to send a letter of congratulation to the new Polish king, together with all the crown-jewels and archives. However, on receiving intelligence of the defeat of Charles XII. at Pultowa, in 1709, he declared the treaty of Altranstadt annulled, marched with a powerful army into Poland, formed a fresh alliance with the czar, and recommenced a war with Sweden, whJch continued raging with redoubled fury, till the death of Charles XII. at Frederickshall, in 1718, gave a new aspect to affairs, leading first to a truce, and eventually to a peace with Sweden. Meanwhile, a confederation, headed by a Polish nobleman, had been formed against the Saxons, and repulsed them with much success, till, in 1716, through the mediation of the czar, a compact was made between the Poles and A,, agreeably to which the Saxon troops left the kingdom. The king now found himself obliged to employ conciliation, and the splendor of his dissolute court soon won the favor of the Polish nobles, who followed his example but too closely. Saxony had bitter cause to regret the union of the crowns. Its resources were shamefully squandered, even when want and famine were in the land, on the adornment of the capital, on the king's mistresses, his illegitimate children, and the alchemists who deluded him with hopes of the elixir of' life. A. supported the fine arts as ministering to luxury, but did little for the cause of science. Despotic in principle, though easy in temper; ambitious as well as luxurious; reckless alike in the pursuit of war and pleasure, death overtook him in the midst of projected festivities. On his way to the Warsaw diet,

gwgrene of an old wound set in, and he died in Feb., 1788, and was buried at Cracow, y his wife—a Protestant, and daughter of the margrave of Brandenburg-Kul mbach— he left an only son, who succeeded to him. The most celebrated of his numerous illegitimate offspring—amounting, it is affirmed, to somewhere about 300—was Maurice, count of Saxony.

AUGUSTUS m., Frederick, elector of Saxony and king of Poland, the son and successor of the above, was born in Oct., 1696, and carefully educated by his mother in the Protestant faith. At the age of 15, however, he left her tutelage for a tour through Germany, France, and Italy, where he changed his religion, secretly professing Catholicism at Bologna, in 1712, though the fact was not publicly known in Snxony till five years later. It is possible that an eye to the crown of Poland, and to an alliance with one of the Austrian princesses, may have had something to do with this step. After succeeding his father in the electorate in 1733, he was chosen king of Poland by a part of the nobility; and triumphing over the rival claims of Stanislaus Leszcynski, supported by Louis XV., was unanimously proclaimed three years later. He inherited his father's sumptuous tastes, though not his talents; and his love of art, cultivated by his Italian tour, enriched the gallery of Dresden with noble paintings. The government of his country he made over entirely to his prime minister, count von Bruhl, whoso whole political system consisted in complete dependence upon Russia. In 1742. alarmed at the increased power Prussia had obtained by the conquest of Silesia, A. formed an alliance with Maria Theresa; and by the secret treaty of Leipsic, contracted to supply her with 50,000 men. But their united troops were completely routed by the Prussians in 1745; and Frederick II. pushing on into Saxony, A. had to escape from his capital, saving his art-treasures, but leaving his state-papers in the hands of the conqueror. In 1746, the peace of Dresden restored him Saxony; but the close of the year again saw him embroiled with Prussia. Joining the camp at Pirna, he narrowly escaped being Auguattu. 1 Q

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taken prisoner, and had to flee 'to Poland, where his popularity, never very great, was much diminished by his recent reverses in Saxony, added to which the empress Catharine of Russia used every effort to dislodge him, as being an ally of France. At the conclusion of the peace of Hubertsburg, A. returned to Dresden, where he died in 1768. His son, Frederick Christian, succeeded him in the electorate, and Stanislaus Poniatowski became king of Poland.

