صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني

«ui Mojar.

important works are these.- PhUostrati Heroiea (Paris, 1806); Marini Vita Prodi (Leip. 1814); Tiberius Iihetor de Piguris (Lond. 1815); Sylloge Poetarum Oroxorum (Paris, 182826); Babrii Fabula (Paris, 1844), etc. He contributed in his earlier years numerous papers on philological subjects to Parisian, English, and German journals, and gave the cause of classical study in France a powerful and still perceptible impulse by his eloquent and attractive lectures from his chair. In spite of his many and laborious philological works, he also signalized himself as a French lexicographer and belle lettrist, and was one of the most copious and valued contributors to the Biographic Uniterselle He died in 1859, leaving behind him a reputation for learning almost German in its profundity, and more than English in its elegance.

BOISST D'ANGLAS, Francois Antoine, Count, an eminent French statesman, was born at St. Jean Chambre. in the department of Ardeche, Dec. 8, 1756. After tilling for some time the office of major-domo to the count of Provence (Louis XVIII.), he was about to devote himself to the peaceful pursuits of science, when he was elected a deputy to the states-general. While a member of the constituent national assembly, he was accused of having a design to change Ibe French monarchy into a Protestant republic. During the reign of terror, fear of " the mountain" kept him quiet; but, yielding to the solicitations of Tallien and Barere, he joined the conspiracy against Robespierre. Two months after the execution of the tyrant, he was elected secretary of the convention; and shortly after, a member of the committee of public safety, in which capacity he displayed remarkable talent and discretion. As director of the supply of provisions for Paris, he was exposed to popular hatred and great peril during the riotous and sanguinary proceedings of the 12th Germinal and 1st Prairial in the year 3 of the republic; but firmness and presence of min'd preserved him. He was afterwards president of the council of five hundred; was called into the senate by Napoleon; and made a peer byLouis XVIII. Through all the changes of the times, he maintained the principles with which he had commenced his career. He died in Paris, Oct. 20, 1826. His chief writings are Recherche* sur la Vie, leu Ecrits, et ks Opinions de Malcsherbet, 1819, and Etudes Litteraires et Poitiques d'un VieiUard, 1825; but, in addition to these, he published numerous essays, pamphlets, and letters.

BOIVIN, Makie Anne Victoire Gili-ain, 1773-1841; educnted in a nunnery; studied anatomy and midwifery; married and was soon left a widow, when she took the place of midwife in the maternite hospital, and in 1801 became superintendent. She caused the establishment by Chaptal of a special school of accouchement. Her Memorial de I'Art des Accouc/iements is a well-known work.

BOJADOR , Cape, a headland on the w. coast of Africa, in Int. 26° 7' n., long. 14° 29' w., forming the western extremity of the Jebel Khal (or Black mountains), a rocky ridge running eastward into the Sahara. In consequence of its extreme flatness, and the shoreward tendency of the currents, the coast, extending northwards to cape Nun, is one of the most dangerous that mariners have to encounter, and is frequently the scene of shipping casualties. The Portuguese doubled this cape in 1433, and from them it received its name B.C., signifying "a round cape."

BOJA NO, a t. in the province of Campobasso. Italy, 13 m. s.w. of the t. of Campobasso. It is situated on the Biferno, in adeep gorge at the foot of the mountain-range of Matese; has a cathedral and some ancient remains. It lias suffered greatly from earthquakes, and especially from one which occurred in 1805. Pop. 3500. B. is said to occupy the siteof the famous Samnite city of Borianum, but T. Mommsen thinks that Bovianum lay 20 m. to the north. Unsuccessfully besieged by the Romans in 314 B.C., it was taken by them in 311, and yielded immense spoils. Passing out of their hands, it was retaken by them in 305 B.C.; and once more reverting to its original owners, was a third time captured by the Romans, in 298 B.C. During the second Punic war, it formed the headquarters of the Roman army on more than one occasion; and in the great social war, the confederates, on the fall of Corfinium, made it their capital and the seat of their general council. Surprised by Sulla, it was retaken bytheMarsic gen., Pompredius Silo. Ca?sar established a military colony here; and afterwards, under the Roman empire, the town seems to have recovered considerably from the ruin which overtook it on the gen. eral devastation of Samnium.

