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Rudolf II., became emperor. Under him, the possessions of the archduke Ferdinand of Tyrol, who had married Philippine Welser (q.v.), the beautiful daughter of an Augsburg burgher, reverted to the other two lines, Ferdinand's children not being considered noble. Rudolf II. adhered to the old feudal usages, and was a negligent sovereign, leaving everything to his ministers and the Jesuits. His war with the porte and Transylvania brought him little credit; and the Protestants of Bohemia, oppressed by the Jesuits, extorted from him a charter of religious liberty. At last he was obliged, in 1608, to cede Hungary, and, in 1611, Bohemia and A. to his brother Matthias (q.v.). Matthias, who became emperor in 1612, concluded a 20 years' peace with the Turks, and ceded (1617 and 1618) Bohemia and Hungary to his cousin Ferdinand, son of the archduke Karl of Styria, third son of Maximilian II. Matthias lived to see the outbreak of the thirty years' war (q.v.), and died March 20, 1619.

Bohemia refused to acknowledge his successor, Ferdinand II. (q.v.), to whom all the Austrian possessions had again reverted, and chose the elector palatine, Frederic V., the head of the Protestant union, as king. The states of A. and the Hungarians were also refractory. But the battle of Prague (1620) subjected Bohemia to Ferdinand; who formally set about rooting out Protestantism in that country and in Moravia, annulled their right of electing their king, and the patent of religious freedom granted them by Rudolf ll., and set up a Catholic reformation tribunal which drove thousands into exile. The emperor also succeeded in extorting acknowledgment of his sovereignty from the states of A., among which Protestantism predominated; after which Protestantism was rigorously prohibited. Hungary also was at last compelled to yield, which had revolted ■under the prince of Transylvania. But this religious war and persecution cost the house of A. the life-blood of its possessions. Of 732 cities in Bohemia, only 180 were left; of 30,700 villages, only 6000; of 3,000,000 inhabitants, only 780,000. Under Ferdinand's successor, the emperor Ferdinand III. (1637-1657), A. continued to be a theater of war; and at the peace of Westphalia (1648), had to cede Alsace to France. Ferdinand III.'s son and successor, Leopold I., provoked the Hungarians to rebellion by his severity. Tekeli (q.v.) received aid from the porte, and Kara Mustapha besieged Vienna (1683); which was rescued only by an army of Poles and Germans under John Sobieski hastening to its assistance. The emperor's generals now reduced the whole of Hungary, which was declared a hereditary kingdom in the male line (1687). Prince Eugene compelled the porte (1699) to restore the country between the Danube and Theiss, and, in 1718, to cede other important provinces to Hungary. The struggle between Leopold and Louis XIV. of France for the heirship to the King of Spain, led to the war of the Spanish succession (q.v.), during which Leopold died, May 5, 1705. He was of sluggish phlegmatic character, and wholly under the influence of the Jesuits.

His eldest son and successor, the enlightened Joseph I. (q.v.), continued the war. He d. childless, April 17, 1711, and was succeeded by his brothe?, Karl VI. The peace of Utrecht,concluded under his reign (1713), secured to A. the Netherlands, Milan, Mantua, Naples, and Sicily. The monarchy now embraced 190,000 sq.m., with 29,000,000 inhabitants, and had a revenue of 14,000,000 florins, with an army of 130,000 men. Its strength, however, was soon much exhausted by freBh wars with France and Spain. At the peace of Vienna (1737), Karl VI. had to give up Naples and Sicily to Don Carlos of Spain, and part of Milan to the king of Sardinia, receiving only Parma and Piacenza instead. He also lost at the peace of Belgrade (1739) nearly all the fruits of Eugene's conquests, giving back to the porte Belgrade, Servia, and the parts of Wallachia and Bosnia that had belonged to Austria. The emperor conceded all these points with the view of securing adhesion to the pragmatic sanction (q.v.), which conferred the succession on his daughter, Maria Theresa.

