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°' Austria.

AUSTRIA, Abciiduchy Of, the cradle and nucleus of the Austrian empire, lies on both sides of the Danube, from the mouth of the Inn to Presburg, on the borders of Hungary, and embraces an area of about 15,000 sq.m., with a pop. of nearly 8,300,000. It now forms three of the crown-lands, or administrative provinces of the empire—viz., lower and upper Austria (or Austria below, and Austria above the Ens), and the duchy of Salzburg. See Austria, Empire Of. The s. and w. portions are mountainous; the n. and e. are more level and fertile, containing the great plain of Vienna, the Marchfeld, etc. The pop. is mostly German and Catholic. The chief towns, besides Vienna, are Wiener-Neustadt, Salzburg, Steyer, Linz, and Ischl (q.v.).

AUSTRIA, Empire Of, or Atjbtro-hungarian Monarchy. The Austrian dominions form a compact territory, with a circumference of about 5350 miles. The body of the empire lies in the interior of Europe, though it has about 500 m. of sea-coast on the Adriatic. A. borders on Italy, Switzerland, Bavaria, Saxony, Prussia, Russia, Roumania, Scrvia, Turkey, and Montenegro. With the sanction of the Berlin congress of 1878, the small territory of Spizza, on the Montenegrin frontier and formerly Turkish, has been incorporated with Dal mat ia; the Turkish provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina, though occupied and also administered by Austria, cannot of course be regarded as part of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. The following table shows the area and population of the empire at the time of the census:

Crown-lands. Area in Sq. Miles. Population in 1880.

LowerAustria 7,563 2,330,621

Upper Austria 4,576 759,620

Salzburg 2,734 163,570

Styria 8,567 1,213,597

Carinthia 3,958 348,730

Carniola... 3,811 481,123

Coast districts, or Illyria 8,048 647,834

Tyrol and Vorarlberg 10,980 912,549

Bohemia 19,822 5,560,819

Moravia 8,481 2,158,406

Silesia 1,964 565,475

Galicia 29,874 5,958,907

Bukowina 8,981 571,671

Dalmatia 4,881 476,101

Hungary 68,583 11,644,574

Croatia and Slavonia 18,432 1,198,408

Transylvania 23,147 2,084,048

Military frontiers 12,800 701,546

Total 237,202 37,821,562

A late estimate of the total area makes it just 240,934 sq. miles. In 1869, the pop., as shown by census, was 35,904,435.

This population comprises the military establishment, which, excluding the land wehr, was, at the end of 1884, on a peace footing. 255,084 men; and 774,106 on a war footing. The naval forces of Austria included, in 1884, 8 sea-going iron-clads, 23 unarmored vessels, and 16 torpedo boats.

The first eleven of these divisions—except a part of Illyria—and also part of Galicia, making an extent of 75,180 sq.m., with a pop. of above 12,000,000, formerly belonged to the German Confederation.

Surface.—Three fourths of A. is mountainous or hilly, being traversed by three great mountain chains—the Alps, Carpathians, and Sudetes (q.v.), whose chief ridges are of primitive rock. The Rhsetian and Noric Alps stretch from Switzerland to the Danube, and contain the highest points of the Austrian territories, the Ortler Spitze rising to 12.779 English feet. Their height declines gradually towards the e., where the Leitha hills (3000 ft), overlooking the plain of Vienna, form the transition to the Carpathians. This chain rises on the leftbank of the Danube, near Presburg, and sweeping in acurve.first e., and then southward through Transylvania, again meets the Danube. The highest point is Butschetje, in Transylvania, where a height of 9528 ft. is reached. The central part, or Tatra mountains, are vast granitic masses, resembling the Alps in character; the highest of these is the Lomnitz, in the longitude of Cracow, 8188 feet. The Alps are accompanied, n and s., by parallel ranges of calcareous mountains, covering whole provinces with their ramifications. The Carpathians are lapped on their northern side by sandstone formations; mountains of the same character also occupy Transylvania. Springing from the n.w. bend of the Carpathians, the Sudetes run through the n.e. of Moravia and Bohemia, in which last the range is known as the Riesengebirge, or Giant mountains. The boundary between Bohemia and Prussian Silesia passes over the Schneekoppe, the highest peak of these mountains, which is 5275 ft. in height. Continuous with this range, and beginning on the left bank of the Elbe, are the Erzgebirge, or Ore mountains,

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on the confines of Saxony; and veering round to nearly s.e., the range is further prolonged in the Bohemian-forest mountains, between Bohemia and Bavaria.—The chief plains of the Austrian empire are the great plains of Hungary (the smaller of these is in the w., between the offsets of the Alps and Carpathians, and is about 4200 sq.m. in extent; the other, which is in the e., and traversed by the Danube and the Theiss, has an area of 21,000 sq.m.), and the plain of Galicia.