BOJAB (pronounced Boyar). a word originally of the same meaning as Czech, Lech, and Bolgarin, i.e., free proprietor of the soil. The Bojars, in old Russia, were the order next to the knjazes or knjeses(ruling princes). They formed the immediate " following" of these princes, and bore somewhat of the same relation to them as the lesser English and Scottish knights of the feudal aces did to the great barons Percy, Douglas, etc. They had their own partisans, who served them as it kind of body-guard; they gave their services to a prince of their own choice, whom, however, they left again at their pleasure, and, in consequence of this, the knjnzes could only secure their allegiance by the bestowment of privileges which were often abused. They held exclusively the highest military and civil offices, and were so universally looked up to by the mass of the people, that the most powerful rulers, even Ivan the cruel, considered it prudent to use this form of expression in their ukases: "The emperor has ordered it; the Bojars have approved it." Rank among the Bojars was always proportioned to length of state-service, and was

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observed with the utmost rigor, so that the B. who had obtained an office, as it were, yesterday, looked down with proud contempt on him who only entered on his to-day. This singular mode of securing gradation of rank was called miestniczestwo. It was a most peculiar phenomenon of Slavic life, equally unlike feudalism and modern aristocracy, and must be regarded as a strictly national development. In their housekeeping tie Boiars were excessively fond of tplendor, and their contempt for the serfs or " lower orders" was immeasurable. In the lapse of time, many Chinese customs—as might be expected from their theory of rank—crept into their public life. Their power, and the respect which was paid them, acted as a wholesome cheek upon the otherwise unbridled authority of the princes: in consequence of which, the latter became their bitter enemies, and often sought to destroy their power. This was finally done by Peter the great, who abolished the order of Bojars.by giving them a place among the Russian nobility, but, at the same time, stripping them of their peculiar privileges. The last B., Knjuz Ivan Jurjewicz Trubeckoj, died 16th Jan., 1750.

In Moldavia and Wallachia, Bojars still exist. They have a seat and vote in the council of the prince, and, as recent history shows, exercise at times a. must extensive influence.

BOKER, George Henry, b. Philadelphia, 1834; graduated at Princeton; studied but did not follow the law. In 1847, he published a volume, The Lesson of Life and other Poems, and soon afterwards Valayitos, a Tragedy, which was acted In London. This was followed by Anne Boleyn, Leonor de Guzman, and Francesco, da Rimini. A few years later he published his Plays and Poems, and in 1884, Poem* of the War. .from ltfil to 1878 he was United States minister resident at Constantinople

BOKHA'BA (i.e., Eastland), or Usbekistan, is the name given to the countries of Independent Tartary, under the rule of the khan of Bokhara. The most important part of it formed the ancient Sogdiana. The extent of the khanate of B. has been constantly undergoing changes. Until recently, it included the whole basin of the Zar-afshan; but the Russians have now annexed Samarcand, and the lower basin of the river forms the essential part of the territory. The population of the present khanate has been estimated at from 1,000,000 to 2,500,000. It is virtually controlled by Russia. f

Only in the neighborhood of the rivers is cultivation possible. The rest of the soil of B. is composed of a stiff arid clay, interspersed with low sand-hills. B. belongs exclusively to the basin of the sea of Aral. It has only three rivers of any importance—the Amu or Jibun (anciently the Otim), the Zar-afsliau, and the Kurshi. Entering B. at Kushtuppa, the Amu flows through the country in a w.n.w. direction to the sea of Aral. Its banks in some parts are very fertile, especially in the neighborhood of Balkh. The Zar-afshan, which rises in the spurs of the Thianshan mountains, after a course of about 200 m., issues out into the plain near Samarcand, and thence fertilizes the district (Mceankal) to the city of Bokhara. Before reaching the city, it sends out a northern branch, which, after a fertilizing course of several miles, is absorbed in the sand. The southern branch passes B. to the n., and terminates in the lake of Kara-kool, a sheet of salt water about 25 m. in circumference, which is counected with the Amu by irrigating canals. The valley of the Zar-afshan is the richest as well as the most populous in Bokhara. The Kurshi has a course of about 60 m. before it is lost in the desert.

