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Bav»kia.—1. Old Pinacotliek; 2. Propyleeuni, Munich. 3. Nuremberg In the 15th century
(16th century). 7. Glyptothck; 8. Nereide by Visher; 9. Hall of Glory, and statue of Bar
soriplion. Every Bavarian is liable to service for seven years, and no substitution is allowed. The period of active service is four years, the remaining three being spent in the army of reserve; and the soldier, after quitting the reserve, is bound to serve other five years in the landwehr. "When B., in Nov., 1870, became one of the kingdoms of the German empire, her army, on the established conditions of its formation, was formed into two corps of the imperial army, each consisting of two divisions, under the command of the king of B. in times of peace, but controlled by the emperor of Germany in war. On the peace-footing, the infantry consists of 16 regiments, 48 battalions, 20,638 men in all; besides which there are 10 battalions of chasseurs, 5510 strong, and 32 battalions of landwehr. There are 10 regiments of cavalry, of 7192 men; 5544 artillery, 1214 engineers, and 1126 of the military train—in all, 47,224 men, without including the landicthr. In time of war the total force is 149,892, rather more than trebled. ■
Ilittory.—The Boii, a race of Celtic origin, were the first inhabitants of B. of whom tradition furnishes any account. From them, its German name, Baiern, as well as its old Latin name, Boiaria, is said to have been derived. They appear to'have conquered the country about 600 B.C., and they retained it until shortly before the Christian era, when they were subjugated by the Romans; the country being made an integral part of the Roman empire, under the names of Vindelicia and Noricum. After the decay of the Roman power, the Ostrogoths and Franks successively held possession of it, until Charlemagne conquered it. After his death, it was governed by lieutenants of the Frank and German kings, until 1070, when it passed into possession of the Guclpu family; and it was transferred by imperial graut, in 1180, to Otho, count of Wittelsbnch, whose descendant now occupies the throne. The Rhenish Palatinate was con (erred on this family by the emperor Frederick III. in 1216. Now followed quarrels between relatives, and divisions of territory, until the dukedom of B. was severed from the Rhenish and upper Palatinates (see Palatinate); of the latter, however, it repossessed itself in 1621—the peace of Westphalia, in 1648, confirming the title of its princes to that possession, as well as its right to the electoral dignity to which it had .been raised in 1624. In the war of the Spanish succession, B. supported France, and suffered considerably in consequence; but in 1777, on the extinction of the younger Wittelsbach line, it received the accession of the Rhine Palatinate. In 1805, B. was erected into a kingdom by Napoleon L The king assisted Napoleon in his wars, and in consideration of his aid received large additions of territory. In 1813, however, the Bavarian king opportunely contrived to change sides, and thus managed to have confirmed to him. by the treaties of 1814-15, an extent of territory nearly as valuable as the possessions which the treaties of Presburg and Vienna had given him, and which he had now to restore to Austria.
In 1818, as already intimated, the new constitution came into existence, but owing to various causes, it did not secure that measure of popular freedom and contentment that had been expected. In 1825, Louis I. ascended the throne. He was a well-meaning, liberal, and intellectual monarch, and was favorable to the liberty of the people and the press; but he lavished the wealth of the kingdom to an extravagant degree on the embellishment of the capital, nnd on works of art, while he neglected to a considerable extent works of practical value, that would have tended to enrich the country, diminish the public burdens, and consequently increase the welfare of his people. In 1830, a wave from the French revolution swept over the country, disturbing its equanimity, but not to any serious extent. The Bavarian government, however, took alarm, and restricted the freedom of the press. These restrictions excited so much opposition, that they were soon after rescinded, but new dissatisfaction was created by the imposition of new taxes. The Jesuits now obtained an immense influence with the king, which they used to the detriment of popular rights. The wrath of the people was further aroused against their monarch by his connection with the notorious Lola Montez, who was looked upon as an agent of the Ultramontanists—an imputation which that lady, in her autobiography, published in 1858, indignantly repudiates, maintaining that she was the inveterate enemy of that party, and the true friend of the people. In March, 1848. following the example set by the French revolutionists, the people of Munich seized the arsenal, and demanded reforms and the expulsion of Lola Montez. The king had to consent; but in the same month he abdicated his throne, in accordance, says Lola Montez, with a promise made by him to her. His son, Maximilian II., ascended the throne. He died in 1864; and Louis II., a distinguished patron of Wagner, the great musician, succeeded : but, becoming insane, committed suicide in June, 1886. His brother assumed the title of Otto I.; but being also mentallv incapable of governing, the regency was assumed by an uncle, prince Luitpold. See Germany.