AUGUSTUS FREDERICK, 1773-1848, Prince of Great Britain and Ireland, duke of Sussex, sixth son of George III. At Rome he married Lady Augusta Murray, daughter of the earl of Dunmore, a Roman Catholic; but the marriage was annulled because lie had acted without the consent of the crown. She separated from him at once, and their children, a son and a daughter, took the name of d'Este. In 1801, A. was made a peer, with a grant of £12,000 a year, to which £9000 was subsequently added. He was a liberal on most questions, and favored the abolition of the slave-trade, Roman Catholic and Jewish emancipation, free trade, and the reform bill. In 1811, ho was grand master of freemasons; in 1816, president of the society for the encouragement of useful arts ; and 1830^39, president of the royal society. The prince was a liberal patron of literature and the arts, and possessed an unusually fine library.

ATTK, Alca, a genus of web-footed birds, the type of a family called alcada, which was in great part included in the Linnaean genus alca, and to many of the species of which, now ranked in other genera, the name A. is still popularly extended. The alcada are amongst those web-tooted birds collectively called brachypteres (i.e., short winged) or divers by Cuvier, remarkable for the shortness of their wings, which they employ as fins or paddles for swimming under water, some being even incapable of flying; and for the position of their legs, further backward than in other birds, which makes walking difficult, and compels them, when on land, to maintain an upright attitude. They are distinguished by the very compressed bill, which, in the true auks, is vertically elevated, and so sharp along the ridge as to resemble the blade of a knife; and by their entirely palmated feet, destitute of hind toes. The auks are entirely confined to the seas of the northern hemisphere—the penguins taking their place in the southern— and are most abundant in the colder regions. All of them have a dense plumage, which

fenerally exhibits on its surface a beautifully polished appearance and silvery lustre, 'he genus alca, as restricted by Cuvier and others, contains only two species, distinguished from the puffins (q.v.), which also belong to this family, chiefly by the greater length of the bill, and its being covered with feathers as far as the nostrils. The bill, both in the auks and puffins, is transversely and strongly grooved. But even the two known species of the restricted genus oka differ from one another in a most important particular—the wings of the one, the great A., being so short that it is quite incapable of flight, like the penguins, of which it may be deemed the true northern representative, whilst the other, the razor-bill, has comparatively long wings, and flies well.—The Great A. (alca impennis), so far as is known, is now extinct. It wns as large as a goose. It was an inhabitant of the most northerly shores, and a very rare visitant of the Orkney and Shetland islands and the Hebrides. It was almost equally rare in Norway and Sweden, but was formerly frequent in Iceland and Greenland, and localities on the coasts of Labrador and Newfoundland. The rapidity with which this bird moved under water was extraordinary; one of them having been pursued by a six-oared boat for hours in vain. Like most of the alcada, the great A. laid only one egg, about 5 in. in length, and 3 in its greatest breadth. The egg was laid on the bare rock, without any attempt at a nest. See illus.. Birds, p. 574, fig. 12.—The Razor-bill (q.v.) (.4. torda) is the only other species now commonly included in the genus alca. The name Little A. is often given to a bird also called the Kotciie (q.v.) (mcrguliis alle, formerly alca aUe), common in arctic regions.—The common purlin is sometimes called the Labrador auk.—The northern parts of the Pacific ocean abound in auks remarkable for a somewhat quadrangular bill, notched near the tip, and which form the genus phaltrit. One of them, P. jaitlacula, is known as the parrakeet auk.—All the auks feed upou fishes, crustaceans, and other marine animals, which they pursue under water.

AULAF, or Anlaf, d. 980; a pagan king of Northumberland. Athelstan expelled him from Northumbria, whence he fled to Ireland. In 987 he tried to recover his kingdom, but was driven out and went back to Ireland to ravage that country. After Athelstan's death, A. recovered Northumbria by defeating Edmund at Tamworth. Edred. Edmund's successor, compelled A. to embrace the Christian religion; but the Christians themselves drove him out, and lie once more went to Ireland, where he defeated and put to death Murdock, king of Leinster, in 957. Other princes fell before him, and he called himself king of Ireland. In 980 he lost his son and heir, and went on a pilgrimage to Iona, where he died.

