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16th century. In the 18th c, this family was represented by three male descendants, all residing at Ajaccio: the archdeacon, Lucien B.; his brother, Napoleon B.; and their nephew, Charles.—Charles Bonaparte, father of the emperor Napoleon, was born Mar. 29, 1746; studied law at Pisa; and married in 1767—without the consent of his uncles—a beautiful young patrician, named Letizia Kamolino. In 1768, he removed with his family, accompanied by his uncle Napoleon, toCorte, in order to assist gen. Paoli in defending the island against the French invasion. As the French prevailed, and further resistance was useless, Charles B. attached himself to the French interest, and in 1771 was included by Louis XV. in the election of 400 Corsican families to form a nobility. In 1773, through the influence of Marbwuf, governor of Corsica, Charles B. was appointed royal counselor and assessor of the town and province of Ajaccio. In 1777, he was a member of the deputation of Corsican nobles to the court of France. In this capacity he resided for some time in Paris, where he gained for his son Napoleon, through the interest of count Marbceuf, a free admission into the military school at Brienne. In 1779, he returned to Corsica, and in 1785 went to Montpellier, for the benefit of his health, where he died of cancer in the stomach, Feb. 34, 1785. He was a man of prepossessing exterior and amiable character. By his marriage with Letizia, he left eight children: Joseph B., king of Spain; Napoleon (q.v.), emperor of the French; Lucien B., prince of Canino; Alaria Anna (afterwards named Elise), princess of Lucca and Piombino. wife of prince Bacciochi; LouisB., kingof Holland; Carlotta (afterwards named Marie Pauline), princess Borghesc; Annunciata (afterwards named Caroline), wife of Murat, king of Naples; Jerome B., king of Westphalia. These members of the B. family, with the children of Beauharnais (q.v.), adopted by the emperor Napoleon when he married Josephine, are distinguished as the Napoleontdm of modern French history. By a decree of tiie senate, Nov. 6, 1804, the right of succession to the throne was restricted lo Napoleon and his brothers Joseph and Louis, with their offspring. Lucien and Jerome were excluded on account of their unequal marriages. Napoleon intended to give the right of succession also to Lucien, by the additional act of April 22, 1815; but this was never concluded. As Joseph, the eldest brother of the emperor, had no son, the descendants of Louis became nearest heirs to the throne.—Maria Letizia Ramolino, mother of Napoleon I., lived to see her family placed on-the thrones of Europe, and also witnessed their downfall. She was born at Ajaccio, Aug. 24, 1750. After the death of her husband, she lived for some time in Corsica, and in 1793, when the island came under British rule, removed with her family to Marseilles, where she lived in poverty, mainly supported by the pension given to Corsican refugees. After her son became first consul, she removed to Paris, and when her son was crowned in 1804, received the title madame mere. A brilliant court-household was given to her, which, however, was never pleasing to her modest tastes. Remembering former adversities, and foreboding reverses of the splendid success of her sons, she was prepared fcr all that followed. After the downfall of Napoleon, Letizia lived with her step-brother, cardinal Fesch, in winter at Rome, and in summer at Albano, and submitted to her change of fortune with remarkable dignity. She died Feb. 2,1836, leaving a considerable property, the result of saving habits during prosperity.
