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there are a great many private establishments, especially in Hungary, for the same purpose. The supply of black-cattle is not equal to the demand; great numbers are furnished by Hungary and Galicia. The breeding of sheep, like that of horses, has been 'a special object of care to the government. The finer wools are furnished by Moravia, Bohemia, Silesia, lower A., and great part of Hungary and Galicia. The great mass is, however, composed of what is known as middling and inferior sorts. Goats are reared chiefly in Dalmatia, and swine in Hungary. In 1872, the number of horses in the monarchy was stated at 3,548,442; cattle, 12,704,405; sheep, 20,103,395; goats. 1,552,055; swine, 6,994,752; and bee-hives, 1,531,152. Nearly three-fourths of the population are engaged in husbandry, so that A. is decidedly an agricultural state, though its capabilities in this respect have by no means been fully developed.

The population is very unequally distributed. The most populous districts are those of the s.w. and of the n-w. The Alpine regions and those of the Carpathians are the sparsest; and generally the density diminishes towards the east. At the end of 1880 Austria had, besides Vienna, 3 cities of above 100,000 inhabitants, and 33 others with more than 20,000. Vienna, with 834,284 inhabitants then, was found by special census in 1880 to have, with suburbs, 1,103,857. The population of Austria embraces a greater number of races, distinct in origin and language, than that of any other European country except Russia. The proportions in this respect are here given from the official statements of 1880. The Slavs are the most numerous race, amounting to 15,720,000, nearly 42 per cent of the whole population in 1880. They form the bulk of the population of Bohemia, Moravia, Carniola. Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, the military frontiers, the Woiwodina, the n. of Hungary, and Galicia. They are, however, split up into a number of peoples or tribes, differing greatly in language, religion, culture, and manners; so that their seeming preponderance in the empire is thus lost. The chief branches of the Slavic stem are the northern Czechs (the most numerous of all), Ruthenes, and Poles, the southern Slovenians, Croats, Serbs, and Bulgarians. The Germans numbered 9,807,000, or above 25 per cent. They are dispersed over the empire, but predominate most in the duchy of A., Salzburg, Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia, west Hungary, etc. The Romanic peoples (speaking languages derived from that of ancient Ronie) amounted to 8,456,000, or fully 9i per cent, and are divided into western and eastern. To the first, the Germans give the general name of Welsch. They consist of Italians, inhabiting the s. of Tyrol, Istria, and Dalmatia; the Ladins (Latins), occupying some valleys in Tyrol; and the Friauls about' Gortz, n. of Triest. The eastern Romans are the Valaks or Wallachians, styled by themselves Rumuni, who are found in Transylvania, Hungary, the Woiwodina, Bukowina, and military frontiers. The Magyars, or Hungarians proper, numbered 6,180,000 (over 16 per cent): they are located chiefly in Hungary and Transylvania; also in the Woiwodina. and a few in Croatia and Slavonia. The small remaining portion are composed chiefly of Jews, Armenians, and Tsigani or gypsies; and collectively they number over 1,354,000.

As to religion, the great bulk of the nation is Roman Catholic. At the beginning of 1880 there were 25,543,340 Roman Catholics; of Greeks and Armenians in union with the church of Rome. 4,036,668; not in union, 2,928,432. The Protestants of all denominations numbered 3,616,568; and of Israelites, there were 1,643,708. The church of Rome has 11 archbishoprics and 40 bishoprics, and an army of secular priests. At the accession of Joseph IL, there were 2024 convents; but at the end of the French war (1816) they had been reduced to 800. There are at present nearly 300 abbeys and above 500 convents in the empire.