AULAPOLAY', or Aleppi, a t. of India, in the native state of Travancore, on the seacoast, in 9° 30' n. lat., and 76° 24' e. long. There is no shelter for shipping, but ships anchor 4 or 5 m. from the shore. There is, however, a considerable trade in timber, betel nut, coir, pepper, and cardamoms. This t. communicates with Quilon and Trivandrum on the s., and with Cochin on the n., by canals parallel with the sea-coast, and connecting a series of lakes or back-waters. Between these and the sea is a com« 1Q AugmRtus.

xv Aumale.

munication by a -wide creek, through which the timber for exportation is floated, which is brought from the forests of the rajah of Travancorc on the western Ghauts.

ATJLIC COUNCIL (Lat. aula, court or hall), one of the two highest courts of the old German empire, co-ordinate with the imperial chamber. It came into existence in 1495, and seems to have been at first employed principally in preparing business matters regarding the crown lands and the empire generally, m order to expedite the decisions of the imperial chamber. It soon, however, began to assume or acquire higher functions. After 1503, the states submitted important grievances to its independent consideration; but it did not receive a fixed constitution before 1559. In 1C54, it was formally recognized as the second of the two supreme courts, and equal in dignity to the imperial chamber. It was composed of a president, a vice-president, a vice-chancellor, and eighteen councilors, who were all chosen and paid by the emperor, with the exception of the vice-chancellor, who was appointed by the elector of Mainz. Of the eighteen councilors, six were Protestants, whose votes, when they wore unanimous, could not be set aside by those of the others, so that a religious parity was to some extent preserved. The councilors were divided into three classes—counts, barons, and men of learning—all of whom were on a footing of equality, except that the last mentioned received a higher salary, and were usually advanced into the ranks of the nobility. The council held aloof from politics, but under its jurisdiction were placed: 1st. All matters of feudality in which the emperor was immediately concerned; 2d. All questions of appeal on the part of the states from decisions in favor of the emperor in minor courts; 3d. Whatever concerned the imperial jurisdiction in Italy. On the death of the emperor, the council was dissolved, and had to be reconstructed by his successor. It finally ceased to exist on the extinction of the old German empire in 1806.

AULIS, a t. in Bceotia, on the Euripus strait, where the Greek fleet assembled before sailing for Troy. Its temple of Artemis was standing in the time of Pausanias, but the t. contained only a few workers in pottery.

AULNAY DE CHARNISlb, Charles Db Mehou, a French land-owner, conspicuous in the history of Acadie, or Nova Scotia. He was agent first for Isaac de Radzilly, proprietor of Acadie, and afterwards for Charles, the brother of Isaac, whose rights he purchased. There was a long contest between A. and La Tour, a rival proprietor, in which both sought aid from New England. A. triumphed, capturing Mme. La Tour, in 1645, after which he was appointed governor. His widow married his rival, La Tour.

AULTJS GELLID8, a Latin author in the time of the Antonines, of whom little is known beyond his Noctcs Attica, a mass of ill-digested but valuable information concerning the men and manners of the age.

AUMALE, a t. in France, 40 m. n.e. of Rouen; pop. *81, 2155. Here, in 1592, in a battle between the Spaniards and French, Henry of Navarre was wounded A. was a county in the early part of the 15th c, belonging to Claude of Lorraine, son of Rene II. Claude was created duke of Gui.se, and became the head of that famous house.

ATJMALE. a t. of Algeria, on one of the headwaters of the Sahel, 57 m. s.e. from Algiers. It is situated on the great road from Algiers to Constantino. It is a strong military post, with barracks, magazines, and hospitals. Pop. 5196, of whom 1468 are Europeans.

