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7Anerftperg. Augmentation.

counter-rope ■which is tied to some firm support. Augers are used varying from three eighths of an inch to on inch in diameter. The larger requires an inch driving cord.

AUGIEB. Gutllaume Victor £mile, a French dramatist of considerable reputation, was b. at Valence, on the 17th of Sept., 1820, and was educated for the profession of an advocate. He soon, however, showed a predilection for letters, especially the drama. In 1844, he composed a piece in two acts, and in verse, entitled La Cigne, which he offered to the Theatre Frangais, but without success. The Odeon, however, received it, and it was played at that theater with considerable applause for nearly three months. This, while it is the first, is Baid to be likewise the best of A.'s works, containing some excel: lent moral lessons, set in a frame-work of the antique, and made attractive by elegant versification. In the following year, the Theatre Francais sought his services, and he produced for that theater his second comedy, entitled Un Homme de Bien, in three acta, and in verse. This was a comedy of the day, and was only partially successful. A third, L' Aventuriere, which appeared in 1848, was better received; still there was said to be too much of commonplace in the moral sentiments with which it abounded. Gabrielle, in five acts, and in verse, which appeared in 1849, was also a highly moral piece, and gained for its author the Monthyon prize. In 1852, A. wrote a drama, entitled Diane, m which Rachel took the principal port, but in spite of all her efforts it proved a failure. He was more fortunate with La Pierre de Totiehe, a prose comedy in five acts, written in partnership with Jules Sandeau, and produced in 1853. In the same year he wrote a verse-comedy, in three acts, entitled Philiberte, said to be a charming genre piece, in which the grace of the details supplies the absence of intrigue. His subsequent pieces, however, belong all more or less to the comedy of intrigue. Such are Le Manage d~Olympe; Le Oendre de M. Poirier, written in partnership with Jules Sandeau; and La Revanche de Georges Dandin—all produced in 1855; La Jeunesse, in 1858; Let Lionnet Pautret, in the same year, written in conjunction with E. Foussier; and the Beau Mortage, also in conjunction with Foussier, in 1859. Either singly or with others, M. A. has also written Les Effrontes, Le File de Giboyer, Maitre Gtierin, La Contagion, La Chaste au Roman, L'Habit Vert, Paul Forestier, and Sapho—the last mentioned an opera, the music by Gounod. In 1856, he published a small volume of Poesies, some of which are very elegant both in thought and expression. Usually, A. is regarded as one of the leaders of the school of good sense; in his later pieces, however, approaching too much to the manner of the younger Dumas. In 1858, M. A. was elected a member of the Academie Francaise, and in the same year was promoted to the rank of officer in the legion d'honneur, of which he became a commander in 1868.

ATT GITE (from Gr. auge, brilliancy), or Py'roxene (from Gr. pyr, fire, and xenos, a guest), a mineral very nearly allied to hornblende (q.v.), which has, indeed, by some mineralogists been regarded as a variety of it, although the distinction between them is undeniably important, as characterizing two distinct series of igneous rocks. A. consists of 47 to 56 per cent of silica, 20 to 25 per cent of lime, and 12 to 19 per cent of magnesia, the magnesia sometimes giving place in whole or in part to protoxide of iron, and some varieties containing a little alumina, or a little protoxide of manganese. Its specific gravity is 8.195 to 3.525. It is little affected by acids, or not at all. It is usually of a greenish color, often nearly black. It crystallizes in six or eight-sided prisms variously modified; it often occurs in crystals, sometimes imbedded, often in grains or scales. It is an essential component of many igneous rocks, particularly of basalt (q.v.), dolerite, and A.-porphyry (see Porpittkt), from which chiefly it derives its importance as a mineral species. A. rock, consisting essentially of A. alone, occurs in the Pyrenees. A. is a common mineral in the trap-rocks of Britain and other countries. It is rarely associated with quartz, in which respect it differs from hornblende, bnt very often with labrodorite,- olivine, and leucite. Fluorine, which is generally present in small quantity in hornblende, has never been detected in A. The form of the crystals is also different in the two minerals, as well as their cleavage; but prof. Gustav Rose of Berlin has endeavored to show that the difference between A. and hornblende arises only from the different circumstances in which crystallization has taken place, and that A. is the production of a comparatively rapid, and hornblende of a comparatively slow cooling. He regards some of the varieties as intermediate. His views have been supported by experiments, and by a comparison of A. with certain crystalline substances occurring among the scoria? of foundries.—LHopside, sahlite, and eoceolite are varieties of A.—DiaUage (q.v.) and hypersthene (q.v.) are very nearly allied to it.

AU'GLAIZE, a co. in w. Ohio, intersected by the Dayton and Michigan and the Lake Erie and Louisville railroads; 399 sq.m.; pop. '80, 25,443. The Miami canal passes through, and it is drained by A. river. Surface level, well wooded, and soil fertile. Co. seat, AVapakoneta.