From the gulf of Triest to the s. point of Dalmatia, A. has a sea-line of about 1000 m., not counting the coasts of the numerous islands, the largest of which is Veglia, 23 m. by 12. The chief lakes are the Platten see (about 400 sq.m.), and the Neusiedler see (about 100 m.), both in Hungary. The first is navigable by steamers, and both are rich in fish, and have fruitful vineyards around them. The Alps and Carpathians inclose numerous mountain lakes. The Long lake in the Tatra mountains lies at an elevation of 6000 feet. The most remarkable of all is the Zirknitz lake (q.v.) in Illyria. There are extensive swamps or morasses in Hungary. One connected with the Neusiedler see covers some 80 sq. miles. A good deal has been done in draining morasses.

The leading rivers that have navigable tributaries are: the Danube (q.v.), which has a course of 849 m. within the Austrian dominions, from Passau, at the mouth of the Inn, to Orsova, on the frontier of Walachia, and receives, on the right, the Inn, Traun, Ens, Leitha, Raul), Drau, and Save; and, on the left, the March, Waag, Neutra, Gran, Theiss, Bcga, and Temes: the Vistula (q.v.), with its tributary the Bug: the Elbe (q.v.), with the Moldau and Eger: the Dniester and Adige (q.v.) have no navigable tributaries; this last, which rises in the RhaHian Alps, and flows past the famous city of Trent, enters Lombardy above Verona, and confers on that country the benefits of what commercial importance it possesses—being navigable only up to a point below Lcgnago. The Rhine only bounds the empire for about 14 m. above lake Constance. The Isonzo, Zermagna, Kerka, and Narcnta flow in'to the Adriatic.

The canal system of Austria is in general not extensive. Canal construction is recent. The Vienna and Neustadt canal, in lower Austria, has a length of 40 m.; the Bacser or Franz canal, between the Danube and Theiss in Hungary, 60 m.; and the Bega canal, constructed by the Romans, between the Bega and Temes, 83 miles. Extensive lines are still capable of being opened up, affording the only possible communication with many places now inaccessible, and, at the same time, the means of rescuing tracts of arable land from inundations.

The climate of A. is on the whole very favorable; but from the extent and diversity of surface, it presents great varieties. In the warmest southern region, between 42° to 46° (at., rice, olives, oranges, and lemons ripen in the better localities; and -wine and maize are produced everywhere. In the middle, temperate region.from 46° to49°, which has the greatest extent and diversity of surface, wine and maize still thrive in perfection. In the northern region, beyond 49°, except in favored spots, neither wine nor maize succeeds; but grain, fruit, flax, and hemp thrive excellently. The mean temperature of the year is, at Triest, 58° F.; at Vienna, 51°; at I.emberg. in Galicia, 44°.

The raw products of A. are abundant and various; and in this respect it is one of the most favored countries in Europe. What one province lacks, another supplies. Its mineral wealth is not surpassed in any European country; it is only lately that Russia has exceeded it in the production of gold and silver. Mining has been a favorite pursuit in A. for centuries, and has been encouraged and promoted by the government. Bohemia, Hungary, Styria, Carinthia, Salzburg, and Tyrol take the first place in respect of mineral produce. Except platina, none of tie useful metals is wanting. The mines are partly state property, and partly owned by private individuals. The value of their yearly produce is estimated at about £9,000,000. Of this sum coal yields about a half, iron a fifth, salt a tenth, and gold and silver together one fourteenth. The number of persons employed in mines and smelting-works is about 150.000, a third of whom are in Hungary. Gold is found chiefly in Hungary and Transylvania, and in smaller quantity in Salzburg and Tyrol. The same countries, along with Bohemia, yield silver. The discovery of quicksilver at Idria(q.v) first brought this branch of mining industry into importance. This metal is now also found in Hungary. Transylvania, Styria, and Carinthia. Copper is found in many districts—tin, in Bohemia alone. Zinc is got chiefly in Cracow and Carinthia. The most productive lead-mines are in Carinthia. Iron is found in almost every province of the monarchy, though Styria, Carinthia, and Oarniola are chief seats. The production, though great, is not yet equal to the consumption. Antimony is confined to Hungary; arsenic is found in Salzburg and Bohemia, cobalt in Hungary, Styria. and Bohemia; sulphur in Galicia, Bohemia, Hungary, Salzburg, etc., though not enough to supply home consumption. Graphite is found abundantly in Bohemia, Moravia, Carinthia. etc.

The useful earths and building stones are to be had in great profusion; all sorts of clay up to the finest porcelain earth (in Moravia, Bohemia, and Hungary), and likewise marble, gypsum, chalk, etc. Of precious and semi-precious stones are the Hungarian opal (which passes in commerce as oriental), Bohemian garnets (the finest in Europe), cornelians, agates, beryl, amethyst, jasper, ruby, sapphire, topaz, etc.