ATJMALE, Charles Db Lorradte, Due d', b. 1554, was an ardent partisan of the league in the politico-religious wars which devastated France in the latter naif of the 16th century. The aim of the league was ostensibly to suppress the Huguenots, but in reality to secure the supreme power to the Guises. Closely allied by blood to this crafty and ambitious family, A. from the very first entered with fanatical sympathy into its schemes, and after the murder of the duke of Guise at Blois, in Dec., 1588, he became, along witli the duke of Mayenne, the leader of the party. In 1589, he seized Paris, dissolved the parliament, and imprisoned its members. Shortly after, he put himself at the head of a body of troops to attack the town of Senlis, but was defeated byLaNoue, and compelled to retreat. Always unfortunate in war, his presence seemed invariably to insure the overthrow of his friends. He commanded a portion of the forces of the league at the battles of Arques and Ivri, where the Huguenots triumphed under their skillful and sagacious monarch, Henry IV. But A. was as obstinate as he was unlucky, and in the end proved himself as traitorous as he was obstinate. He held out for the league in Amiens until the populace expelled him, when he suddenly allied himself with the Spaniards who had invaded Picardy, refused the royal pardon, and delivered over to the enemy several places in his possession. For this he was impeached, condemned, and sentenced to be broken alive on the wheel. His property was confiscated, but he himself escaped. He lived in exile till his death, which took place at Brussels, in 1631. He left no male posterity.

ATJMALE, Henri-Eugene-philippe, Louis D'orleans, Due d', b. at Paris, Jan. 18, 1822, is the fourth son of the late king of France, Louis Philippe. He enjoyed the privilego —so rare among princes—of being educated along with his fellow-men, at the college of Henri IV., where be exhibited considerable talent, and obtained several honors. When 16 years of age, he entered the army, soon distinguished himself by his bravery, and passed rapidly through the various grades of rank. In 1843, he embarked at Brest for Algeria, where he commanded a subdivision of the French army, and performed some brilliant Anne. on *

Auriiula. *"

exploits, the most signal of which was his surprising Abd-el-Kader, when encamped in the environs of Goudjilab. By this coup demain, which occurred on the 16th of May, 1843, there fell into his hands a multitude of cattle, 4 standards, 8600 prisoners, and the correspondence and treasure of the emir. He was, inconsequence, elevated to the rank of lieutenant-general, and appointed to the government of the province of Constantine. In 1847, he succeeded marshal Bugeaud in the governor-generalship of Algeria. While holding this high office, he was exposed to a scries of bitter attacks by the democratic "opposition" in the chamber of deputies, but was ably defended by Guizot. After the expulsion of his father, he withdrew from Algeria, having first, with self-denying patriotism, exhorted the colony peaceably to obey the orders of the metropolis. He then resided in England till 1871, when he returned to France, and was elected a member of the assembly. He was elected a general of division in 1872, and presided over the council of war which tried marshal Bazaine. He was elected a member of the academy in 1871. HU chief writings are Let Zouaves et les Okasseurs-d-pied, and Histoire des Condi*.

AUNE, the French cloth-measure corresponding to the English ell. Both words are derived from the Lat. ulna. The English ell = 1J- yard = 45 inches; the French aune uxueUe (or nouveUe) = 1J metre = 47J inches English. The old aune was a little shorter.

AUirOT, Mame-catherine-jumblm! De Berneville, Comtesse d', a celebrated French authoress of the reign of Louis XIV. bhe was b. about 1650, and d. at Paris, Jan., 1705. She composed fairytales, romances, and historical memoirs. Among her fairy tales may be mentioned. The Yellow Dwarf, The White Cat, and Cherry and Fair Star. Many of these fictions have been translated into English, and are greedily read by schoolboys. They have, both in France and other countries, gone through numerous editions, and are the sole monuments of her fame; for her sentimental novels, Hippolyte, and Comte de Duglas, have long ago vanished from the eyes of men; while her historical memoirs are not regarded as at all trustworthy.

