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BAT7MI5, Antoinf., 1728-1804; a French chemist, distinguished for success in the practical application of the science. He became a professor in the college of pharmacy, kept a large establishment for the preparation of drugs, and published many papers on chemistry, and arts and manufactures. Among his inventions and improvements were a process to bleach raw silk, the manufacturing of sal ammonia, of improved scarlet dyes, and a cheap process for purifying saltpeter. He published several works on his favorite theme of chemistry. He made for the areometer a scale which is still used.
BAUMGAR TEN, Alexander Gottlieb, a clear and acute thinker of the school of Wolf, was b. at Berlin on the 17th of July, 1714, studied at Halle, and in 1740 became professor of philosophy at Frankfort-on-the-Oder, where he died on the 26th of May, 1762. He is the founder of aesthetics (q.v.) as a systematic science of the beautiful, though his mode of treatment is objected to by the more transcendental Germans, as being purely psychological; that is to say, lie makes (esthetics only a portion of the philosophy of the senses, and contrasts it with logic, which belongs to the sphere of the reason. The idea of a science of the beautiful first appears in his treatise, De Honnullis ad Poema Pertinentibus, published at Halle, 1735. In 1750-58, he issued two volumes of his jEsthetica, but his death hindered the completion of the work. His writings in other departments of philosophy are marked by clearness and precision; his Metaphysiea (Halle, 1739; 7th edition, 1779) is still considered one of the most useful books for the study of the Wolfian philosophy.
BAUMGARTEN, Michael, b. 1812; a German theologian; studied at Kiel, became professor at Rostock, and a prominent and energetic defender of the Protestant association.
BAUMGARTEN-CRTrsiUS, Litdwig Friedricit Otto, a German theologian, b. at Merseburg,1788,andd. at Jena, 31st May, 1843. He studied theology at Leipsic.and in 1810 became university preacher. In 1817, he was appointed professor of theology at Jena, and always distinguished himself ns a champion of religious liberty, on behalf of which he wrote various treatises. In 1820 appeared his Introduction to the Stvdy of Dogmatic* (Leip. 1820), a work of considerable originality and richness of thought. More complete exhibitions of his opinions are to be found in his Manual of Christian Ethic* (Leip., 1827); Outlines of BMical Theology (Jena, 1828); and Outline* of Protestant Dogmatics (Jena, 1830). In 1831-32, he published a Text-book of tlte History of Doctrines; in 1834, a work on Schleiermaclier, his Method of Thought, and his Value; and also Considerations on certain, Writings of Lamennais. After his death, Kimmel published the whole of his exegetieal prelections on the gospels and Pauline epistles.
Baumgarten was conspicuous for the breadth and solidity of his learning, the originality of his spirit, and the acuteness of his understanding, but was nevertheless deficient in clear and vivid expression. He attached himself to no school, theological or philosophical. At an early period, he had been greatly influenced by the metaphysics of Soliciting, from which, however, he ultimately emancipated himself. His thinking was, to a certain extent, rationalistic, but on the whole approached more closely to the direction of the spiritual Schleiermacher.
BATJMGARTNER, Andreas Ritter Von, or Chevalier de, was b. at Friedberg, in Bohemia, 23d Nov., 1793, and studied at Vienna, where, in 1823, he became
Erofcssor of natural philosophy. Whilst filling this office, he gave popular lectures on undays upon mechanics, etc., for artisans and operatives, which met with much approbation. A result of these lectures was his Mechanik in ihrer Anuendung avf Kunste und Oeicerbe (2d ed..Vienna, 1823), and his Naturlehre (Vienna, 1823). An ailment of the throat induced him to resign his professorship, but lie was appointed director of the imperial porcelain, mirror-glass, and smalt manufactories, and afterwards superintendent of tobacco manufactories. In the }'ear 1846. the setting up of the electric telegraph was committed to him, and he was intrusted with the principal charge of the making of the Austrian railways. After the events of Mar., 1848, he was minister of mines and of public buildings, and chief of one of the departments in the ministry of finance. In May, 1851, he was appointed minister of commerce, trade, and public buildings. At the same time, he was appointed president of the Austrian academy of sciences, of which he had been vice-president for a number of years. He published, in 1862, Cliemie und Qrxchicte der himmelskorper nach de Spectralanalyse; in 1864, Die median. Theorie der Witrme. He d. in 1865; and Freiherr Von B., Eine Lebensskizze, was published during the following year.