AUGMENTATION, in heraldry. See Heraldry.

AUGMENTATION, in music, is the reproduction of a melody, or principal subject of a composition, in the course of the progress of the piere, in notes of greater length than those notes in which the melody is first introduced. The tempo remains unaltered. A. is of great importance in the treatment of the subjects, or themes, for fugues, and, when cleverly U9ed, produces great effects.

Augmentation. Q

Auijurien. °

AUGMENTATION, Process Of, in Scotch law, is an action in the court of tefads (q.v.) by the minister of a parish against the titulw, or beneficiary, and heritors, for the purpose of procuring an inc "ease to his stipend. The moderator and clerk of the presbytery to which the ministe: belongs must also be called as parties. By 48 Geo. III. c. 138, it is enacted that no A. shall be granted till the expiration of 15 years from any A. previous to the act, nor till the expiration of 20 years from any A. subsequent to the act. A period of 20 years must thus elapse between each augmentation. The amount of the A. is fixed, or modified, as it is termed, in grain or victual; the stipend itself being paid in money, according to the fiars' prices (q.v.) of each year. In addition to the ascertainment or modification of a suitable stipend, regard being had to the state of the teinds, the extent of the parish, the expense of living, and the like—a process of A. has the further object in view of healing the stipend so modified—i.e., of assigning it in due proportions to the heritors or other parties in possession of the tithes. This latter object is attained by means of what is called a scheme of locality—i.e., an allotment of the stipend modified to the several parties liable therefor. This scheme is prepared at the instance of the second junior lord ordinary (q.v.), on a remit from the temd court. The last conclusion in a summons of A. is for a suitable sum, or increase to the sum already allowed, for communion elements—i.e., for bread, wine, :nd other necessaries for celebrating the sacrament of the Lord's supper after the Presbyterian fashion. When there is not a sufficient amount of teind to bring the stipend of the minister up to £150 per annum, with £8 6s. 8d. for communion elements, it is provided by 50 Geo. III. c. 84, and 5 Geo. IV. c. 72, that the residue shall be paid by the exchequer. In addition to their stipend, ministers have right to a manse and glebe, or a provision of £50 annually in lieu of them. See Stipend, Glebe, Manse; see also Parliamentaby Church.

AUGS'BUBG, historically one of the most notable cities in Germany, is situated in the angle between the rivers Wertach and Lech, and is the chief city of the circle of Swabia and Ncuburg, in Bavaria. The pop. is (1880) 61,408. Though presenting an antique and rather deserted appearance, A. has numerous fine buildings, and especially one noble street, the "imperial" Maximilian Strasse, adorned with bronze fountains. The industry of A. is reviving; several cotton and woolen factories are in operation! as well as manufactories of paper, tobacco, and machinery. Its gold and silver wares still retain their ancient reputation. The art of copper engraving is extinct; but printing, lithography, and bookselling have taken a new start. The Allgemeine Zeiiung, the best-known paper in Germany, was published here (now at Munich) till 1882. In 1880, there were 10 printing establishments and 34 book-shops. There are 74 breweries. Banking and stockjobbing are extensively carried on ; and it is still the emporium of the trade with Italy and southern Germany. It is the center of a system of railways connecting it with Nurnbcrg and Leipsic, with Switzerland, Munich, etc. The foundation of A. was the "colony" planted by the emperor Augustus, 12 B.C., after the conquest of the Vindelici, probably on the site of a former residence of that people. It \ -as called Augusta Vindelicorum, and hence the present name. It bees. Tie the capital of the province of Blurt i a, was laid waste by the Huns in the 5th c, and came next uncbr the dominion of the Frankish kings. In the war of Charlemagne with Thassilo of Bavaria, it was again destroyed. After the division of Chariemagne:3 empire, it came under the duke of Swabia; but having become already rich by commerce, was able to purchase gradually many privileges, and finally became, in 1276, a free city of the empire. It now rose to greater consequence than ever, and had reached the summit of its prosperity by the end of the 14th century. About this time (1368), its aristocratic government was set aside for a democratic, which lasted for 170 years, till the aristocracy, favored by Charles V., regained the ascendency. A. continued in great eminence for its commerce, manufactures, and art, till the war between Charles V. and the Protestant league of Schmalkald (1540). Along with Ntlrnberg it formed the emporium of the trade between northern Europe and the south, and its merchants were princes whose ships were in all seas. See Fuoger. It was also the center of German art as represented by the Holbeins, Burkmair, Altdorfcr, and others. Many diets of the empire were held in A., and the leading events of the reformation are associated with its name. The discovery of the road to India by the cape, and of America, turned the commerce of the world into new channels, and dried up the sources of A.'s prosperity. It lost its freedom with the abolition of the German empire in 1806, and was taken possession of by Bavaria.