AURANTIACES. (from aurarUium, modern Latin for an orange), a natural order of exogenous plants, consisting of trees and shrubs, often of great beauty. Botli leaves and bark are generally very smooth, and all parts are filled with little transparent receptacles of a fragrant volatile oil, which especially abounds in the leaves and in the rind of the fruit. The leaves are alternate, and always articulated with their 6talks, which are frequently winged. The flowers have a short 3 to 5 toothed, withering calyx, and 3 to 5 petals, which are broad at the base, sometimes slightly coherent, and imbricated in bud. The stamens are equal in number to the petals, or a multiple of their number; the filaments sometimes slightly coherent in one or more bundles; the anthers terminal and erect. The stamens and petals are inserted on a disk. The ovary is free; there is one style with a thickish stigma. The fruit (a hesperidium) is pulpy, with a leathery or spongy rind, of one cell, or of a number of separable cells; the seeds attached to the axis, with thick cotyledons and no albumen, not unfrequently containing more embryos than one. —The order contains about 100 known species, natives of warm climates, and almost all of the East Indies. The species of the genus citrus (q.v.) are the best known, among which are the orange, lemon, citron, etc. But the order contains many other plants producing agreeable fruits, among which the agle marmelos (see ^egle)—called bhel or bael, in India—cookia punctata (the wampee), glyeosmis citrifolia, and triphasia trifoliata deserve particular notice. The fruits, ripe and unripe, juice and rind, the flowers, leaves, bark, etc., of a number of species are employed medicinally. The medicinal uses of agle marmelos have been already noticed in the nrticle ^eole; those of the species of citrus will lie mentioned under their proper heads. The leaves of bergera kamigii are used by the Hindoos as a stomachic and tonic, the bark and roots as stimulants.—Feronia elephantum, a large tree growing in most parts of India, yields a gum which closely resembles gum-arabic, and is used for similar purposes. The young leaves of this tree have a smell like that of anise, and are used by the native practitioners of India as a stomachic and carminative.—Skimmia (or Umonia) laureola and skimmia japonica are remarkable exceptions in this order, as to the climate to which they are adapted: the former grows on the cold and lofty mountains of the n. of India, braving frost and snow; the latter, a beautiful shrub, recently introduced into Britain from Japan, is perfectly hardy even in the severest winters; its evergreen leaves and pretty little red berries remaining quite uninjured by frost, whilst its small white flowers, produced early in summer, have the fragrance of orange blossoms.

AURE LIA. See Chrysalis.

ATJRELIA'inJS, Lucius Domitius—also named Claudius Domitius and Valerius —one of the most powerful of the Roman emperors, was of very humble origin, his father having been a husbandman. He was b. about A.d. 212, and enlisting early as a common soldier, he rapidlv distinguished himself, and held the highest military offices under Valcr'mnus and Claudius II. On the death of Claudius (a.d. 270), A. was elected emperor by the army. He commenced his reign by vigorous opposit;on to the barbarian Alemanni, or Marcomanni, whom he expelled. Thereafter, he commenced the erection of a new line of fortified walls round Rome, which were not completed till the reign of Probus (a.d. 276). Their ruins still mark the boundaries of Rome in the time of Aurelian. Finding that the province of Dacia (now Wallachia) could not be maintained Ol Anne.

41 Auricnla.

■gainst the assaults of the Goths, he surrendered It, on certain conditions, and strengthened the frontier of the Koman empire by making the Danube its boundary. He next turned his attention to the east, where the renowned queen, Zenobia (q.w). bad extended her sway from Syria to Asia Minor and Egypt. A. defeated her in two battles, and besieged her in Palmyra, from which she attempted to escape, when she saw defense would prove unavailing. She was, however, taken prisoner, and soon after the city surrendered, and was treated leniently. Shortly after A. had departed, a new insurrection took place. He returned in 273, and gave the splendid city up to destruction. A. was again called to the east by a rebellion in Egypt, instigated by Firmus, a merchant of great influence, which he speedily quelled. Besides, Tetricus, who had held imperial l>ower in Gaul since before the death of Gallienus, finding himself unable to wield it, surrendered it to Aurelian. By restoring good discipline in the army, order in domestic affairs, and political unity to the Roman dominions, A. merited the title awarded to him by the senate—"restorer of the Roman empire." He fell a victim to conspiracy during his campaign against the Persians (A.D. 276).