Education, since 1849, is under the care of a minister of public worship and instruction. As compared with other German states, the education of A. presents some peculiarities. There is a greater prevalence of establishments where the pupils both live and receive instruction; also of schools for special callings. Instruction, again, whether high or low, is mostly gratuitous, or of trifling cost, being provided from general or local public funds. The government has recently made liberal allowance for elementary education. Another peculiarity is the sway of the clergy, both in schools and universities. The primary schools are, to a very large extent, in their hands. The number of elementary schools has increased greatly in recent times. The law enforces compulsory attendance at the "Volks-schulen," or national schools, of all children between the ages of 6 and 12; and parents are liable to be punished for neglecting to send them. Hungary is still backward in elementary education. There are eight technical schools in the empire. The nine universities are at Vienna, Prague, Gratz, Innsbrilck, Pesth, Cracow, Klausenburg, Lcmberg, and Czernowitz (founded, 1875). The first four of these, ranking as German universities, had in 1872—

Professors and teachers—

Ordinary professors 68

Extraordinary professors 38

Assistant professors 86

Teachers of languages, etc 8

Total 200 97 70 58

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Vienna. Prague. Grata, Innsbruck. Students—

Faculty of theology. 198 207 103 197

jurisprudence 1304 640 312 104

philosophy 697 265 143 148

■" medicine 1383 500 292 79

Total matriculated students 3564 1612 850 528

Non-matriculated students 817 97 76 84

Total 3881 1709 926 612

Id 1882, Vienna had 3930 students; Prague, 1751; Pesth, 145 teachers and 2000 students; Prague, which, since 1880, has had a Bohemian and a German university, had in 1883, 150 teachers and 2687 students. There are also a large number of establishments where the pupils are received young, and educated and trained for special professions, for the army and navy, for the counting-house, for the mine and the farm, as accoucheurs, etc. There are, besides, a large number of institutes for the promotion of science and art. The fruits of this extensive .educational system are not what might be expected, in consequence of the priestly and monarchical restrictions which hedge it round. The chief libraries are the imperial and university libraries of Vienna. There are in the whole monarchy 755 newspapers and other periodical prints, of which fully ihe half are in German. Such of them as are political are fettered by conditions which render them quite worthless as organs of public opinion.

The manufacturing industry of A. is not yet adequately developed, but of late years has made great strides. The annual value of its manufacture!!—not including small trades—is estimated at 1200 to 1500 million florins, while that of its husbandry may reach 2500 millions. Bohemia takes the lead in this industry; then follow Aus'tria proper, Moravia and Silesia, and Hungary. Vienna is the chief seat of manufacture for articles of luxury; Moravia, Silesia, and Bohemia for linen, woolen, and glass wares; Styria and Carinthia, for iron and steel wares. The chief manufactured articles of export arc those of silk and wool; the only others of consequence are linen twist, glass wares, and cotton goods. The yearly value of manufactured iron is about 54 million florins. The glass wares of Bohemia are of special excellence. The hemp and flax industry is one of the oldest and still most important. No branch of industry has risen more rapidly than that of cotton. The manufacture of silk is very extensive. The manufacture of tobacco is a state monopoly, and brings a revenue of nearly 60 million florins; the salt monopoly, 18 millions.

In respect of commerce, A. is most unfavorably situated. High mountains oppose great obstacles on all hands to communication, and separate the producing districts from the only sea that touches the empire; while the chief navigable rivers have their mouths in other countries. Much has been done to remedy these obstacles. Since 1809, a length of 20,000 m. of highways has been made. The great Alpine roads over the Stelvio pass and the Sefnmering (q.v.) are among the most remarkable constructions of our times. More remarkable still are the railways over the Brenner pass and the Semmering. The first railway in A. was a horse railway, constructed in 1825-32. The state in 1841, resolved to undertake the construction of railways, and since then a great extent has been laid down. A tolerably complete network of railway now brings all places of importance into easy communication with each other. The total length of railways in the empire open to traffic in Jan., 1884, was 12,223 English miles. The length of lines under construction was about 1000.

The length of telegraph lines in the empire in 1884 was about 30,865 English miles. The number of messages carried in 1880 was 8,370,000. In 1880 there were in Austria proper 4025 post-offices, and in Hungary, 2300. The number of letters and packets passing through the post in A. in 1880 was 324,344,000, and in Hungary, 98,709,000.

River-communication received a great impulse from the introduction of steam. By means of the Danube steam company, formed in 1850, and a second company (1852) confined to tug-navigation, passengers and goods are now conveyed on the Danube between Ulm and Qalatz, and on to Constantinople. The Austrian Danube steam com pany has a fleet of steamers plying on the Danube, the annual receipts from conveyance of goods being more than 7 million florins. This traffic would be vastly greater were the lower Danube freed from the influence of Russia.

A great number of the political impediments to commerce have been removed or diminished. The customs-boundary that separated Hungary and the adjoining provinces from the rest of the empire, was done away in 1851, so that the whole was included in one customs district, with the exception of Dalmatia, the free ports of Triest, Fiume, etc. These have gradually been incorporated with the rest of the empire: Triest ceased to be a free port in 1882. By the new tariff, A. has passed from a prohibitive to a protective system. No article is admitted duty-free; but absolute prohibition is confined to articles of state monopoly (salt, powder, and tobacco). Goods for mere transit or trans-shipment pay no duty. But the foreign commerce of A. is nothing compared with that between the different provinces. The great center of this internal commerce is Vienna: other important markets are Linz, Prague, Lemberg. Brody, Pesth.

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GrStz. The imports and exports of merchandise and bullion for the whole of the empire except the province of Dalmatia, which, as has been mentioned, is not within the imperial line of customs, were tabulated as follows for 1880 and 1881:

Merchandise. Bullion and Coin.

Florins . Florins.

Imports—1880 607,640,000 29,300,000

1881 634,420,000 35,900,000

Exports—1880 666,370,000 18,600,000

1881 717,390,000 3,400,000

For Dalmatia, the imports were in 1875, 13,400,000 florins, and in 1876, 12,900,000; tho exports in 1875 were 10,400,000, and in 1876, 7,800,000. The principal articles of import into the Austrian empire are grain and pulse and raw cotton and other materials for spinning, the value of this item reaching in 1880 the sum of £4,273.600. Next in importance come manufactured cloths, coffee, sugar and molasses, tobacco, and miscellaneous colonial produce. Some of the imports are partially re-exported; of native produce exported the most important are articles in metal, cereals, wood, and pottery.

The chief harbors of A. are those of Istria—Triest, Rovigno, Pirano, Citta Nuova, etc.; of Croatia—Fiume, Buccari, Novi; of Dalmatia—Zara, Spalatro, Ragusa, Cattaro, Curzola, etc.

As to form of government, A. is a monarchy hereditary in the house of HapsburgLothringen. In the case of the reigning family dying out, the states of Bohemia and of Hungary have the right of choosing a new king; but for the other crown-lands, the last sovereign appoints his own successor. The reigning house must profess the Koman Catholic faith.

Till 1848, Hungary and Transylvania had a constitution limiting the monarchy, which was absolute for the rest of the empire; though the several provinces had each its consultative council composed of clergy, nobles, and burghers. After the revolution of 1848, and the subsequent reaction, all marks of independence of the separate provinces disappeared. The imperial constitution granted (octroyirte) March 4, 1849, as well as the provincial constitutions that followed, were abolished, and government was organized in the most absolute form by the imperial "patent"or charter of Dec. 31, 1851. The patent guaranteed to every religious body recognized by law protection in the observance of public ordinances, in the management of its own affairs, and in the possession of buildings and funds for the purpose of worship and instruction. The relation of the Roman Catholic church to the state was put upon a new footing. It was no longer under the oversight of the secular authority, the placetum regivm and churchpatronage were abolished, ecclesiastical jurisdiction for discipline, and the independent administration of church property, were conceded, and the intercourse of bishops and of all Catholics with Rome left free. The clergy had no longer to submit to examination or tests on the part of the state; they were nominated by the state, but only with the concurrence of the bishops, and without that concurrence they could not be deprived of their office. Along with all this, they obtained an overwhelming influence over education, even in the universities; and by the concordat signed in the early part of 1856, this influence was very greatly increased. The patent further guaranteed the equality in the eye of the law of all citizens irrespective of nation, rank, or religion, and the liberation of the land from all serfdom. Subsequent patents (e.g. for Hungary, Croatia, etc., in 1853) regulated the claims between existing proprietors and their vassals, and determined the indemnities due to the former for their seignorial rights.

But since the year 1867 A. has been reconstructed as a twofold empire, consisting of a German or " Cisleithan " monarchy, and a Magyar or " Transleithan" kingdom. The former is generally known as Austria proper, and the latter as Hungary. Each of the two countries has its own laws, parliament, ministers, and government; and the formal tie between them is a body known as the delegations. These form a parliament of 120 members: the one-half is chosen by the legislature of German Austria, which is represented by it, and the other half represents Hungary. The person of the sovereign is another knot in the tie between the two members of the empire. Tho Magyars claim, under certain conditions, the right of freely electing their monarch. The delegations have jurisdiction over all matters affecting the common interests of the two countries, especially foreign affairs, war, and finance; the ministries of which three departments are responsible for tho discharge of their official functions to the delegations, a committee of whom sits permanently. The acts of the delegations require to be confirmed by the representative assemblies of their respective countries; and in this manner it is attempted to leave the self government of both Austria proper and Hungary free.

The administration of Austria proper is divided at present among seven ministries— public education and ecclesiastical affairs, agricultural, finance, interior, national defense, commerce, and justice. Formerly the ministry was merely the collective organ of the emperor, and was responsible to him alone. But a bill passed by the reichsrath in 1867, Austria.

and sanctioned by the emperor, renders it responsible to that parliament of the western empire.

The reichsrath consists of an upper and a lower house. The upper house is constituted by princes, nobles, archbishops, bishops, and life members nominated by the emperor. The lower house numbers 353 members, elected by the 14 provincial diets of the empire in the following proportions: Bohemia, 92; Dalmatia, 9; Galicia, 63; Higher Austria, 17; Lower Austria, 37; Salzburg, 5; Styria, 23; Carinthia, 10; Carniola, 9; Bukowina, 9; Moravia, 36; Silesia, 10; Tyrol, 17; Vorarlberg, 3; Istria and Triest, 4. The members of the reichsrath are elected in the provincial diets, and no cne who is not a member of one of these is eligible to the wider sphere of legislation. The emperor nominates the presidents and vice-presidents of both houses. The rights claimed by the reichsrath are: 1. Consent to all military laws; 2. Co-operation in legislature affecting trade and commerce, customs, banking, posting, telegraphs, and railways; 3. Examination of the estimates, and general control of the public debt. To give validity to bills passed by the reichsrath, the consent of both chambers is required, as well as the sanction of the emperor.

The executive of Hungary is carried on in the name of "the king " by a responsible ministry.

Finance.—The protracted wars of the first 15 years of the 19th c. had so exhausted the resources of A., and shattered her credit, that paper money, after being already twice reduced, had again sunk to 25 per cent of its nominal value; and even 5 per cent loans could only be obtained at a sacrifice of sometimes more than 50 per cent. During the 30 years that followed the war, much was done to restore the state credit, and 4 per cent state paper was bought at par. The revolution of 1848 brought new difficulties, from which the finances had not recovered, when the Crimean war increased the expenditure; the war with Prussia and Italy in 1866 increased the public debt by about 300,000,000 florins, but on the other hand freed A. from the Lombardo-Venetian debt of about 35,000,000 florins.

The budget estimates for the common affairs of the empire, for 1872, were—revenue, 17.208.883; expenditure, 110,647,498 florins; leaving a deficit of 93.438,615. The estimated revenue for 1877 was 117,091,389 florins, which was balanced by the estimated revenue. On the 1st July, 1876, the national debt of the Austrian empire was 3,065,269,072 florins, or £306,526,906 sterling. The estimated revenue for Austria proper (the countries represented in the reichsrath) in 1884 was 514.919,373 florins; the expenditure, 474,555,699 florins; national debt of the empire, 250,873,413 florins.