Bonaparte, Joseph, eldest brother of Napoleon, was b. at Corte, in Corsica, Jan. 7, 1768, and was educated at Autun. On the death of his father, he returned to Corsica, exerted himself to support the younger members of the family, and removed with them tt> Marseilles in 1793. In 1797 he was elected a member of the council of five hundred, and in the same year was sent as ambassador from the republic to Rome. In 1800, after he had proved his ability in several offices of state, he was chosen by the first consul as plenipotentiary to conclude a treaty of friendship with the United States of North America. He signed the treaty of peace at Luneville, Feh. 9, 1801, and that of Amiens, 1802; and with Cretet and Bernier conducted the negotiations relative to the concordat. After the coronation of Napoleon, new honors fell to the share of Joseph B., who was made commander-in-chief of the army of Naples; in 1805, ruler of the Two Sicilies; and in 1806, king of Naples. Though, during his reign, some beneficial changes of government were effected—such as the abolition of feudality, the suppression of convents, the formation of roads, the repression of banditti, the organization of laws, etc.— yet these reforms were not managed judiciously; and the collision that frequently occurred between his own humane endeavors and the reckless promptings of his imperial brother, who looked upon Naples simply as a province of the French empire, exposed only too well to the Neapolitans the weakness and dependence of their new sovereign. But, in truth, he was far too fond of the fine arts to be a vigorous ruler in stormy times; and he is accused of leaving affairs too much in the hands of his minister, the subtle Salicetti. In 1808, Joseph B. was summarily transferred by his brother to the throne of Spain, and Murat took his place as king of Naples. For Joseph, this was no favorable change: he found himself unprepared to cope with the Spanish insurgents, and after the defeat of the French at Vittoria, he returned to his estate at Morfontaine, in France. In 1813, when Napoleon recognized Ferdinand VIE. as kingof Spain, Joseph B. refused, at first to abdicate, though he had many times before implored his brother to release him from his royal chains; but he soon submitted, as in all other matters, to the emperor's will.
After the battle of Waterloo, he accompanied Napoleon to Rochefort, whence they intended to sail separately for North America, In his last interview with Napoleon,
Joseph generously offered to give up the vessel hired for his own escape, but meanwhile Napoleon had determined to surrender himself into the hands of tin; English. After a residence of some years at Point Breeze, in New Jersey, United Stntes, where he employed himself in agriculture, and was highly esteemed by his neighbors, Joseph B. come to England in 1838, having previously, on hearing of the July revolution, written a letter to the house of deputies, in which he advocated the claims of his nephew, the late emperor of France, and in 1841 was allowed to return to his wife, who had remained in Italy since 1815. He died in Florence, July 28, 1844. Joseph was the only one of hi3 brothers for whom Napoleon professed to care anything. He was a handsome, intelligent-looking man, distinguished by the elegance cf his manners and conversation. His wife, Julie Marie Clary, born Dec. 26, 1777, was the daughter of a wealthy citizen of Marseilles, and the sister-in-law of Bernadotte, king of Sweden. She was a quiet, unambitious woman, with no taste for the splendors of royalty, which fell to her share during a few weeks only at Naples, for she never went to Spain. Ill health appears to have prevented her accompanying her husband to America. She died in Florence, April 7, 1845. By her marriage with Joseph B., she had two daughters—1. Zenaide Charlotte Julie, born July 8, 1801, died 1854, who became the wife of Lucicn B.'s son, the prince of Canino; 2. Charlotte Napoleone, born Oct. 31, 1802, died Mar. 3, 1839, who married Louis Napoleon, second sou of Louis B., king of Holland. Her husband died Mar. 17,1831.
Bonapaktb, Ltjcien, prince of Canino, and brother of Napoleon, was born at Ajaccio in 1775, and received his education in the college of Autun, the military school at Brienne, and the seminary at Aix. Rising gradually from one office to another, he was elected deputy for the department Liamone, and, in the council of five hundred, spoke against the squandering of state-property, and formed a party favorable to the views of his brother Napoleon. Shortly before the 18th Brumaire, he was elected president of the council of five hundred, and was the hero of that day. During the ferment which followed Napoleon's entrance, Lucien left his seat, mounted his horse, and riding through the ranks of the assembled troops, called upon them to rescue their general from assassins. Afterwards appointed minister of the interior, he was active in the encouragement of education, art, and science, and organized the prefectures. As ambassador to Madrid, 1800, he contrived to gain the confidence of king Charles IV. and his favorite Oodoy, thus putting aside the British influence which had until then been exercised at the court of Spain. It is said that for his services in the treaty of peace concluded between Spain and Portugal, Sept. 29, 1801, he received 5,000,000 francs.