"With his death (Oct. 20, 1740) the male line of the Hapsburgs was extinct, and Maria Theresa, who was married to Franz Stephan, duke of Lorraine, assumed the government. But counter-claims were raised on all sides, and a violent war arose, in which England alone sided with Maria. Frederic II. of Prussia conquered Silesia. The elector of Bavaria took the title of archduke of A., was crowned king of Bohemia at Linz and Prague, and elected emperor as Karl VII. (1742). The Hungarians alone stood by their heroic queen; who, at the peace of Breslau (1742) was forced to yield Silesia to Prussia. Frederic renewed the war by coming to the assistance of the emperor; but Karl dying (1745), Maria Theresa's husband was elected German emperor as Franz I. A second treaty of peace (1745) secured Silesia anew to Prussia; and at the peace of Aixla-Chapelle (1748), A. had to cede Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla to Don Philip of Spain, and several districts of Milan to Sardinia. These sacrifices secured the existence of the Austrian monarchy; but Maria Theresa wished to recover Silesia, and with this view, entered into alliance with France, Russia, Saxony, and Sweden; but after a bloody seven years' war (q.v.), Prussia retained Silesia, and A. had spent her blood and treasure in vain. At this time, paper-money first appeared in A., under the name of state-bonds. At Franz's death (1765), his son, Joseph II., became German emperor, and joint-regent with his mother of the hereditary states. Collateral branches of the house of A. were planted by the younger sons of Maria Theresa, the archduke Leopold of Tuscany, and the archduke Ferdinand, who married the heiress of Este (see Modkna). In the first partition of Poland (1772), A. acquired Galicia and Lodomeria, and the Bukowina wag ceded by the porte in 1777. At the death of the empress in 1780, the monarchy had an

Austria.

extent of 234,000 sq.m., with a pop. of 24,000,000, and a debt of 160,000,000 florins. The administration of Maria Theresa was distinguished by unwonted unity and vigor both in home and foreign relations.

Her successor^ Joseph II., was an active reformer in the spirit of the enlightened despotism of the times, though often rash and violent in his mode of proceeding. He introduced economy into every department, remodeled the censorship of the press, granted liberties and rights to Protestants, abolished 900 convents, and revised the school-system. His protective system of duties, though exhibiting his narrowness as a statesman, gave a start to native manufactures. But his reforming zeal and passion for uniformity excited opposition; the Netherlands rose in insurrection, and other disturbances broke out, which hastened his end (1790). He was succeeded in the government by his brother, the grand duke of Tuscany—as German emperor, Leopold II.—who succeeded in pacifying the Netherlands and Hungary. Peace was concluded with Prussia and Turkey (1790). The fate of his sister, Marie Antoinette, and her husband, Louis XVI., led Leopold to an alliance with Prussia; but he d. (Mar. 1, 1792) before the war with France broke out. The war was declared by France on his son Franz II., the same year (see France). By the treaty of Campo Formio (q.v.), 1797, A. lost Lombardy and the Netherlands, receiving in lieu the Venetian territory; two years later, at the second partition of Poland, it was augmented by West Galicia. Franz, in alliance with Russia, renewed the war with France in 1799, which was ended by the peace of Luneville. It is needless to follow all the alterations of boundary that the Austrian dominions underwent during these wars. The most serious was at the peace of Vienna (1809), which cost A. 42,000 sq.m. of territory, and 11,000,000 florins of her revenue. It was in 1804, when Napoleon had been proclaimed emperor of France, that Franz declared himself hereditary emperor of Austria, uniting all his dominions in one empire. On the establishment of the confederation of the Rhine, he laid down the dignity of German emperor, which his family had held for nearly 500 years, and now took the title of Franz I., emperor of Austria.

The humiliating peace of Vienna was followed (1809) by the marriage of Napoleon with the archduchess Maria Louisa; and in Mar., 1812, Napoleon and Franz entered into alliance against Russia. But when the Russian campaign of 1812 had broken the power of the French emperor, his father-in-law declared war on him (Aug., 1813), and joined the alliance of England, Russia, Prussia, and Sweden. The active part which the emperor Franz now took in the downfall of Napoleon, his consenting to the banishment of his son-in-law to Elba, and the firmness with which he signed the declaration of outlawry against him on his return to France, and contributed to his final overthrow, thus deciding the fortunes of his own daughter and her son—all furnished grounds of claim to that full indemnity for her losses which A. obtained at the close of the war. In the remodeling of the map of Europe that took place at the congress of Vienna (1815), 32,000 sq.m. were added to the 253,000 possessed by A. after the last partition of Poland, besides the advantages she gained in point of compactness, and facilities for trade, especially by the acquisition of Venice and Dalmatia. Ferdinand, the emperor's uncle, was also restored to the grand duchy of Tuscany, of which he had been dispossessed by Napoleon.