BATJMGARTNER, Gallus Jakob, 1797-1869; a politician and historian of Switzerland, the son of a mechanic. He studied law. and was a leader of the liberals, but afterwards associated with the ultramontanes. He has been a member of a number of legislative bodies.
BATTPET'TAH, a t. of British India, in the presidency of Madras, 29 m. from Guntoor. Pop. supposed to be about 20,000.
BATJB, Ferdinand Christian, the founder of the "New Tubingen School of Theology," was b. on the 21st of June, 1792. In 1817, he became professor in the seminary of Blaulieuren, where he gave the first indications of his remarkable abilities by the publication of his Symbolism and Myt/iology, or tiie Nature-religion of the Ancieirfs (Stuttgart, 3 o-l K Baumj.
vols., 1834-35), a work which indicates the influence of Schleiermacher over the author. In 1826, he was called to Tubingen, where he held the chair of Protestant theology. His whole life was consecrated to religious studies—the history of doctrines, the symbolism of the church, and biblical exegesis. On account of the universality of his culture, the wonderful activity and fertility of his mind, his rare combination of speculative thought with solid knowledge, and that faculty of historic divination or insight which enabled him to draw decisive results from separate, obscure, and neglected data—he has been regarded by mauy in Germany as the most massive theological intellect since Sculeiermacher. Unlike Bruno Bauer, he made comparatively little use of the Hegelian philosophy in his writings; and when he did, it was professedly only that he might more clearly understand historical phenomena in their internal spiritual connection, and be enabled to represent the logical process of their development. His method of investigating the progressive history of religious opinion, however, incurred the reproach of formalism from its adversaries, who said that he applied it too rigorously, and made dogmas develop themselves with a kind of abstract inevitable regularity from previous historical conditions, without allowing for immediate and extraordinary providences. His most important works in the history of doctrine are Die christliehe Gnosis oder die christliehe Beligionsphilosophk (Tubingen, 1835), (The Christian Gnosis, or the Christian Philosophy of Religion); a work which makes the Christian Gnosis of the 3d and 3d cenhiries the starting-point of a long series of religiophilosophical productions traceable uninterruptedly down through middle-age mysticism and theosophy to Schelling, Hegel, andi Schleiermacher; Die christliclte Lehre von der Versolinung (Tubingen, 1838), (The Christian Doctrine of the Atonement); and Die christliehe Lehre von der Dreieinigkeit und Menschwerdung Gottes (Tubingen. 1841-43), (The Christian Doctrine of the Trinity and the Incarnation). In reply to Alohler, the celebrated Roman Catholic theologian, who had attacked the Protestant church, he wrote Der Gegensati dex Uatholicismus und Protestantimnus (Tubingen, 1836), (The Opposition between Catholicism and Protestantism). Besides these works, based on a historical treatment of religion, to which class also belongs his Lehrbuch der christlichen Dogmengexchichte (Compendium of the History of Christian Dogmas), (Stuttgart, 1847), he published various critical treatises on parts of the Mew Testament; such as Die Christuspartei in der Korinthischen Gemeinde; der Gegenmtz den Paulinischen und Petrinischen Ckrixtenthuins; der Apostel Petrus in Bom (1831), (The Christ-party in the Corinthian Community; the Opposition of the Pauline and Petrine Christianity; the Apostle Peter in Rome), a work in