The climate of B. is moderate and healthy. Its geographical position secures B. the transit-trade between Russia and the s. of Asia. The rains usually commence end end with February. Violent sand-storms are frequent, and occasion ophthalmia among the inhabitants, who are also subject to the attacks of the guinea-worm, which penetrates into the flesh, causing great pain and annoyance.

Minerals are scarce. The sands of the C<xus yield gold. Salt deposits are numerous. Alum and sulphur are found in the vicinity of Samarcand, and sal-ammoniac in the mountainous districts. The other products include rice and cotton, wheat, barley, beetroot, vegetables, hemp—which is only used in the preparation of an intoxicating liquor called bluing—silk, fruits iu immense abundance, and tobacco. The camel's thorn, a plant that grows luxuriantly iu Samarcand and Kurshi, exudes a saccharine gum or manna, extensively used as sugar.

Sheep and goats form a great source of wealth. Camels are numerous and valuable; the horses are celebrated for their strength and endurance; and the breed of asses is excellent.

The industry includes the manufacture of silk-stuffs, cotton-thread, shagreen, jewelery, cutlery, and fire-arms. The population, like that of the other khanates of Turkistiin, consists chiefly of Tajiks of Persian, and of Usbeks and Turkomans of Turkish origin.

B. was conquered by the Arabs in the beginning of the 8th c, who were dispossessed of it in 1232 by Genghis Khan. It fell into the hands of Timur in 1303, and was taken by the Usbeks in 1505, and it has since remained under the rule of the same Turkish race. During the 18th c., the khans were characterized by the worst abominations of eastern vice and fanaticism, and B. lost its pre-eminence among the khanates of Turkistan. The canals, which alone gave fertility to the country, were neglected; and large areas were again overspread by the desert; "the population diminished: B. became a center of corruption and anarchy. About 30 years ago, it was ruled by the khan Nasrullah, a barbarous and incapable tyrant. It was he who caused, in 1843," the murder

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• of col. Stoddart and capt. Conolly, who went on a mission to B. Dr. Wolff, who visited the country in 1844, with a view to ascertain their fate, narrowly escaped with his life, after a detention of some month 3. After the capture of Tashkend by the Russians in I860 (see Turkistan), a religious war was preached against the Russians, and the khan, Muzaffer-Eddin, was compelled to oppose them. He was defeated at the battle of Idjar on 20th May, 1866, and in May, 1868, Samarcand (q.v.), one of the most important cities of B., was taken. The command of the upper course of the Zar-afshan, which fertilizes the central part of B., placed the khan entirely under the power of Russia. On the 80th July, 1868, a peace was concluded, by which Samarcand was ceded to the czar, and stipulations were entered into, favorable to Russian trade. The treaty caused great dissatisfaction to the fanatic Mussulmans of B. They rose in rebellion, placing at their head khan Abdul Malik Mirza, the son and heir of the khan. The Russians, on the intercession of the khan, aided him; and in Oct. the rebels were defeated near Karchi. The rebel prince sought refuge in Afghanistan. Shere AH, the ameer, gave him a warm welcome, and would have invaded B. had he not been restrained by lord Mayo, the Indian viceroy, who told him that England could not encourage him in any attack on his neighbors. While Shere Ali was meditating an invasion of B., Abdulrahman, a nephew of Shere Ali, who had married a daughter of the khan of B., endeavored to obtain Russian aid in invading Afghan Turkistan with a Bokharian army. But, in this case, Russia opposed the enterprise (see Afghanistan). During the iuvasion of Khiva in 1873, the khan of B. efficiently assisted the Russians, and was rewarded by a large addition to his territory from the Kkivan possessions on the right bank of the Oxus, under the treaty entered into between Russia and Khiva in July, 1873.—See History of Bukliara from the Earliest Period to Vie Present Time, by Arminius Vambery (1873).