ATJEE LITJS, Marcus. Sec Antoninus.

AURELLE, or D'AURELLE, De Paladines, b. 1804; aFrenchsoldier, distinguished in the Crimean war. In the German war he was the commander of the fifth French division at Metz. After Napoleon's fall he organized the army of the Loire, drove Von der Tann from Orleans, and won the first victory for France, for which he received the chief command of the army of the Loire. He was repulsed in an attack upon the army of prince Frederick Charles, and beaten by the grand duke of Mechlenberg at Artemay; the next day prince Frederick drove him back to the forest of Orleans and took possession of the town. A. was soon afterwards removed from his command, and offered that of the camp at Cherbourg, which he refused, and he also refused to succeed gen. Chanzy. In the national assembly be was opposed to continuing the war. At a later period he was commander of the national guards in the department of the Seine, and » member of the Bazainc court-martial. He d. 1877. •

AUREOLA, or Au'reole, the halo, or "glory," with which old painters encircled the heads and sometimes the entire persons of angels, saints, and martyrs. The circle with a cross was given to the Saviour only ; without the cross, to canonized saints. Though supposed to be a Christian invention, it appears that it was used long before Christ in pictures of Hindoo deities.

AU'REUS, or DENA'Rrus Aureus, the oldest standard gold coin of Rome, coined 207 B.C; average weight, 121 grains.

ATJ BICLES, two cavities of the heart. See Heart.

AURICULA, Primula auricula, a plant of the same genus with the primrose (q.v.), much cultivated in flower-gardens. The A. has long been a florist's flower. It was highly esteemed by the Romans, and has, at least since the beginning of the 18th c, received particular attention from the florists of England and Holland. It is one of those flowers, the cultivation of which is often most successfully prosecuted in the little gardens of operatives near large towns. Lancashire is particularly famous for it.—The A. has smooth, dark-green leaves, scapes (or leafless stems), and calices, covered with a mealy powder. A similar fine meal appears also on the flowers, and adds much to their beauty. The A. is a native of the Alps and other mountains of the middle and s. of Europe, and of sub-aipine situations in the same countries. It is found also on the Caucasus and the mountains of Syria; it grows in shady and moist places. In a wild state, it has comparatively small flowers, of a simple yellow color, on short stalks, forming an umbel of generally six or seven on one scape, with the same delightful fragrance which aids so much to made it a favorite flower in cultivation. Tho loaves are used by the inhabitants of the Alps as a remedy for coughs.

By cultivation and art, the A. has been brought to great beauty and splendor of color. Red, pink, crimson, applo-green, and mulberry are the chief colors which the different varieties exhibit. Alore than 1200 varieties have been reckoned, and new ones are continually raised from seed. Some of them are entirely of one color, others of two or more; some are delicately shaded, and some variegated. The mere color of an A. is not of so much consequence, in the eye of a florist, as the form and shading. The chief requisites of a good A. are large flowers, so many of them on one scape as to give fullness to the umbel, the flower-stalks so strong that the flowers do not bang down; the scape itself must be so tail, that the umbel of flowers may rise completely above the leaves, and so strong as to bear it erect; the flower must be nearly round; the white or yellow eye in its center must be distinct and round, its color not mixing with the ground color, which, however, may mix at the outer part with the green of the margin. The green margin adds much to the beauty of many varieties. The mealiness of the flower differs much in different varieties.—The A. blooms in April and May, and often also a second time in the end of autumn, which adds to the charms of the flower-border, although it is to the first or proper flowering-season that the florist looks. It succeeds best in a rich light soil, and cultivators diligently prepare for it composts of various kinds, but in general consisting chiefly of fresh loamy soil, and of well-rotted horse or cow dung, often with the addition of a little sand. The finer varieties are always culti

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