After that time, A. exerted a powerful influence in European politics generally, and more especially iu the German confederation; and that influence was uniformly hostile to constitutionalism (see Metteivnich). When the Polish revolution broke out, a strict neutrality was assumed; but a Polish corps that was driven into the Austrian territories was disarmed, and sent into Hungary, while a Russian division that had taken refuge on Austrian soil was let go, and equipped with the Polish weapons.

The death of Franz I. (Mar. 2, 1832) made little alteration in the policy of A.; Ferdinand I. trod in his father's footsteps. The political alliance with Russia and Prussia was drawn closer by a personal conference of the emperor with Nicolas I. and Frederic William III. at Tcplitz, Oct., 1833. The wonted calm was interrupted in 1840 by the war against Ibrahim Pacha in Syria, in which A. took part in union with England. An attempt at insurrection in Italy in 1844 was a complete failure.

But under this long-continued peace and superficial calm, the internal condition of the empire was coming to a crisis. The stifling bureaucratic system of government and police supervision, had produced only irritation and discontent, and was powerless to compress the fermentation. The opposition in the several nationalities became stronger and stronger, and the tactics of playing these nationalities off against one another, no longer succeeded. The Polish insurrection, which led to the incorporation of Cracow with the monarchy (Nov., 1846), had turned into a frightful rising of the peasantry in Galicia against the nobles. This enabled the government to overpower the political rising; but the success only increased the danger of the crisis, by encouraging it to proceed in the old reckless way. In the meantime the opposition to Austrian rifle in Italy, Hungary, and Bohemia, was becoming uncontrollable, and even the states of lower A. insisted on some control in the management of the state. The revolutionary movement was already in full swing in Italy, when the fall of Louis Philippe (Feb. 24. 1848) shook Europe to its foundation. A host of petitions and addresses was followed. Mar. 18, by a popular movement iu Vienna, to which the government and military, after a feeble resistance succumbed. Metteinich resigned, the arming of the citizens and freedom of the press were granted, and the emperor promised to convoke a consul

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tritive assembly from all parts of the empire. At the same time, the opposition in Hungary had carried their demand for an independent ministry responsible to the national diet, and the emperor was not in a position to withstand it. The 22d of Mar. saw the insurrection break out at Milan, and Radetzky, the military commander, forced to retire on Verona. Venice rose at the same time, and drove out the Austrians.

While the revolution was thus victorious in the provinces, the central authority was in a state of dissolution. The authority passed into the hands of the national guards and the students' legion (the Aula). A rising of the people (May 15), in support of the central committee, formed from the national guards, which the government had attempted to dissolve, compelled its continuance, and also a revision of the electoral law, so as to convert the new diet into a constituent assembly. These proceedings led to the flight of the court to Innsbruck (May 17). An unsuccessful attempt of the government to break the power of the "Aula," resulted in the appointment of a committee of safety, to whose influence the government had to submit. A Slavic insurrection broke out in Prague after Easter, which was repressed with bloody severity by Prince Windischgratz. While the emperor was thus lingering at Innsbruck, leaving Vienna in the power of the populace, and the Hungarians were pursuing an independent course, it was in Italy that the power of A. began to recover itself.

Radetzky had at first been reduced to the maintaining of a defensive position at Verona, against Charles Albert of Sardinia, who had declared war on A. at the outbreak of (he revolution, and the forces that came to his aid from Tuscany, Rome, and Naples; and the foreign policy of A. was in such a state of discouragement, that negotiations were entered into under the mediation of Great Britain, offering the Lombards independence on moderate conditions. But in June, Radetzky took up the offensive, reduced in succession Vicenza, Padua, and other cities, and then turning against the chief Sardinian force, defeated it at Custozza (25th July), and drove it from the field. The fruits of the victory were the dissolution of Charles Albert's army, and a truce which again delivered Lombardy to Austria.

In the mean time, the government at Vienna was more powerless than ever. The emperor remained at Innsbruck, and the constituent diet was opened, July 22, by the archduke John, as his representative. But a new crisis was ripening in Hungary. The Croats, under their ban, Jellachich (q.v.), opposed the predominance of the Magyars, and refused obedience to the Hungarian government, which, under the Batthyanyi-Kossuth ministry, was pursuing a policy almost independent of Austria. Jellachich's resistance was officially condemned by the emperor, and he was threatened with deposition; but. as subsequently appeared, his conduct was secretly approved by the court. The archduke Palatine, Stephen, now left Hungary, after a last attempt at conciliation: and the emperor, who had returned to Vienna after repeated invitations, named count Lamberg commissioner, with the supreme command in Hungary. Lamberg. however, was murdered on the bridge of Pesth (Sept. 28). The Hungarian parliament was now dissolved, and the command given to Jellachich. But the parliament continued its sittings, and appointed Kossuth president of the committee of defense. When the imperial troops now began to march against Hungary, a frightful insurrection broke out in Vienna (Oct. 6), which was attributed to Hungarian instigation. The arsenal was stormed, and the war-minister, Latour, murdered; the court fled to Olmutz, a committee of safety was appointed, the armed populace organized, and the Polish gen., Bern, put at the head of military affairs; while the diet wavered between royalty and revolution, in the mean time, the military forces had withdrawn, and joined Jellachich. in order to prevent the Hungarians coming to the aid of the Viennese. Windischsrriltz nowapproached with an army, and declared Vienna in a state of siege. The attack began on the 23d of Oct., and after a resistance of eight days, Vienna surrendered.

Severe measures were then taken; and a number of leaders, among others, Robert Blum (q.v.), were condemned and shot. The diet now met at Kremsir, and a new ministry was formed, into which prince Schwartzenberg, count Stadion, Bach, Bruck, and others entered. But the vigorous policy thought to be necessary for the restoration, and advocated by the archduchess Sophia, was not responded to by the easy nature of Ferdinand I. Accordingly, the emperor abdicated, Dec. 2, as did also the archduke Franz Karl, and the latter s son, Franz Joseph (q.v.), was declared emperor.

In winter, Windischgratz entered Hungary, and began the Hungarian war. After the encounters at Raab and Babolna, Ofen was besieged (Jan., 1849), and the Hungarians retired l>eyond the Theiss, and had time to organize themselves under such able leaders as Gorgei and Klapka, and to prepare for the struggle of the following summer.

In the meantime, important events took place elsewhere. In Mar. (21-23), Radetzky made his rapid and decisive campaign, which, by the victory of Novara, led to the abdication of Charles Albert, and an indemnification for war expenses from Sardinia of IS million lire. With the surrender of Venice, which took place in Aug., the subjugation of Italy was complete.

At Kremsir, the diet,proving intractable, was dissolved, Mar. 4. 1849; and a constitution was granted (octroyirf), with two elective chambers, responsible ministers, and other constitutional provisions. In the national assembly at Frankfurt, A. opposed the project of a confederated state under the leadership of Prussia, and managed to thwart tne conferring of the empire of Germany on the Prussian king (Mar., 1849). II.-2a.

Austrian. Aft

Autochthones. *°

In Hungary, the Magyars, though the Germans and Slaves within the country itself were hostile to them, began the campaign with decided success. Bern conquered Transylvania in spite of Russian aid; and the rest of the Hungarian army advancing westward in spring, were successful against the imperial forces at Szolnok and Waitzen. Windischgriltz was replaced in the command by Welden, but the imperial cause was not improved. Kossuth's hopes rising, he proclaimed the deposition of the house of Hapsburg, and virtually made Hungary a republic. By May, Pesth and Ofen were again in the hands of the Magyars; and although gen. Welden was recalled, and the command given to Haynau, there was little prospect of success against the Magyars, if a treaty with the czar had not brought the aid of a Russian army under Paskewitsch. The Austrians still suffered several reverses, and the Hungarians performed splendid feats of arms, such as Gorgei's victory at Waitzen, and Klapka's sally from Komorn; but from June, the war on the whole began to be more favorable to A., whose forces were well managed by Haynau and Jellachich; and the intervention of the Russians brought an irresistible weight of numbers against the Magyars. After the affairs of Szegedin and Dcbreczin, Haynau's engagements on the Theiss, and the raising of the siege of Temcswar, it was in vain that Kossuth transferred the dictatorship to Gorgei. Gorgei, whether from treachery, as the other Magyar leaders maintain, or from necessity, as he himself avers, laid down his arms to the Russians at Vilagos (Aug. 18). The surrender of Komorn, in Sept., completed the subjugation of Hungary, which was treated as a conquered country, and the officers taken in Arad were dealt with by Haynau with a bloodthirsty rigor.