His constant opposition to Napoleon's progress towards monarchy involved Lucien In several misunderstandings with his brother; and their quarrel was brought to an issue by Lucien's second marriage against the views of Napoleon. On condition that he would divorce his wife, the crowns of Italy and Spain were offered to Lucien; but he refused them, and preferred living in retirement at his estate of Canino, in the province of Viterbo, near the frontiers of Tuscany, where he devoted his time to art and science. Here he enjoyed the friendship of the pope, who created him prince of Canino and Musignano; but having denounced in his private capacity the arrogant and cruel policy of his brother towards the court of Rome, he was "advised" to leave the city in which he was at that period residing. In 1810, he took ship for America, but fell into the hands of the English; was brought to England; and after a debate in parliament, was declared to be a prisoner, but treated with distinction. After his brother's downfall, he returned to Rome.
After the defeat at Waterloo, Lucien B. alone seems to have preserved his presence of mind. He immediately advised his brother to dissolve the chambers, and assume the place of absolute dictator. After the second ascent of the throne by Louis XVIII., Lucien lived for some time in and near Rome. In 1830, he went to England, visited Germany in 1838. and died at Viterbo. June 30, 1840. Lucien B. possessed considerable talents and firmness of character. He was in his early years a keen republican, but the weakness of the directory convinced him that a military consulship was necessary to allay the social anarchy of France. He consequently threw himself eagerly into the designs of his brother, but protested against Napoleon giving way to his desire for a hereditary monarchy. As a writer, he was by no means successful. His long and tedious epic poem, Charlemagne ou d'Eglise Delivree, in 24 cantos, was written and published in London, and was dedicated to the pope, 1814. Another heroic poem. La Cymeide ou la Corse Sawcee, followed in 1819. The Memoires Secrets svr la Vie Pritie Politique et Litteraire de Lncien B. (2 vols., Lond. 1819). of which Alphonse de Beauchamp is supposed to be the author, is an untrustworthy book. Lucien B. was the father of a numerous family. In 1795, he married Christian Boyer, the daughter of a citizen of St. Maximin. After her death, he married, in 1803, the widow of a stockbroker, Madame Jouberthon, who was his survivor. By his first marriage, he had two daughters—Charlotte, born 1796, died 1865, who married prince Gabrielli of Rome; and Christine, born 1798, died 1847, who married first a Swedish count named Posse, and then lord Dudley-Stuart. By his second marriage, Lucien hnd nine children: the eldest daughter, Letizia B., born 1804, died 1871; married, in 1824, Mr. (afterwards sir) T. Wyse, an Irish gentleman; but a separation took place in a few years.—The second daughter, Jeanne B., distinguished by her beauty and taste for poetry, was born in •1" Bonaparte.
1806, and died soon after her marriage with the marchese Honorati.—The third daughter, Alexandrine Marie B., born in 1818, married, in 1830, count Vinccnzo V'alentini de Canino, and gave birth to two sons and one daughter.—Constanze, the youngest daughter of Lucien B., was born in 1823.—Charles Lucien Jules Laurent B. (eldest son of Lucien B.), prince of Canino and Musignano, was born at Paris in 1803. He never exhibited any inclination for political life, preferring the more quiet and wholesome pursuits of literature and science. He acquired a considerable reputation as a naturalist, and especially as a writer on ornithology. He died 29th July, 1857. He was a member of the principal academics of Europe and America. His chief publications are a continuation of Wilson's Ornithology of America, and the Iconograjia della Fauna Italica.— The second son, Paul Marie B., born in 1806, took a part in the Greek war of liberation, and died by the accidental discharge of a pistol, 1827.—The third son, Louis Lucien ]>.. born Jan. 4, 1813, has distinguished himself by his studies in chemistry, mineralogy, and languages.—Pierre Napoleon B., the fourth son, born Sept. 12, 1815, passed through many changes of fortune in America, Italy, and Belgium, returning to France after the catastrophe of 1848. In 1871, he shot a journalist, Victor Noir, for which he was tried at Tours, and acquitted of the charge, but condemned to pav £1000 to Noir's relatives. He died April 8, 1881. —The youngest son, Antoine "B., born Oct. 31, 1816, fled to America after an affair with the pupal troops in 1836, and returned to France in 1848, where he was elected into the national assembly, 1849, but retired from politics in 1851.