which the author endeavors to demonstrate the existence of deep-rooted differences in that sphere of primitive Christianity, in which we are accustomed to see nothing but unity and harmony. His inquiries concerning the Gnosis led him to study minutely the pastoral epistles, the result of which study was Die xogcnannten PastoraWriefe ilex Apmtel* I'onlux (Stuttgart, 1830), (The So-called Pastoral Epistles of the Apostie Paul), in which he combats the idea that St. Paul was their author, and refers them to the 2d century. Of a similar nature is his Paulas, der Apostel Jesu Christi (Stuttgart, 1845), (Paul, the Apostle of Jesus Christ). His work on the Gospel of Johu produced a startling effect, as up to B.'s time that gospel had generally been held prior in date to the three synoptic gospels, whereas B. strove hard to show that it was of post-apostolic origin. In 1847, appeared his Kritisehe Untersuchungen fiber die canonisehen Ecangelien, ihr Ver/uiltnits zueinander, ihren Ursprung und Character (Critical Inquiry Concerning the Canonical Gospels; their Relation to each other; their Origin and Character). In 1851, he published Das Markiis-emngelium nach seinem Ursprung und Gharakter (The Origin and Character of St. Mark's Gospel). B. died Dec, I860. In these and other works of a similar nature, B. maintained that we must extend our notions of the time within which the canonical writings were composed to a period considerably post-apostolic, and which can only be determined approximately by a careful investigation of the motives which apparently actuated their authors. The chief characteristic, therefore, of the "Tubingen School,' as exhibited in the works of its founder, is the union of a subjective criticism with a strong conviction of the historic reality of the New Testament writings. The most distinguished adherents of this new school of German theology are Zeller, Schwegler, Kiistlin, and Hilgenfeld.
BATTTAIN, Lorrrs-EuoENE-MARTE, a French philosopher and theologian, b. at Paris, Feb. 17, 1796. He studied under Cousin at the normal school. In 1816, he was appointed professor of philosophy in the college of Strasliourg, and soon distinguished himself by the influence he exerted over the earnest youth of that city, who carried their admiration even to the length of imitating his walk and dress. The religious tendencies of his character, however, not tiuding a satisfactory expression in philosophy, he threw himself into the arms of the church, and became a priest in 1828. After the events of 1830, he resigned his professorship, which until then ho had retained; but his reputation for orthodoxy, never very strong, had been destroyed in the eyes of his bishop by his work La Morale de V Ecangile comparee <i la Morale des Philosophes, published a few years before, and he was in consequence suspended from sacred offices for several years, but reinstated in 1841. In 1838, he was made dean of the faculty of letters at Strasbourg, and afterwards director of the college of Juilly. At a still later period, ho was translated to Paris, and appointed vicar-gen. of the metropolitan diocese. In 1848, he attempted Bautzen. *> 1 fi
Bavaria. ° -1 °
to give a religious direction to the revolution. lie was selected as one of the professors of the theological faculty of Paris, and was an extremely popular preacher. His principal works are Rhilosophk-pryclutlogie Rcpertmentale (1839), Philosophic Morale (1842), I'hiio*op/u'e du Christianisune (1835), La Religion, et la Liberie a/nsiderees dan* hurs Ibipjtorts (1848), La Morale de I'Ecangile comparie aux divers SystZmes de Morale (.1855). He died in 1807.