BAVA'BIA, a colossal female statue at Munich, which bears the name of the country of which it is a personification, is said to be second in size only to the famous Colossus of Rhodes. It was erected by king Louis I., the model having been executed by Schwanthaler. Externally, the figure bears a German aspect. A long folding garment reaches from the middle to the naked foot; over the half-naked breast a skin is cast, and the hair falls freely over the back. The brow is adorned with sprigs of oak; in the left hand, which is raised, she holds a wreath of oak; and in the right, which is bent towards the breast, a sword; at her side reposes the Bavarian lion, the guardian of her kingdom, In a sitting altitude. The statue is 65 ft. high, the pedestal being 30, so that the whole monument has a height of 95 feet. The statue was cast from the bronze of Turkish and Norwegian cannon. Internally, it is very remarkable. Through the back part of the II.-11
pedestal, a door leads to a stone staircase, consisting of 60 steps. The figure itself i» hollow, and resembles a mine, with side-passages which lead into the lion. A staircase of cast iron, of 58 steps, leads through the neck up into the head, where there are two sofas, and several openings for the enjoyment of the view. At the highest part of the head, there is the following inscription: "This colossal figure, erected by Louis I., king of Bavaria, was designed and modeled by L. von Schwanthaler, and cast in bronze, in years 1844 to 1850, by Ferdinand Miller." The head contains standing-room for 31 petsons. The monument was formally uncovered, umid great rejoicings, on the 7th Aug., 1850. See adjoining illus.
BA VINS, in the pyrotechny of warfare, are small bundles of easily ignited brushwood, from 2-to 8 ft. in length. They are made by arranging the bush-ends of the twigs all in one direction, tying the other ends witli small cord, dipping the bush-ends into a kettle containing^ inflammable composition, and drying them. They are employed among the combustible materials in tire-ships.
BAWBEE, or Babee, the popular designation of a half-penny in Scotland, now dropping out of use. The origin of the term is obscure; but it is most probably a corruption of bas billon, Fr., applicable to debased copper money. In the plural form, the word is often popularly used in Scotland to signify money generally. In Scottish song, B. is synonymous with a girl's fortune or marriage-portion—as, Jenny's Bawbee.
BAWR, Alexandrine Sophie Court De Champgrand, Baroness de; 1773-1861; a French novelist and dramatist, wife of Saint Simon, who got a divorce because he did not think her fit to be the wife of "the first man in the world." In 1806, she wedded baron de Bawr, who was killed by accident a few months after the marriage. Some of her plays are still occasionally acted.
BAXTER, a co. in n. Arkansas, on the Missouri border, bounded on the n. by White river; about 600 sq.m.; pop. '80,6,004. The surface is hilly and undulating, and the m>il fertile. Farming and stock-raising are the main occupations. Co. scat, Mountain Home.
BAXTER, Andrew, 1686-1750; a Scotch philosopher, author of An Inquiry into the Nature of tlic Human Soul, wherein its Immateriality is evinced from the Principles of Reason and Philosophy. He also wrote on questions of science for the teaching of children.
BAXTER, Richard, one of the most eminent of the nonconformist divines, was b. Nov. 12, 1615, of poor but genteel parents, ai Rowton, in Shropshire. His early education was somewhat neglected. Instead of attending, as he wished, one of the universities, he was obliged to content himself with a course of private study, in the midst of which he was induced, singularly enough, for he was habitually serious, to try his fortune at court. Hither he accordingly hied, fortified with an introduction to the master of the revels. A month sufficed to convince him that he was out of his element at Whitehall, and a protracted illness after his return helped to deepen the earnestness of his religious convictions. Soon after, at the age of 23, he was ordained, and entered on the mastership of Dudley grammar-school, from which he removed to act as assistant to a clergyman at Bridgenorth, where he resided nearly two years. In 1640. he was invited to become parish clergyman of Kidderminster, an offer which he accepted; and within a comparatively brief period, not only did he establish his reputation as one of the most remarkable preachers of the time, but what was better, succeeded in effecting a wonderful improvement in the manners of the people. On the breaking out of the civil war, his position became somewhat peculiar. Sincerely attached to monarchy, his religious sympathies were almost wholly with the Puritans; and though a Presbyterian in principle, he was far from admitting the unlawfulness of episcopacy. These views, which, some time before the restoration, became extremely popular, were now too catholic for the general taste, and the open respect shown by B. to some leading Puritans exposed him to some danger from the mob. He accordingly retired to Coventry, where he ministered for two years to the garrison and inhabitants. He afterwards accepted the office of chaplain to col. Whalley's regiment, and was even present at the sieges of Bridgewater, Exeter, Bristol, and Worcester. His influence was at all times exerted to modify the intolerance of partisanship, and to promote "the spirit of love and of a sound mind." On the urgent invitation of his parishioners, he returned to Kidderminster, when ill-health forced him to leave the army, and continued to labor there for some time. During this period, he greatly extended his fame by the publication of his<Sim*' AW am] Call to the Unconverted. He never dissembled his sentiments with regard to the execution of the king and the usurpation of Cromwell, even in the presence of the protector himself, who endeavored, without success, to enlarge his ideas on the subject of revolutions. On the return of Charles, B. was appointed one of his chaplains, and took a leading part in the conference held at the Savoy to attempt a reconciliation between the contending church factions, a project defeated by the bigoted obstinacy of the bishops. B. was tempted with the offer of the see of Hereford, but declined the honor, praying instead to be permitted to return to his beloved flock at Kidderminster. He asked no salary, but his request was refused. The act of uniformity at length drove him out of the English church, and in July, 1668, he retired to Acton, in Middlesex, 'where he spent the greater part of nine years, chiefly occupied in the composition of