Bonaparte, Louis, third brother of Napoleon, was b. Sept. 2, 1778, and was educated in the artillery school at Chalons, where he imbibed anti-republican principles. After rising from one honor to another, he was made king of Holland, 1806; but, in fact, he was never more than a French governor of Holland, subordinate to the will of his brother. Amid all the faults which marked his reign, it must be remembered to his advantage that on several occasions he firmly withstood the demands of France; that be replied to one requisition by saying that, since he had been placed on the throne of Holland, be had "become a Dutchman;" that he nobly refused to accept the tenderedcrown of Spain; and lastly, that he did not enrich himself during his reign. After the restoration of the house of Orange, Louis considered himself free from all responsibility, and returned to Paris, Jan. 1, 1814, where he was coldly received by tiie cmper< r. After living for some years in Rome—where he separated from his wife—he removed in 1826 to Florence, where he lived in retirement. On the escape of his son, Louis Napoleon, from the prison of Ham, the ex-king of Holland was removed as an invalid to Livorno, where he died July 15, 1846. Louis B. was the writer of several works: Marie, ou let HoUandaitet, 1814, a novel, giving some sketches of Dutch manners; Documents Hittoriques, etc., sur le Gouxernementde la Hollande (3 vols., Lond. 1821); Hixtoire du Parlement Anglais, 1820; and a critique on M. de Norvins's History of Aapolton. Louis B. was married in 1802 to Hortense Beauharnais, daughter of gen. Beauhamais (q.v.) by Lis wife Josephine, afterwards empress of the French. As this marriage was wholly a matter of submission to his brother's will, and put aside a former engagement, it naturally ended in unhappiness and separation.
The amiable and accomplished Hortense Eugenie Beauharnais, the adopted daughter of Napoleon, queen of Holland, and countess St. Leu, was born in Paris, April 10, 1783. After the execution of her father, she lived for some time in humble circumstances, until Napoleon's marriage with Josephine. In obedience to the plans of her step-father, she rejected her intended husband, gen. Desaix, and married Loujs B. in 1802. In 1814 she was the only one of all the Kapoleonidat who remained in Paris. After the hundred days, she visited Augsburg and Italy, and then fixed her residence at Arenenberg. a mansion in the canton Thurgau, where she lived in retirement, sometimes spending a winter in Italy. In 1831, when her two sons had implicated themselves in the Italian insurrection, the countess traveled in search of them through many dangers, and found the elder deceased, and the younger, the late emperor of the French, ill at a place near Ar.cona. Returning with her son to Paris, she was pleasantly received by Louis Philippe and by Casimir Perier, but was obliged, in the course of a few weeks, to remove with her son to England. After some stay there, she removed to her countryseat, Arenenberg, where she died, after severe suffering, Oct. 3, 1837, and was buried near the remains of her mother, Josephine, at Ruel, near Paris. She was the authoress of Ln Heine Hortenne en Italie, en France, et en Anglelcrre, pendant I'annee 1831, and wrote several excellent songs. She likewise composed some deservedly popular airs; among others the well-known Par/ant pour la Syrie, which the late emperor of the French, with a delicate union of political tact and filial pride, made the national air of France. Of her three sons, the eldest, Napoi.kon Louis Charles, born 1803, died in childhood, Mar. 5, 1807. The second, Louts Napolkon, born 1804, crown-prince of Holland, married his cousin Charlotte, daughter of Joseph B.. and died-at Forli, Mar. 17,1831. The third, Charles Louts Napoleon, became emperor of the French. See Louis Napoleon.