The following table shows the principal metals and minerals produced in A. in 1872, and their value in florins:

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Weight. Value in floring.

Gold (Austrian pound) 2,804 1,893,287

Silver" 74,043 3,331,925

Quicksilver (Austrian hundredweight) 7,170 1,240,798

Ziuc "" 45,013 477,179

Copper "" 30,886 1,342,033

Lead "" 102.339 1,305,646

Iron, raw and cast"" 8,477,115

Graphite " '* 648,318

Mineralcoal"" ...93,971,990

A. is peculiarly rich in salt. Rock-salt exists in immense beds on both sides of the Carpathians, chiefly at Wieliczka (q.v.) and Bochnia in Galicia, and in the co. of Marmaros in Hungary, and in Transylvania. The annual produce of rock-salt is greatly above 3,000,000 cwt. Salt is also made at state salt-works by evaporating the water of salt-springs. The chief works are those at Ebensee, Aussee, Hallstadt, lschl, Hallein, and Hall in Tyrol. From two to three million cwt. are thus produced annually. A considerable quantity is also made from sea-water on the coasts of the Adriatic. The sale of salt is in A. a government monopoly. Of other salts, alum, sulphate of iron, and sulphate of copper are the chief. There are inexhaustible deposits of coal in the monarchy; but they have not yet been rightly explored, nor are nearly all that are known vet worked. They are spread over all the provinces; but the richest are in the mountain-systems of Moravia and Bohemia. Of recent years, however, a great deal has been done to develop this particular branch of mining. A. has abundance of mineral springs, frequented for their salubrity; 1600 are enumerated, some of them of European reputation, as the sulphurous baths of Baden in lower A., the saline waters of Karlsbad, Marienbad, and Ofcn, etc.

The tegetabU productions, as might be expected from the vast variety in the soil and position of the different provinces, are extremely various. Although three-fourths of tiie surface is mountainous, more than five-sixths is productive, being used either for tillage, meadows, pasture, or forest. Grain of all kinds is cultivated, most abundantly in Hungary and the districts s. of it on the Danube; in Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia, and Galicia. Agriculture is not yet far advanced; the prevailing system is still what is called the three field system, introduced into Germany by Charlemagne, in which a crop of winter wheat is followed by one of summer grain, and that by fallow. In Hungary, the Magyar adheres to his primitive husbandry, the German and Slav arc adopting rational methods. Rice is cultivated in the Banat, but not enough for the consumption. Potatoes are raised everywhere; and in elevated districts are often the sole subsistence of the inhabitants. Horticulture is carried to great perfection; and the orchards of Bohemia, A. proper. Tyrol, and many parts of Hungary, produce a profusion of fruit. Great quantities of cider are made in upper A. and Carinthia, and of plum brandy in Slavonia. In Dalmatia, oranges and lemons are produced, but not sufficient for the requirements of the country; twice as much olive-oil is imported as is raised in the monarchy.

In the production of wine, A. is second only to France. With the exception of Galicia, Silesia, and upper A., the vine is cultivated in all the provinces; but Hungary rtunds first, yielding not only the finest quality of wine, but four-fifths the amount of the whole produce of the empire. The average produce of the whole empire is estimated at about 400,000,000 gallons, which is mostly consumed by the inhabitants them selves.

Of plants used in manufactures and commerce, the first place is held by flax and hemp. Flax is cultivated almost universally; white hemp in Galicia, Moravia, and Hungary. Tobacco is raised in great quantities, especially in Hungary, which also is first in the cultivation of rape-seed. Bohemia raises hops" of the first quality, which are partly exported; though other provinces require to import from abroad. The indigo plant has been lately successfully acclimatized in Dalmatia. Nearly a third of the productive surface is covered with wood (66,000 sq.m.), which, besides timber, yields a number of secondary products, as tar, potash, charcoal, bark, cork, etc.

As to animals, bears arc found in the Carpathians, Alps, and Dalmatia; wolves, jackals, and lynxes in these same districts, and also in the Banat, Croatia, Slavonia, and the military frontiers. The marmot, otter, and beaver are also found in Dalmatia. Game has of late sensibly diminished. The wild goat lives in the highest, the chamois and white Alpine hare in the middle regions of the Alps and Carpathians. More productive than the chase are the fisheries of the Danube, Theiss, and numerous streams, lakes, and ponds. The chief sea-fishing is in Dalmatia. Leeches, procured chiefly in Hungary and Moravia, form an article of considerable trade. For foreign commerce the most important branch of rural industry is the rearing of silk. A. produces about a quarter of a million of silk cocoons annually. The silk trade is very extensive in the Tyrol—the yearly supply of cocoons in that country being 32.000.

The breeding of ibimentic animal* lias not yet advanced to what the homo wan's require. In some districts it is excellent, in others quite neglected. Horsc-brccding is promotwlbywh.it are called "military studs." Besides a number of imperial studs,

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