BAUTZEN, or, in official language. Bu'dissin, capital of the circle of the same name, kingdom of Saxony. It lias a pup. (1880) of 17,509, including many Wends, remnants of the old Vandals. It is situated on a rising ground overlooking the river Spree, and is the scat of the chief offices of justice in the circle, which has a pop. (1880) of 3-Vi A'Zi, including 50,000 Wends. It has several churches, a royal palace—formerly the residence of the markgrafs of Meissen—numerous schools, two public libraries, and an hospital. The chief branches of industry are manufactures of woolens, fustian, linen, hosiery, leather, and gunpowder. B. is a place of considerable antiquity, and was known in the time of Henrj' I. (931), but was first made a town under Otho I. lis several privileges, and the reputation of certain holy relics preserved in St. Peter's church, made the place important. It suffered greatly in the war with the Hussites, and still more during the thirty years' war. Meissuer, the poet, who died in 1805, was born here. B., however. Is chiefly celebrated as the place where Napoleon, with an army of 150,000 men, after an obstinate resistance, won a barren victory over 90,000 of the allied Russians and Prussians, May 20-21, 1813. The allies lost in the two days 15,000 in killed and wounded; in addition to 1500 prisoners, mostly wounded, which the French captured. The French left 5000 dead upon the field, and upwards of 20.000 were wounded. The result of the battle, and the splendid retreat of the allies, were most disheartening to the French army, and even to Napoleon himself.
BAVA RIA (Gcr. Baiern, and officially, Bayern), one of the states of the German empire; according to its size, the second in importance. B. is divided into two unequal parts, which are separated by the Baden and Hesse-Darmstadt dominions. The eastern portion, comprising fully eleven twelfths of the whole, is situated between hit. 47° 20', and 50" 41' n.,aud long. 9° and 13° 48' east. It is bounded n. by the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau, the Thuringiun principalities, and the kingdom of Saxony; e., by Bohemia and Austria; s., by the Tyrol; and vs., by Wilrtemburg, Baden, and the grand duchy of Hesse. The western part, occupying the Rhine Palatinate, on the left bank of the Rhine, lies between lat. 48" 57' and 49 50' n., a d between 7" 5' and 8" 27' east. Rhenish Prussia, the grand duchy of Hesse, and Baden bound it on the w., n., and e., and France on the south.
B. is divided into eight circles, as follows:
Circles. Area in sq. nines. Pop. in 1875.
Upper Bavaria 6,535 894,404
Lower Bavaria 4,091 622,377
Palatinate 2,272 641,567
Upper Palatinate 3,679 503,422
Upper Frnnconia 2,632 555.043
Middle Franconia 2,914 607,085
Lower Franconia 3,409 597,056
Swabia and Neuburg 3,648 601,950
Total 29,180 5,022,904
At the census of 1871 the pop. was 4,863,450; in 1880, 5,284,778.
Surface, Hydrography, Railways, etc.—B. may be described as a mountainous country. It is walled in on the s.e.. n.e.. and n.w. by mountains ranging from 3000 ft. to close on 10,000 ft. in height. The highest elevation is reached on the s., the Zugspitz. of the Noric Alps being 9665 ft. high. On thee., the highest points of the BohinerwakI, dividing B. from Bohemia, are the Arber and Rachel berg, which are respectively 4613 ft. and 4800 ft. high. On the n.e., the Schneeberg, in the Fichtelgebirge range, attains a height of 3481 feet. A branch of this chain, which is connected on the n.w. with the Tlmringerwald, extends s. between the rivers Regnitz and Vita. The RhSngebirge, the greatest height of which is 3000 ft., forms the northernmost chain of Bavaria. In the Rhine palatinate, the principal mountain is the llardt, whose culminating peak is about 2300 ft. high. In the interior, B. is intersected in several directions by various less elevated ranges, altcrnirting with extensive plains and fertile valleys. B is rich in wood, nearly one third of its surface being covered with forests, mostly of pine and fir.
As to its hydrography, B. has the Rhine flowing along the whole eastern boundary of the circle of the palatinate, which is also watered by the Spcyer, the Lnuter, and the Queich. The Danube enters B. proper at Dim, where it is joined by the Iller, and pursues its course in an e.n.e. direction through the center of the country, until it passes out at Passau into the Austrian dominions. Including its windings, the length of the Danube in B. is about 270 m., which can be navigated throughout. In its passage through B., it receives no fewer than 38 rivers, the chief of which, on the right bank,