Bonaparte, Jerome, youngest brother of Napoleon, was b. at Ajaccio, Nov. 15,
1784. After receiving his education in the college at Juillv, he served as naval lieut. in
the expedition to Hayti. When war broke out between France and England in 1808,
Jerome was cruising off the West Indies, but he was soon compelled to take refuge in
the port of New York. While in America, he married Elizabeth Patterson, daughter of a merchant in Baltimore, Dec. 27, 1803. Subsequently, he was employed by Napoleon in the liberation of Genoese prisoners who had been captured by the dey of Algiers. In the war with Prussia, he commanded, in concert with gen. Vandamme, the tenth corps in Silesia, and on the 1st Dec, 1807, was made king of Westphalia. He was recognized with great pomp at Cassel, where he lived in splendor, caring verv little foi government, not even taking the pains to acquire the vernacular language of the country. After the war with Austria, the finances of Westphalia, through mismanagement, plunder, and extravagance, as well as war-expenditure, were found in an exhausted condition. The battle of Leipsic brought the reign of Jerome to a close. After the peace of 1814, he left France, and resided in Switzerland, at Grtttz, and in the beginning of 1815, at Trieste. He was made a peer when Napoleon returned from Elba, and fought by the side of the emperor at Liguy and at Waterloo. After his brother's abdication, he left Paris, June 27, and visited Switzerland and Austria, but ultimately set tied in Florence. His request to be allowed to return to France was rejected in 1847, by the chamber of peers, but was afterwards granted, and at the outbreak of the Feb. revolution, Jerome B. was in Paris, where he was appointed governor of the Invalides in 1848, and in 1850 was made a French marshal. He died in 1860.
His marriage with Elizabeth Patterson having been declared null by Napoleon, Jerome was forced, after he had gained the Westphalian crown, to marry Sophia Dorothea, daughter of king Frederick I. of Wurtemberg. After the battle of Waterloo, her father wished to annul the marriage; but the wife of Jerome declared her resolution to share through life the fortunes of her husband. Jerome B. left in America one son by his first marriage, and had three children by his second wife.—Jerome B., the elder son, born Aug. 24, 1814, died May 12, 1847; Mathilde Letitia Wilhelmine B., princess of Montfort, born at Trieste, May 27, 1820, married the Russian count Anatol Demidov, and lived witli her husband at the court of Louis Napoleon during his presidency. The younger son, Napoleon Joseph Charles Paul B., bora at Trieste, Sept. 9, 1822, passed his youth in Italy; entered the military service of Wurtemberg, 1837; afterwards traveled in several countries of Europe; and was banished from France, 1845, on account of his intercourse with the republican party. He returned to Paris with his father, 1847, and after February, 1848, was elected into the legislative national assembly. He commanded an infantry division of reserve at the battles of Alma and Inkermann the following year. In 1859, he married the princess Clotilde, by whom he has two sons and a daughter. When war with Prussia was declared in 1870, Prince N. proceeded on a diplomatic mission to his father-in-law. at Florence, but failed to obtain the co-operation of Italy with his cousin. After the fall of the empire he took up his residence in England, but returned to France in 1872. He was banished in 1873.
See Memoires et Gorrespondanee du Hoi Joseph, by Du Casse (10 vols., 1854); Lucien Bonaparte's Autobiographic Memoirs (1836), and Forchhammer's Denkrede anf den Fursten von Canino, L. Bonaparte (1840); Memoires sur la eour de Louis Napolfon et mr la Holland; and Ilis/oire du Consulat el de VEmpire, bv Thiers (Paris, 1828); Life and Letters of Madame Patterson-Bonaparte, edited by E. L. t)idier (N. Y., 1879); Bingham'9 The Marriages of the Bonaparte Families (N. Y., 1882).
The following table shows the relationships of this family, whose members hare been so prominent in modern Europe: