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treasures. In 541-42, he was enraged in a campaign against the Persians, who had captured Antioch; but was again recalled, on account of slanderous representations made to the emperor.and the enterprise necessarily proved indecisive. His second great struggle with the Ostrogoths now begins. In 544, the barbarians, under Totila, again invaded and reconquered Italy. B. was sent against them, but with an insufficient army. He, however, maintained his ground for five years, harassing the enemy by his skillful movements, and even succeeded so far as to regain possession of Rome. But, in spite of his repeated entreaties, no reinforcements were sent to him; and in Sept., 548, he gave up the command, his rival, Narses, being appointed in his place. After ten years of retirement, B. once more came forward at the head of an army hastily collected, and overthrew the Bulgarians, who had threatened Constantinople. Here this faithful servant, who at Ravenna had, in a spirit of noble loyalty unknown to the warriors in those selfish and ambitious times, refused the crown of Italy offered to him by the Goths, was at length accused of a conspiracy against Justinian, and imprisoned, Dec., 563; but according to Malala and Theophanes, Justinian became convinced of B.'s innocence, and restored him, after six months, to all his honors. He died Mar., 564.
The biography of B. has been treated with great license by writers of fiction, especially by Marmontel, who has represented the hero as cruelly deprived of sight, aud reduced, to beg for his bread in the streets of Constantinople. Tzetzes, a writer of the 12th c, states that, during his half-year's imprisonment, B. suspended a bag from the window of his cell, and exclaimed to those who passed by "Give an obolus to B., who rose by merit, and was cast down by envy!" but no writer contemporary with B. mentions this circumstance. Lord'Mahon, in his Life of Belutariia (Lond. 1829), endeavors, but without success, to confirm the tradition, or rather the fiction, of B. being deprived of sight and reduced to mendicancy. This fiction supplies the subject of a fine picture by the French painter Gerard.
In figure, B. was tall and majestic; in disposition, humane and generous; pure in his morals, temperate in his habits, a valiant soldier, a skillful general, and above all, possessed by a sublime spirit of loyalty to his sovereign.
BELIZE. See Balize.
BELJU KIE, or BArurcRra, a t. of India, in the British district of Moradabad, n.w. provinces, 2 m. n.w. from Kashipur. Pop. '71, including part of Kashipur, 8253.
BELKNAP, a co. in New Hampshire; intersected by the Boston, Concord and Montreal railroad; 360 sq.m.; pop. '80, 17,948. The surface is hilly, soil fertile. Co. seat, Laconia.
BELKNAP, William W. See page 887.
BELKNAP, Jeremy, D.d., 1744-98; b. Mass., and graduate of Harvard; pastor in New Hampshire, and over Federal street church, Boston. He founded the Massachusetts historical society in 1791. Among his works are History of New Hampshire, and American Biography.
BELL. Bells are usually formed of a composition of copper and tin, called bellmetal. When the proper proportions of the two metals are fused together, the compound is poured into a moid. Authorities differ as to the best proportions of the copper and tin. Some give 80 parts of copper to 20 of tin, or 4 to 1; others state the proportions as being 3 to 1. In the reign of Henry III. of England, it would seem to have been 2 to 1; and the small bronze bells discovered by Mr. Layard in the palace of Nimroud, are found to contain 10 of copper to 1 of tin. Handbells are often made of brass, antimony alloyed with tin, German silver, real silver, and gold. The notion that in old times silver was mixed with bell-metal to sweeten the tone, is a mistake. Silver, in any quantity, would injure the tone. The quality of a bell depends not only on the composition of the metal it is made of, but very much also on its shape, and on the proportions between its height, width, and thickness; for which the bell-founder has rules derived from experience, and confirmed by science. The pitch of a l>ell is higher the smaller it is. For a peal of four bells to give the pure chord of ground tone (key-notef, third, fifth, and octave, the diameters require to be as 30, 24, 20, 15, and the weiphts as 80, 41, 24, 10. A less quantity of metal than is due to the caliber of the bell though giving the same note, produces a meager harsh sound; and the real or fancied superiority in dignity of tone of some old bells, is ascribed to a greater weight of metal having been allowed for the same note than modern economy would dictate. Bells have been cast of steel, some of which have had a tone nearly equal in fineness to that of the best bell-metal, but deficient in length, having less vibration. Some have also been cast of glass, with a considerable thickness of the material; and these give an extremely fine sound, but are too brittle to stand the continued use of a clapper.