BOKHABA (honored with the title of the "Treasury of Sciences"), a famous city of Central Asia, capital.of the above khanate, is situated on a plain in lat. 39" 48' n., long. 64° 26' e., in the midst, of trees and gardens. It is between 8 and 9 m. in circumference, and surrounded by embattled mud-wnjls, about 24 ft. high, and pierced by 11 gates. The houses, which are small, ill-lighted, and, with the exception of those belonging to the wealthy, uncomfortable inside, are built of sun-burnt bricks on a wooden frame-work; and the roofs of all are flat. The streets are ill-paved and very narrow, the widest barely sufficing for the passage of a loaded camel, while others are not more than 3 or 4 ft. across. The palace of the khan occupies an eminence of between 200 and 300 ft. in height in the center of the city. It is surrounded by a brick wall of 60 or 70 ft. high. The area includes, besides the palace, the harem, which is quite embosomed in trees; various public offices, the residences of the vizier and other important state functionaries, the barracks, royal stables, etc., and three mosques. The mosques, which are said (fabulously) to be 860 in number, necessarily form one of the greatest features of Bokhara. The most imposing one occupies a square of 300 ft., and has a cupola 100 ft. high, ornamented with blue tiles. Attached to it is a tower of about twice the height, built by Tirour, from which criminals are hurled. B. is celebrated as a center of learning, and has, in addition to a vast number of schools, about 80 colleges, which are attended, it is stated, by about 5000 students. As a commercial town, B. is the most important in Central Asia. A canal intersects the city, but during the summer months it is often dried up, and water becomes very scarce. Pop. estimated at 70,000. See Turkistan.

BOKHABA CL0VEB. Sec Mklilot.

BOL, Ferdinand, 1611-81; a Dutch painter, p'tpil'and imitator of Rembrandt Many of his paintings are to be seen in Amsterdam.

BO LA B0 LA, or Bona Bona, or Bora Bora—the liquids I, n, r, being interchangeable, or rather, perhaps, undistinguishable in the languages of Polynesia—one of the Society islands, about 200 m. to the n.w. of Tahiti. It is in lat. 16° b2's., and long. 151* 52' w., presenting a valuable landmark in a double-peaked mountain of considerable height. It contains about 1800 inhabitants; and it is about 24 m. round, beset by coralreefs, some of them rising into islets.

BOLAN PASS, a hollow route ascending in a generally w. direction from Sinde, on the Indus, through Beloochistan to Candaliar anaOhuzni. Its entrance and its outlet are respectively 800 and 5793 ft. above the level of the sea. The total ascent, therefore, is about 5000ft., which, on a length of barely 55 m., gives an average of fully 90 ft. to the mile. Along the bottom of the pass descends a torrent, which the road generally follows. The route, without l>eing impracticable, is highly defensible in a military point of view. It is bounded throughout by eminences of at least 500 ft. in height; and yet, in 1839, a division of the British army, which invaded Afghanistan, accomplished, with a heavy train of artillery, the whole distance in six days. From the outlet of the B. P. there is no fall towards the w., the spacious plateau of the Dasht-i-Bedowlut retaining the level of the upper extremity.

BOLA8, a missile used by South American Indians in capturfng wild cattle. It

consists of two leather balls, covered and united by a narrow but stout thong. The

cattle-hunter holding one ball swings the other around his head until proper momentum

is gained, and then launches the B. at the legs of the animal, which it instantly ties

II.—23 Bolbec. >7f\A

Boleyn. « u*

together, rendering him helpless. The B. has been effectively used in war. If the balls be of iron or lead, it may be thrown a great distance.

BOLBEC, a well-built t. of France, in the department of Seine-Infericure, about 18 m. n.e. of Havre, on the railway between that place and Paris. B. is situated on s stream of the same name, which supplies the water-power for several mills, where woolen, linen, cotton, and chemicals are manufactured. Pop. '81, 11,575.

BOLE is the term applied to an earthy mineral resembling clay in structure, and consisting essentially of silica, alumina, and red oxide of iron. It occurs in nests and veins in basalt and other trap-rocks, in Scotland, Ireland, France, Armenia, Italy. Saxony, and South America. It feels more or less greasy when placed between the fingers; is of different colors—yellow, red, brown, and black; has a dull resinous luster, but a shining streak; is readily friable; and often adheres to the tongue when brought in contact therewith. Armenian B. has a red tint, is often used for coloring false anchovies, and is also employed in coloring tooth-powders. Lemnian earth is the B. from the island of Lemnos, is red in color, and was at one time prescribed by medical men as a tonic and astringent medicine; and acted beneficially, no doubt, from the large percentage of oxide of irou present. The boles which are employed in veterinary practice in Europe are generally made from Armenian bole. The savage tribes in South America eat B. to allay the pangs of hunger; and the inhabitants of Java use cakes made of it, under the name of tanaampo, when they wish to become slender. When B. is calcined, it becomes hard; and when afterwards levigated, a coarse red kind is used as a pigment in Germany under the names of English red and Berlin red. FrenchB. is pale-red; Bohemian B., reddish-yellow; Silesian B., pale-yellow; and Blois B. is yellow.

BOLE HO, a Spanish national dance, mostly in the time of a minuet, with a sharp, marked, and peculiar rhythm. It is accompanied with the castanets and the cithern, and frequently with the voice; and the dancer in the movements seeks to represent the different degrees of feeling from coyness to the highest ecstasies of love.

BOLE TUS, a genus of fungi (q. v.), of the division hymenomycetes, subdivision polypord. The older botanists included in it the numerous species now forming the genus polyporus (see Amadou, Dry Rot, and Polypokcs) and other genera; but even as now restricted, it is a very extensive genus. Most of the species resemble the common mushroon and other species of agaricus in form; but instead of gills, the underside of the cap (pileus) is occupied by a layer quite distinct from it in substance, and pierced by pores so as to be composed of a multitude of small tubes united together, on the inside of which the spore-cases or seed-vessels are produced. Some of the species arc edible. B. edulis is much used in France, also in Germany, Hungary, Russia, etc. It is the ceps ordinaire of the French markets. It grows on the ground in thin woods of oak, chestnut, or beech, and sometimes in mountainous districts, in places covered with moss, heath, or grass. In moist warm summers, it sometimes appears in prodigious quantities. It has also been partially cultivated, by inclosing a portion of a wood, and watering the ground with water in which the plant has been steeped, thus, in fact, sow ing its minute seeds or spores. In Britain, it is comparatively rare. The cap is smooth, 6 or 7 in. across, with a thick margin, varying in color from light-brown to brownish black; the tubes at first white, then yellow, and finally yellowish-green; the stem thick and solid, beautifully reticulated. The tubes are removed along with the skin and stem, and only the flesh of the cap is eaten, which is firm, white, delicate, of agrecabl« smell, and is prepared like the common mushroom, dried to flavor sauces, ragouts, etc., or eaten raw with salt and pepper. It is wholesome and nutritious, and this is certainly to be reckoned one of the very best of the edible fungi, and deserves much more attention than it has yet received in Britain.—B. scaber is another edible British species, but much inferior.—B. ceneut is the ceps noir of the French markets, and B. auraniiacut is the gyrole rouge or roussUe. They are used like B. edulis.

BOLEYN, Anne, wife of Henry VIII., king of England, was b. about the year 1507. Her father was sir Thomas B., afterwards viscount Rochford and earl of Wiltshire; her mother, the daughter of the duke of Norfolk. In her seventh or eighth year, Anne B. went to France with Marv, sister of Henry VIII., and remained in France after Mary— who had married Louis ill.—returned to England as a widow, under the protection of

?ueen Claude, wife of Francis I., who was much pleased with her beauty and liveliness, t is not known exactly when she returned to England, but it is certain that she was one of queen Catharine's maids of honor in 1527, in which year the king seems to have conceived and expressed a passion for ber, to which she apparently refused to listen on other condition than that she should become his wife. Henry's religious scruples regarding the lawfulness of his marriage with Catharine, whether he had entertained them before (as is alleged) or not, certainly became much more impatient than they had hitherto been—much too urgent, indeed, for the slow decision of the court of Rome. He, accordingly, without waiting for the award of his holiness, entered privately into matrimonial relationship with Anne B., in Jan., 1538, or, as some authorities have it, in the Nov. previous. In Sept., 1533, the princess—afterwards queen—Elizabeth was born. The new queen, naturally light and gay of heart, and educated at the French court, where these qualities were likely to be developed to the utmost, conducted herself «"° Boteyn.

towards the courtiers with an easy familiarity not customary in England for one in her position. Concerning the first two years of her married life, we have little information, only it is known that she was favorable to the reformation, and promoted a translation of the Bible. In 1535, the affections of the king appear to have become alienated from her. According to some historians, the amorous monarch had already fixed upon a successor to Anne B.; others make out that his passion had nothing to do with her death, and assert that Henry contracted his unseemly hasty marriage with Jane Seymour solely at the request of the peers and- privy council. If this latter statement could be thoroughly relied on, it would no doubt tell strongly against Anne B., as there would then be no apparent motive for Henry seeking her condemnation if she were innocent. Between conflicting historians, one may well hesitate to decide on this point. In Feb., 1536, the queen gave birth to a son, still-born. The king now became-more and more estranged from her; and her freedom of manners had given but too good grounds for her enemies to speak evil of her. On the 1st of May, the annual tournament was held at Greenwich, in presence of the king and queen. The tilting had commenced, the challengers being viscount Rochford, brother to the queen, and sir Henry Norris, one of the gentlemen of the king's privy chamber. Suddenly the king rose—his outward bearing manifesting inward disturbance—left the tourney, and with a small party rode up to London, leaving the queen at Greenwich. The popular account is, that the king's sudden departure was occasioned by the discovery of a handkerchief belonging to the queen in the possession of Norris; but the necessity for any such romantic and sudden cause of jealousy is obviated by the fact, that, in the previous week, a commission, composed of members of the privy council, had been secretly engaged in examining into charges of adultery against Anne; and two of her alleged accomplices in the crime, sir William Brereton, a gentleman of the king's household, and Maik Smeton, a musician at court, had been already arrested. The queen remained at Greenwich that night. On the following morning, she was examined before the privy council, under the presidency of the duke of Norfolk, her uncle, but a bigoted Roman Catholic, and protested her innocence. In the afternoon, however, she was sent up the river to the Tower. Sir Henry Norris, and sir Francis Weston, another courtier, along with Smeton, were also examined, and all at first declared their innocence of the charge imputed to them; but afterwards the musician confessed to the crime. Norris, too. it is said, made a like confession; but he indignantly repudiated it the next day, on the ground that he had been entrapped into it unwittingly. In the Tower, the queen's every action and word were watched and reported on; but anything she said while a prisoner seems quite as compatible with innocence as guilt, although her words unquestionably prove her to have exhibited a dangerous levity towards the courtiers; for which, however, her French education may be held to account. Her letter to Henry, written on the 6th of Mav, speaks decidedly in her favor. On the 10th of May, the grand jury of Middlesex found a " true bill" on the indictment, which charged the queen with committing adultery with no less than five persons, including her own brother, lord Rochford, and of conspiring with them, jointly and severally, against the life of the king, the adultery being alleged to extend over a period of nearly three years. On the 11th, the grand jury of Kent found a true bill likewise. On the 12th, the four commoners, Brereton, Weston, Norris, and Smeton, were found guilty, the last confessing to the charge of adultery only, the other three pleading not guilty to both charges. On the 15th, the queen and her brother were tried before 27 peers, the president being the duke of Norfolk. They affirmed their innocence; but they were found guilty, and condemned, the queen to be burned or beheaded on the Tower green. On the 17th, Smeton was hanged, and the other four beheaded: general protestations of unworthiness by them at the hour of death being regarded by some historians as evidence of particular guilt. On the 19th, the queen was beheaded—having previously confessed to Cranmer some engagement that rendered her marriage with the king illegal—with her last words praying a blessing on Henry, who, she said, had ever been to her a good and gentle lord, but making no confession of guilt. It is difficult, if not impossible, to form anything like a just and satisfactory estimate of the character of Anne B.; historians, for the most part, having made her but a layfigure upon which to hang the drapery of religious partisanship, or to display the colors of individual sympathy. That, with the courtiers, she maintained not that dignity which becomes a queen, but was unguarded in manner, and thoughtlessly free of speech, there can be no question; there is much room to doubt that she was guilty of the heinous offenses laid to her charge. A woman who resisted for years the criminal solicitations of the king, was not likely to seduce systematically grooms of the chamber; nor is it at all probable that one so diabolically bad as she must have been, if the charges alleged against her were true, could be so utterly devoid of that cunning necessary to the practice of successful wickedness. Again, it seems scarcely possible that such an extensive system of conspiracy and crime could have been carried on for nearly three years without being noticed by the lynx eyes, and blown upon by the calumnious tongues, of her numerous and powerful enemies, especially if there were truth in the statement in the indictment, that her accomplices were "very jealous of each other." On the other band, it appears monstrous to suppose that 70 noblemen and commoners of England, before whom the case in its various stages came, against most of whom even slander had not a word to say, should have deliberately condemned a queen and five of her asso

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