History*—The nucleus around which this great empire has grown was that part of the archduchy of A. that lies below the Ens. In the age of Charlemagne, about 800, the defense of the south-eastern frontier of Germany against Asiatic hordes gave rise here to a margraviate, called the eastern mark or boundary of the empire, or Oslreieh (Austria), the eastern government; which, being united in 1156 to the country above the Ens, was raised to a duchy. After coming, in 1282, into the possession of the house of Hapsburg (q.v.), it rapidly rose to a powerful state. The princes of that house extended their dominion by marriage, purchase, and otherwise, over a number of other states, and from 1438 held almost, uninterruptedly the throne of the German empire. By the acquisition (1526 and 1527) of the crowns of Bohemia and Hungary, the house of A. rose to the rank of a European monarchy. In 1804, Francis declared himself hereditary emperor of A., and, two years afterwards, laid down the title of emperor of Germany and king of the Romans.

In the earliest times, what is now the duchy of A. was inhabited by the Taurisci, a Celtic people; but their name subsequently disappeared before that of the Norici. After the conquest of the Norici by the Romans (14 B.C.), the country to the-n. of the Danube l*longed to the kingdom of the Marcomanni (q.v.); on the s. of the river lay the Roman provinces of Noricum and Pannonia, in which last was the municipal city of Vindobona (Vienna). Tyrol formed part of Rhnetia. All these boundaries were swept away by the irruption of the northern peoples; and the regions in question were occupied in succession, during the 5th and 6th centuries, by Boii, Vandals, Goths, Huns, Lombards, and Avari. After the Lombards had settled in Italy, the Ens came, about 568, to be the boundary between a tribe of German origin and the Avari, a people who had penetrated thither from the east. The Avari having, in 788, crossed the Ens, and fallen upon Bavaria, then part of the Frankish empire, Charlemagne drove them back (796) as far as the Raab, and united the district from the Ens to that river with Germany, under the name of the East Mark, Marchia Orientalis, or Austria. He sent colonists, mostly Bavarians, into the new province, and appointed over it a margrave. It came into the possession of the Hungarians in 900, but was reconquered by Otto I. in 955, and reunited with Germany.

As margrave of the reconquered province, the emperor, in 983, appointed Leopold of Babenberg (q.v.), whose dynasty ruled A. for 260 years. Under Henry Jasomirgott (1141-1177), the mark above the Ens was annexed to the lower mark, the united province raised to a duchy, and important privileges conferred on the newly named duke and

• As the history of A. and Its rulers Involves, for many centuries, the main strand of the thread at European history, it is given at somewhat more than the usual length.

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his heirs. This Henry Jasomirgott took part in the second crusade; he also removed the ducal residence from Leopmdsberg to Vienna, now first called a city, and began the building of the cathedral of St. Stephen. Under his successors, numerous additions (Styria, Carniola) were made to the possessions of the house. Leopold VI. undertook numerous expeditions against the Hungarians and the infidels, and is reckoned the best of the Babenbenr princes. The line became extinct with his successor, Frederick, who fell in battle with the Magyars (1246).

Then followed an interregnum from 1246 to 1282. The emperor Frederic II. at first treated the duchy as a. lapsed fief of the empire; shortly, claims were set up by Count Hermann of Bavaria, who was married to a niece of the deceased margrave, Frederic; and when Hermann died, and the empire was distracted by the contests between rival emperors, the "states" of A. and Styria chose Ottokar, son of the Bohemian king, as duke, who made good his nomination about 1260. Ottokar, refusing to acknowledge Rudolf of Hapsburg as emperor, was defeated, and lost his life and possessions, in the battle of Marchfeld (1278); and the emperor shortly afterwards (1282) conferred the duchies of A., Styria, and Carinthia on his son Albrecht.

The accession of the Hapsburg dvnasty with Albrecht I. (q.v.) was the foundation of A.'8 subsequent greatness. The despotic Albrecht contended successfully with Hungarians and Bavarians, but while attempting to subdue the Swiss, he was murdered near Rheinfelden (1308) by his nephew, John of bwabia, whom he had deprived of his hereditary possessions. Of his 5 sons, Frederic was chosen (1314) by a party to the imperial throne, but was defeated (1322) by his rival, Ludwig of Bavaria. Duke Leopold was defeated at Morgarten (1315) in his attempt to reduce the Swiss cantons that had thrown off their allegiance to Albrecht I. At last, by the death of all his brothers, Albrecht II. reunited the Austrian possessions, increased by various additions. After his death (1358), two sons, Rudolf and Albrecht III., successively followed in the duchy of Austria. Another son, Leopold, held the other lands, but lost his life at Sempach, in seeking to regain the Hapsburg possessions in Switzerland. The posterity of Albert and Leopold formed the two lines of A. and Styria. During Albrecht III. 's reign, Tyrol and other districts were ceded to Austria. After his death (1395), the dukedom was held by his son, Albrecht IV. Albrecht V., who succeeded his father in 1404, by marrying the daughter of the emperor Sigismund, succeeded ((1438) to the thrones of Hungary and Bohemia, and was at the same time raised to the dignity of German emperor, as Albrecht II. With his death, in 1439, Bohemia and Hungary were for a time lost to the house of A., as were also, after a bloody struggle, the last of the family possessions in Switzerland. But the imperial dignity was henceforth uninterruptedly held by them. With Ladislaw, Albrecht's son, the Austrian line of the house closed (1457), and their possessions went to the Styrian line. Of this line was the emperor Frederic III., who raised the dignity of his house by making A. an archduchy. After the death of Ladislaw and of his own brother, Albrecht, Frederic came into the undivided possession of the archduchy (1464).

His son, Maximilian I., by marrying Maria, daughter of Charles the Bold, acquired (1477) the Netherlands. Becoming emperor on the death of his father (1493), he ceded the government of the Netherlands to his son Philip. Under Maximilian, Tyrol fell again to the chief branch of the house of A., several districts were acquired from Bavaria, and fresh claims were established on Hungary and Bohemia. The court of Vienna began to be the scat of German art and science. The marriage of the emperor's son Philip with Johanna of Spain set the house of Hapsburg on the throne of Spain and the Indies. Philip died in 1506; and on the death of Maximilian I., in 1519, Philip's son, Charles I. of Spain, was elected German emperor as Charles V. (q.v.). Charles resigned by treaty all the German possessions, except the Netherlands, to his brother, Ferdinand I. (q.v.).

Ferdinand I. had married the sister of Lewis II. of Hungary; and on the death of the latter in the battle of Mohacz (1526), he claimed the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia, along with Moravia, Silesia, and Lausatia. His claim was contested by John Zapolya, who secured the aid of sultan Soliman II.; and Ferdinand, after contests extending over 20 years, had finally to pay an annual tribute of 30,000 ducats to Soliman for possession of Lower Hungary. Ferdinand was also fain to surrender Wllrtembcrg to Duke Ulrich (1534), on condition of its reverting to A. on the death of the male line. Nevertheless, the possessions of the house of A. (in the German line) were at this time already of the extent of 110,000 sq. miles. On the abdication of Charles V. (1556), Ferdinand succeeded to the imperial dignity; he died 1564, with the reputation of a good ruler, though he was strongly conservative of everything established, and introduced the Jesuits.

In the partition of the inheritance that took place among his three sons, the eldest, Maximilian II., received the imperial crown along with A., Hungary, and Bohemia; the second, Ferdinand, Tyrol and Upper A.; the third, Karl, Styria, Carinthia, etc. Maximilian was more fortunate in Hungary than his father. The death of Soliman before Szigcth (1566) led to a truce; he got his eldest son, Rudolf, crowned king of Hungary in 1572, and shortly after, of Bohemia, and also chosen king of Rome. But his attempt to bring the crown of Poland into his house failed. Maximilian II. was fond of peace, tolerant in religion, and a just ruler. He died 1576; and of his 5 sons, the eldest,

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