From a remote antiquity, cymbals and hand-bells were used in religious ceremonies. In Egypt, it is certain that'the feast of Osiris was announced by ringing bells; Aaron, and other Jewish high-priests, wore golden bells attached to their vestments; and in Athens, the priests of Cybele used bells in their rites. The Greeks employed them (koda) in camps and garrison; and the Romans announced the hour of bathing and of business by the Hntinnabulum. The introduction of bells into Christian churches U usually ascribed to Paulinus, bishop of Nola in Campania (400 A.d.); but there is no evidence of their existence for a century later. That they were first made in Campania, U
inferred from the name given to them—campanm; hence campanile, the bell-tower. Their use in churches and monasteries soon spread through Christendom. They were introduced into France about 550; and Benedict, abbot of Wearmouth, brought one from Italy for his church about 680. Pope Sabinian (600) ordained that every hour should be announced by sound of bell, that the people might be warned of the approach of the horce canonical, or hours of devotion. Bells came into use in the east in the 9th c.and in Switzerland and Germany in the 11th century. Most of the bells first used in Western Christendom seem to have been hand-bells. Several examples, some of them, it is believed, as old as the 6th c, are still preserved in Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. They are made of thin plates of hammered iron, bent into a four-sided form, fastened with rivets, and brazed or bronzed. Perhaps the most remarkable is that which is said to have belonged to St. Patrick, called theClog-an-eadhachta Phatraic, or "the bell of Patrick's Will." It is 6 in. high, 5 in. broad, and 4 in. deep, and is kept in a case or shrine of brass, enriched with gems and with gold and silver filagree, and made (as an inscription in Irish shows) between the years 1091 and 1105. The bell itself is believed to be mentioned in the Annals of Ulster as early as the year 552. Engravings as well of the bell as of its shrine, with a history of both, by the Rev. Dr. Reeves of Lusk, were published at Belfast (where the relic is preserved) in 1850. Some of the Scotch bells, of the same primitive type, are figured and described in the Illustrated Catalogue of the Arcluxological Museum at Edinburgh in 1856 (Edin. 1859). The four-sided bell of St. Gall, an Irish missionary, who died about 646, is still shown in the monastery of the city which bears his name in Switzerland. Church-bells were suspended either in the steeples or church-towers, or in special bell-towers. They were loug of comparatively small size; the bell which a king presented to the church of Orleans in the 11th c, and which was remarkable in its age, weighed only 2600 pounds. In the 13th c, much larger bells began to be cast, but it was not until the 15th c. that they reached really considerable dimensions. The bell "Jacqueline" of Paris, cast in 1400, weighed 15,000 pounds; another Paris bell, cast in 1472, weighed 25,000 pounds; the famous bell of Rouen, cast in 1501, weighed 86,364 pounds. The largest bell in the world is the great bell or monarch of Moscow, above 21 ft. in height and diameter, and weighing 193 tons. It was cast in 1734, but fell down during a tire in 1737, was injured, and remained sunk in the earth till 1837, when it was raised, and now forms the dome of a chapel made by excavating the space below it. Another Moscow bell, cast in 1819, weighs 80 tons. The great bell at Pekin, 14 ft. high, with a diameter of 13 ft., weighs 53£ tons; those of Olmutz, Rouen, and Vienna, nearly 18 tons; that first cast for the new palace at Westminster (but cracked), 14 tons; that of the Roman Catholic cathedral at Montreal (cast 1847), 13f tons; "great Peter," placed in York Minster 1845, 10} tons; "great Tom" at Lincoln, 5^ tons; great bell of St. Paul's, 5fV tons.—See an interesting article on Bells in the Quarterly Review for Sept., 1854; Gatty's The BeU (1848); Stainer's Great Paul (1882).
From old usage, bells are intimately connected with the services of the Christian church—so much so, that apparently from a spirit of opposition, the Mohammedans reject the use of bells, and substitute for them the cry of the Imaum from the top of the mosques. Associated in various ways with the ancient ritual of the church, bells acquired a kind of sacred character. They were founded with religious ceremonies (see Schiller's ode), and consecrated by a complete baptismal service; received names, had sponsors, were sprinkled with water, anointed, and finally covered with the white garment or chrisom, like infants. This usage is as old as the time of Alcuin, and is still practiced in Roman Catholic countries. Bells had mostly pious inscriptions, often indicative of the wide-spread belief in the mysterious virtue of their sound. They were believed to disperse storms and pestilence, drive away enemies, extinguish fire, etc. A common inscription in the middle ages was:
Funera plango, fulgura frango. Sabbata pango,
Excito lentOH, dissipo ventos, paco cruentos.
Among the superstitious usages recorded to have taken place in old St. Paul's church in London, was the "ringinge the hallowed belle in great tempestes or lightninges" (Brand's Popular Antiquities, vol. ii.). From this superstition possibly sprang the later notion, that when the great bell of St. Paul's tolled (which it does only on the death of a member of the royal family, or a distinguished personage in the city) it turned all the beer sour in the neighborhood—a fancy facetiously referred to by Washington Irving in the Sketch-Book. It would seem that the strange notion that bells are efficacious in dispelling storms, is by no means extinct. In 1852, the bishop of Malta ordered the church-bells to be rung for an hour to allay a gale.
Church-bells were at one time tolled for those passing out of the world. It was a prevailing superstition that bells had the power to terrify evil spirits, no less than to dispel storms; and the custom of ringing what was called the passing-bell, "grew [we quote the writer in the Quarterly Review above referred to] out of the belief that devils troubled the expiring patient, and lay in wait to afflict the soul the moment when it escaped from the body." . . . "The tolling of the passing-bell was retained at the reformation; and the people were instructed that its use was to admonish the living, and excite them to pray for the dying." But "by the beginning of the 18th c, the passing-bell, in the proper sense of the term, had almost ceased to be heard. The tolling, indeed, continued in the old fashion: but it took place after the death, instead of
before." The practice of slowly and solemnly tolling church-bells at deaths, or while funerals are being conducted, is still a usage in various parts of the country, more particularly as a mark of respect for the deceased. There is another use of the bell in religion, called the pardon or am bell, abolished among Protestants. The pardou-bell was tolled before and after divine service, for some time prior to the reformation, to call the worshipers to a preparatory prayer to the Virgin Mary before engaging in the solemnity, and an invocation for pardon at its close. Bishop Burnet has recorded the order of a bishop of Sarum, in 1538, concerning the discontinuance of the custom. It runs thus: "That the bell called the pardon or ave bell, which of longe tyme bathe been used to be tolled three tymes after and before divine service, be not hereafter in any part of my diocesse any more tollyd."
The ringing of the curfew-bell, supposed to have been introduced into England by William the conqueror, was a custom of a civil or political nature, and only strictly observed till the end of the reign of William Hufus. Its object was to warn the public to extinguish their fires and lights at eight o'clock in the evening. The eight o'clock ringing is still continued in many parts of England and Scotland.
As the liberty of public worship in places of meeting by themselves was yielded to* dissenters, by the various governments of Europe, only with reluctance, the use of bells in chapels as a summons to divine service is not allowed except in the more enlightened countries. Speaking on this subject as referring to England, lord chief-justice Jervis, in giving judgment on a case tried at the Croydon assizes in 1851, says: "With regard to the right of using bells in places of worship at all, by the common law, churches of every denomination have a full right to use bells, and it is a vulgar error to suppose that there is any distinction at the present time in this respect." Throughout England and Scotland, however, comparatively few dissenting places of worship possess bells—still fewer have steeples. In towns and villages, the places of worship connected with the established church are commonly distinguished by some kind of belfry or bell-cote with bells. The ringing of these for divine service on Sundays, and on other occasions, forms the theme of many poetical allusions. The lines of Cowper will occur to recollection:
How soft the music of those village' bells,
On all that belongs to the playing of bells in belfries, the inventive genius of the Netherlands long since arrived at proficiency. In some of the church-towers of that country, the striking, chiming, and playing of bells is incessant; the tinkling called chimes usually accompanies the striking of the hours, half-hours, and quarters; while the playing of tunes comes in as a special divcrtiscment. In some instances, these tuneplaying bells are sounded by means of a cylinder, on the principle of a barrel-organ; but in others, they are played with keys by a musician. The French apply the term cariUona to the tunes played on bells; but in England, it is more usual to givethe term carillons to the suites of bells which yield this kind of music. In this last sense, the tower of Les HaUes, a large building at Bruges, is allowed to contain the finest carillons in Europe. There is a set of music-bells of this kind in the steeple of St. Giles's church, Edinburgh. On these, tunes used to be played daily at certain seasons by a musician, who had a small salary from the civic corporation.
Many of the church-towers in London are provided with peals of bells, the ringing of which is a well-known practice. Eight bells, which form an octave or diatonic scale, make the most perfect peal. The variety of changes or permutations of order that can be rung on a peal, increases enormously with the number of bells: 3 bells allow 6 changes; 4 bells, 24; 12 bells give as many as 479,001,600 changes. The ringing of peals differs entirely from tolling—a distinction not sufficiently recognized in those places where au ordinary ringing of bells is made to suffice alike for solemn and festive occasions. The merry peal almost amounts to an English national institution. It consists in ringing the peal in moderately quick time, and in a certain order, without interruption, for the space of an hour. Merry peals arc rung at marriages (if ordered), and at other festive events, the ringers being properly paid, according to use and wont. The English appear to be fond of these peals, and the associations which they call up. They actually make bequests to endow periodical peals in their parish church-towers; leaving, for example, so much money to ring a merry peal for an hour on a certain evening of the week, or to commemorate victories, or some other subjects of national rejoicing, in all time coming. One of the most celebrated peals of bells in London is that of St. Mary-le-Bow, Cheaptide, which form the basis of a proverbial expression meant to mark emphatically a London nativity—" Born within the sound of Bow-bells." Brand speaksof a substantial endowment by a citizen for the ringing of Bow-bells early every morning to wake up the London apprentices. The ringing of bells in token of merriment is an old usage in England, as we learn from Shakespeare:
Get thee gone, and dig my grave thysell, • And bid the merry bells ring to thy ear.
That thou art crowned, not that I am dead.
Sometimes, in compliment to a newly opened church, effoi-ts are made to furnish its belfry with the proper number of bells, and to endow it at once for a weekly merry peaL BelL
It is common for some of the humbler class of parishioners to form a company of bellringers, acting under the authority of the church-wardens. Some endowments for peals embrace a supper, as well as a money payment to the ringers; and of course, in such circumstances, there is little risk of the merry peal falling into desuetude. The consequence is, that what with marriages, and other festive celebrations, and as a result of endowments, merry peals are almost constantly going on somewhere in the metropolis—a fine proof, it may be said, of the naturally cheerful and generous temperament of the English, and of their respect for old customs. In Lancashire, the art of playing on belli is cultivated with much enthusiasm and success. The bells are small, and arranged on a movable stand; they are struck by a small instrument which is held in each hand of the performer, and produce a sweet tinkling kind of music.
The custom of hanging bells on the necks of horses, cows, and other animals, was in use by the Romans, and still survives. The bells give notice of approach in the dark, and hung on cows, gpats, or sheep, these.animals can be easily found in the woods, or on the mountains. The charming poetical allusion of Gray—
And drowsy tlnkllngs lull the distant foldswill be called to remembrance. In some parts of England, as many as eight small bells, forming an octave, are attached to the harness of wagon-horses. The attaching of bells in a fanciful manner to riding and sleigh-horses is common in some parts of Europe and America.
The term bell is infused in much of our conversational phraseology. "To bear the bell," is a phrase which we previously attempted to explain. At one period, a silver bell was the prize in horse-races in England, and the winning horse was said to bear away the bell. A less probable explanation is, that the phrase originated in the custom of one of the most forward sheep in a Hock carrying a bell. Hence, at least, "bell-wether of the flock," a phrase applied disparagingly to the leader of a party. The old fable, in which a sagacious mouse proposes that a bell shall be hung on the neck of the cat, so that all the mice may be duly warned of her approach, has given rise to the well known-phrase of " belling the cat. Anyone who openly and courageously docs something to lower the offensive pretensions of a powerful and dangerous person, is said "to bell the cat."
The hanging of bells in dwelling-houses, and ringing them by means of wires from the different apartments, is quite a modern invention; for it was not known in England in the reign of queen Anne. Lately, there has been a great improvement in domestic bellhanging. Instead of traversing the apartments, and turning and winding by means of cranks, the wires are carried directly upward in tubes in the walls to the garret: thence from a row of cranks they descend together to their respective bells, which arc hung in one of the lower passages. More recently, there lias been introduced a system of electric bells, which is likely to supersede all others. The arrangement consists of an electromagnet, with its armature fastened at one end by a spring, and terminating at the other in a hammer, by which the bell is struck. The battery may be placed in any part of the building, and as there is no motion in the wires, no cranks or other apparatus are required. Contact is made by pressing a stud, and messages may be sent to any part of the house, by the Morse alphabet, or other code of signals. BELL, Alexander Graham. See page 887.
BELL, aco. in s.e. Kentucky, bordering on West Virginia and Tennessee, and drained bythe Cumberland river; 500 sq.m.; pop.'80, 6,055—181 colored. The surface is rough, and in some parts mountainous. Agriculture is the principal business. Co. seat, Pineville. This co. was formerly called Josh Bell. It contains coal and irou ore.
BELL, a co. in Texas, in a fine prairie region on the Leon river, well adapted to general agriculture; 850 sq. m.; pop. '80, 20,517—1734 colored. Co. seat, Bclton. The soil is rich, and cotton is abundantly produced. The Gulf Colorado and Santa Fe railroad passes through the co.
BELL, Andrew, D.d.. author of the Madras System of Education, was born at St. Andrews in 1753, and educated at the university of that place. Subsequently he took orders in the church of England: and after residing for some time in British America was appointed one of the chaplains at fort St. George, Madras. While here he was intrusted by the directors of the East India company with the management of an institution for the education of the orphan children of the European military. The arduous character of his new duties compelled him to reflect seriously on the best means of fulfilling them. As he found it impossible to obtain the services of properly qualified ushers, he at length resorted to the expedient of conducting the school by the aid of the scholars themselves. Hence originated the far-famed "monitorial System" (q.v.). After superintending the institution for seven years, the state of his health forced him to return to Europe. On his departure he received a most flattering testimonial from the directors of the school. In 1797, after his arrival in England, B. published a pamphlet entitled An Experiment in Education, made at the Male Asylum of Madras; suggesting a System by which a School or Family may teach itself under the Superintendence of the Master or Parent. This pamphlet attracted little attention until Joseph Lancaster, a dissenter, commenced to work upon the system, and succeeded in obtaining for it a large measure of public recognition. In 1803, Lancaster also published a tractate on education, recommending the monitorial system, as it was now called, and admitting B. to be the original
inventor of it, an admission which he afterwards discreditably retracted. Lancasterian schools now began to spread over the country. The church grew alarmed, at the successful results of the efforts made by dissenters to educate the poor, and resolved to be philauthropical ere it was too late. B. was put up against Lancaster. Money was collected and an immense amount of emulation was excited in the bosoms of churchmen. Fortunately, however, this rivalry produced only beneficial effects, and the motives which induced it may therefore be forgotten. Later in life B. was made a prebendary of Westminster, and master of Sherborn hospital, Durham. He was also a member of various learned societies. He died at Cheltenham, Jan. 28, 1832. He left (besides a valuable estate) £120,000 of three percent stocks for the purpose of founding various educational institutions in Edinburgh, Glasgow, Leith, Aberdeen, Inverness, Cupar, and St. Andrews. See Meiklejohn's An Old Educational Reformer (1881).
BELL, Sir Charles, an eminent surgeon, whose discoveries in the nervous system have given him a European fame, was born at Edinburgh in 1778, and while a mere youth assisted his brother John (afterwards noticed) in his anatomical lectures and demonstrations. In 1797 he was admitted a member of the Edinburgh college of surgeons, and soon after appointed one of the surgeons of the royal infirmary. In 1806 he proceeded to London, and for some years lectured with great success on anatomy and surgery at the academy in Great Windmill street. Admitted, in 1812, a member of the royal college of surgeons, London, he was elected one of the surgeons of the Middlesex hospital, in which institution he delivered clinical lectures, and raised it to the highest repute. To obtain a knowledge of gunshot wounds, he twice relinquished his London engagements—the first time after the battle of Coruuna in 1809, when he visited the ■wounded landed on the southern coasts of England; the other after the battle of Waterloo, when he repaired to Brussels and was put in charge of a hospital with 300 men. In 1824, he was appointed senior professor of anatomy and surgery to the royal college of surgeons, London, and subsequently a member of the council. On the establishment of theLondon university, now university college, in 1826, B. was placed at the head of their new medical school. He delivered the general opening lecture in his own section, and followed it by a regular course of characteristic lectures on physiology; but soon resigned, and confined himself to his extensive practice, which was chiefly in nervous affections. In 1831 he was one of the five eminent men in science knighted on the •ccession of William IV., the others being sir John Herschel, sir David Brewster, sir John Leslie, and sir James Ivory. In 183(5 ho was elected professor of surgery in the university of Edinburgh. He was a fellow of the royal societies of London and Edinburgh, and a member of some other learned bodies. Author of various works on surgery and the nervous system, and editor, jointly with lord Brougham, of Paley's Evidences of Natural Religion, B. was one of the eight distinguished men selected to write the celebrated Bridgewater Treaties, his contribution being on The Hand, its Meehanwn and Vital Endowments, at evincing Design (1834). He died suddenly, April 80, 1842 Among his principal works are: The Anatomy of Vie Brain Explained in a Series of Engravings, 12 plates (Lond. 1802, 4to); A Series of Engravings Explaining the Course of the Nerves, (Lond. 1804, 4to); Essays on tlie Anatomy of Expression, in Painting, plates (Lond. 1806,4to); posthumous edition much enlarged, entitled The Anatomy and Philosophy of Expression as connected icith the Fine Arts (Lond. 1844, 8vo); A System of Ojieratin Surgery, 2 vols. (Lond. 1807-9; 2d ed. 1814); Dissertation on Ounsliot Wounds (Lond. 1814, 2 vols. 8vo); Anatomy and Physialoqy of the Human Botly, 3 vols. (1816); various papers on the nervous system which originally appeared in the Philosophical Transactions; Exposition of the Natural System of the Nerves of the Human Bnly (1824); Institutes of Surgery (Edin. 2 vols. 1838, 12mo); Animal Mechanics, contributed to the Library for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge (1828); Nervous System of the Human Body (1830), 4to. See Correspondence of Sir Charles B. (1870).
BELL, Charles Henry. See page 887.
BELL, Charles H., 1798-1875; b. N. Y.; rear-admiral in the U. S. navy. He served in the war with England in 1812, and in the civil war, rising to commodore in 1862, and admiral in 1866.
BELL, George Joseph, an eminent lawyer, brother of Sir Charles, was b. at Edinburgh, March 2ii, 1770, and passed advocate in 1791. Acknowledged one of the greatest masters of commercial jurisprudence of his time, and in particular of that department of it which relates to the laws of bankruptcy, he was, in 1822, appointed professor of Scots law in Edinburgh university; and in 1823, a member of the commission for inquiring into Scottish judicial proceedings. Subsequently, he was member of a commission to examine into and simplify the mode of procedure in the court of session. On the report, drawn up by Bell, was founded the Scottish judicature act, prepared by him. which effected many important changes in the forms of process in the superior courts of Scotland; the jury court being abolished as a separate judicature, and conjoined with the court of session. Appointed in 1831 one of the clerks of the court of session, he was, in 1833, chairman of the royal commission to examine into the state of the law in general. He also prepared a bill for the establishment of a court of bankruptcy in Scotland. His principal works are—Commentaries on the Laws of Scotland, and on the Principles of Mercantile Jurisprudence (Edin. 1810, 4to; 5th ed. 1826, 2 vols. 4to); Principles tf the Law of Scotland (Edin. 1829, 8vo; 4th ed. 1839, 8vo); and Commentaries on tht