A. was now free to attend to politics, internal and external, and the spirit of the restoration soon showed itself. One important fruit of the revolution was retained—the liberation of the soil from the burdens and trammels of feudalism. All other liberal concessious very soon disappeared For a time, the forms of the constitution of Mar., 1849, were retained; but the rigorous military government and the surveillance exercised over the press, showed the tendency of things. The fundamental principles of the constitution turned out to the profit only of the Catholic church, which got rid of the placeturn regium. In the beginning of 1851, Schmerling and Bruck, the liberal element of the ministry, retired; and in Aug. appeared a number of imperial decrees rendering the ministers accountable to the emperor alone. At last, Jan. 1,1852, it was announced that the constitution and the fundamental rights were abolished, trial by jury set aside, the old press law revived, etc. This was followed by still greater concessions of influence to the clergy. The emperor did not conceal his predilection for absolute military government. All this was not effected without manifestations of discontent. The fires of revolution were still smouldering in Hungary and Italy; and in Lombardy, though still under strict military law, a tumult broke out, Feb., 1853, in which a number of officers and soldiers were stabbed. The finances, too, notwithstanding vigorous measures for improving the material resources of the country, continued in a bad stale, so that incessant loans were required to cover the current deficit.

On the confused arena of German politics, the struggle for ascendency was kept up between A. and Prussia. In Oct., 1850, the two powers were armed and ready to come to blows; but the bold and determined policy of Schwartzeuberg prevailed, and Prussia gave way. The points in dispute it might be difficult for any but a German to understand, even if it were worth trying. See Germany, Hesse-cassel. The result was that Prussia's scheme of a union was given up, and also A.'s admission with all her territories into the German confederation; and in 1851, the old diet was restored. After the death of Schwartzenberg, the foreign policy of A. was more conciliatory, and her interference in German affairs less dictatorial. Prussia and A., after Dec, 1852, were more friendly, on the whole, though the war in Italy gave rise to considerable ill-feeling between the two powers. In Feb., 1853, a commercial treaty was concluded, which was of the utmost consequence to the prosperity of A., as removing a great part of the obstructions to her commerce with the rest of Germany.

In 1833, a difference took place between A. and Turkey, which formed, as it were, a prelude to the war in the Crimea. In the quarrel between the Montenegrins and the porte, A. took the part of the Montenegrins; she had also complaints as io the infringement of rights possessed by her on the Adriatic coast, and regarding the treatment of Christians in Turkey. The threatening mission of count Leiningen. Feb., 1853, procured redress of these grievances. As if following up this movement, Russia came forward as the special protector of the Greek Christians of the Ottoman empire, and made demands on the porte which were held inconsistent with his sovereign rights. It was the interest of A., as well as of the rest of Europe, to maintain the integrity of the Ottoman empire; but although she united witii England and France in endeavoring to settle the question by negotiation, when the war broke out, her peculiar relations to Russia led her to remain neutral during the contest.

The conduct of A. in Italy, especially after 1849, was such as to make that country a "standing menace to Europe." The government of A. in that portion of Italy of which she obtained possession by the treaty of 1815, was far from satisfactory; but what was chiefly complained of by the other powers was her interference in the affairs of the independent states of the peninsula. By means of secret treaties (copies of which were laid before the British houses of parliament this year. 1859), A. obtained a most undue iutluju Austrian.

^J Autociithone*

ence in Parma, Tuscany, Modcua, the States of the Church, and in the kingdom of the Two Sicilies. That influence was of course exercised in the interests of despotism, and in opposition to the -welfare of the people, whose wishes their rulers, backed by Austrian troops, were enabled to set at defiance. The position of A. in Italy was canvassed at the meetings which followed the signing of the treaty of peace at Paris in 1856, but nothing resulted from the discussions. Sardinia seeing herself gradually environed by, and afraid to fall a victim to the prevailing Austrianism, after all remonstrances of a peaceful kind had failed, began to arm. A. demanded her immediate disarmament, on pain of war; but Sardinia, whose army was swelled with volunteers from every part of the peninsula, and who had previously entered into a treaty, offensive and defensive, with France, refused. A. accordingly commenced hostilities by crossing the Ticino on the 29th of April, 1859. On the 3d May, France, as the ally of Sardinia, formally declared war against A.; but in anticipation of what was to follow, she had several days before dispatched troops into Piedmont. The Austrian troops were beaten in every engagement that followed, and so effectually, that on the 6th July, the emperor, who latterly had taken the chief command of his army, was fain to conclude an armistice with the emperor Napoleon, who also commanded in person. On the 12th of the same month, the two potentates met at Villaf ranca, and agreed to come to terms of peace, the chief conditions of which were to be the cession of Lombardy to Sardinia. See Italy. In 1866 a short and bloody war occurred between A. on the one hand, and Italy and Prussia on the other (see Germany), issuing in the cession of Venice to Italy, and the dual reorganization of the empire as described above. Since then, the Sclavonic Bohemians have continued to struggle in vain for the separate crown rights of their ancient kingdom. The part taken by the government in the Russo-Turkish war of 1877-78, which led to the occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, provoked very bitter feeling in the Hungarian seoiion of the empire. For coat-of-arms, see illus., Heraldry, vol. VII., p. 468, fig. 26.

AUSTRIAN LIP, the thick lip a characteristic of the Hapsburgs, derived from Cymbarga, a niece of a king of Poland, who was noted for beauty and unusual strength.

AUTAUGA, a co. in central Alabama, on the A. river; 650 sq.m.; pop. '80,13,108— 8710 colored. The soil is fertile; the surface uneven. There are several cotton and other factories. The Selma, Rome, and Dalton railroad touches the w. part of the county. Go. seat, Prattville.

AUTEUIL, formerly a country village at the entrance of the Bois de Boulogne, now inclosed within the fortifications of Paris. It is known as the residence of famous literary men—such as Boileau and MoliSre.

AUTHENTIC (Gr.) is a term applied to any writing or document, the contents of which may be depended upon for their truth or accuracy. It is frequently employed as synonymous with genuine, though a distinction has been drawn, especially by Biblical critics, between the two words. Authenticity, it is said, refers to the statements made by an author; genuineness to the authorship itself. Thus, we speak of a HixUrry of England as A., when the narrative is admitted to be correct; and we say of such and such a gospel or epistle tftat it is genuine, when we are convinced that it is the composition of the writer to whom it is attributed. See bishop Watson's Apology for the JSible, and dean Trench's Study of Words. This distinction, however, appears to be artificial rather than real; that is to say, it does not inhere in the original signification of the words.

AUTHENTICS, the Latin translation of Justinian's Novellas and a literal conveyance of the original. The term was applied to extracts from the decisions of the "Novelise" by w7hich previous decisions were set aside or modified. Two German emperors, Frederick I. and II., put forth A. in their own names, and ordered them to be inserted in the Justinian code.

AUTO, entering into many compound scientific terms of Greek extraction, is the Greek pronoun self. In some compounds, it denotes the agent or subject, as in autocrat, automaton, autonomy; in others, the object, as in autobiography, autocrine, autodidaclic; in others, again, a mere reference to the subject, as in autochthonous. This variation in the grammatical relation of A. sometimes occasions ambiguity in the meaning of the compound. Thus, autograph means both a machine that writes of itself, and also a writing done with the person's own hand; autocracy, both the mastery over one's self, and the sole rule or absolute authority over a people or state.

AUTOCHTHONES, according to Greek mythology, the first human pair who appeared in the world, and who, as the name implies, were believed to have sprung from the earth itself. Instead of only one pair for all lands, each district of Greece had its own A., who were supposed to have sprung from rocks, trees, or marshy places; the most peculiar and wide-spread belief being that which traced the origin of mankind to the otherwise unproductive rocks. Was there a shadow of Darwinism in the legend that the A. of Athens, Erysichthon, had legs like a serpent; or did it merely indicate that they were supposed to have come from a bog? The earth-born giants who made war upon the gods also had serpent legs. In Thebes the race of the Sparti were said to have sprung from a field sown with dragon's teeth, and the Phrygian Corybantes to have been forced out of hill-sides, like trees, by Rhea, the great mother. These originals of men in rarious countries were supposed to have lived like animals, in caves and woods, till by the

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