AUGSBURG CONFESSION, the chief standard of faith in the Lutheran church. Its history is the following. With a view to an amicable arrangement of the religious split that had existed in Germany since 1517, Charles V., as protector of the church, had convoked a diet of the empire, to meet at Augsburg, 8th April, 1530, and bad required from the Protestants a short statement of the doctrines in which they departed from the Catholic church. The elector, John, of Saxony, therefore, in Mar., called on his Wittenberg theologians, with Luther at their head,'to draw up articles of faith, to lay l>efore him at Torgau. The commissioned doctors took as a basis, in so far as pure doctrine was concerned, articles that had been agreed to the previous year at conferences held at Marburg and Schwabach, in the form of resolutions of the Lutheran reformers of Germany against the doctrines of Zwingli. These doctrinal articles supplemented, and with a practical part newly added, were laid before the elector at Torgau. Meln Augmentation.

^ AugurleH.

anchthon then, taking the Torgaii articles as a foundation, began in Augsburg, in May, and with the advice of various Protestaut theologians, as well as princes and other secular authorities, composed the document, which lie first called an apology, but which in the diet itself took the name of the A. C. Luther was not present in Augsburg, being then under the ban of the empire, but his advice was had recourse to in its composition. The Torgau articles were in German; the confession was both in German and Latin; and Melanehthon labored incessantly at its improvement till it was presented to the emperor, June 25. The character of Meianchthon, in the abseuce of Luther, had led him, in setting about the composition of the document, to aim at maintaining 'a spirit of love, forbearance, and mediation, as well as the utmost brevity and simplicity. Its object, which only became gradually apparent after the meeting of the diet, was, in the first place, to give a collected view of the belief of the Lutheran Protestants, aiming at the same time at refuting the calumnies of the Catholics, and at laying a foundation for measures of reconciliation.

The first part of the confession contains 21 articles of faith and doctrine- 1. Of God: 2. Of original sin; 3. Of the Son of God; 4. Of justification; 5. Of preaching; 6. Of new obedience; 7 and 8. Of the church; 9. Of baptism; 10. Of the Lord's supper; 11. Of confession; 12. Of penance; 13. Of the use of sacraments; 14. Of church government; 15. Of church order; 16. Of secular government; 17. Of Christ's second coming to judgment; 18. Of freewill; 10. Of the cause of sin; 20. Of faith and good works; 21. Of the worship of saints. The second and more practical part, which is carried out at greater length, contains seven articles on disputed points: 22. On the two kinds of the sacrament; 23. Of the marriage of priests; 24. Of the mass; 25. Of confession; 26. Of distinctions of meat; 27. Of conventual vows; 28. Of the authority of bishops.

This document, signed by some six Protestant princes and two free cities, was read before the emperor and the diet, 25th .Tune, 1530. Meianchthon, not looking upon the confession as binding, began shortly after to make some alterations in its expression; at last, in 1540, he published a Latin edition (Confemo Variuta) in which there were important changes and additions. This was especially the case with the article on the Lord's supper, in which, with a view to conciliation, he endeavored to unite the views of the Lutherans and Calvinists. This gave rise subsequently to much controversy; orthodox Lutheranism repudiated the alterations of Meianchthon, and long continued to subject his memory to great abuse; though it is clear that Meianchthon and his adherents contemplated no substantial departure in doctrine from the original confession. It is not certain that the form of the confession found in the Lutheran standards is identical with the unaltered A. O, as the two original documents—German and Latinbid before the diet have been lo;t. The chief distinction between the orthodox Lutherans and the reformed churches of Germany has all along been adherence to the "unaltered" or to the "altered" confession. It was even a matter of controversy whether the "reformed" were entitled to the rights secured to the Protestants by the religious peace of Augsburg, concluded in 1555, on the ground of the "unaltered" confession.—Though the A. C. is still formally adhered to by the Protestant churches of Germany, it is confessedly no longer the expression of the belief of the vast majority of the members, after the great advances made by theology, and the many alterations in public opinion and feeling.

AUGS BURG IKTEBIM. See Interim.

AUGUR Christopher C, b. 1821; a graduate of West Point and brigadier-general in the U. S. army; served in the war with Mexico, and in various Indian skirmishes. In the civil war he was major-general of volunteers, and was wounded at Cedar mountain. At the close of the war he was brevetted major-general of the regular army.

AUGUR, Hezekiah, 1791-1858; an American artist. His best work is the ntatuc of "Jephtha and his Daughter" in the Trumbull gallery of Yale college; but what gave him greater fame was the invention of a machine for carving, which is now in general use.

AUGURIES and AUSPICES. These terms are familiar to every reader of Roman history, and are. besides, so frequently employed in English in a secondary and metaphorical sense, that a vague notion of their original meaning is caught up even by those who know nothing of classical antiquities. As, however, the entire religious and political life of the early Romans was deeply penetrated by the influence of their sacred superstitions, and as amongst these auguries and auspices held a prominent place, a clear conception of what they were*is a matter of considerable moment. The following statements exhibit, in a condensed form, the substance of what is known on the subject.

Like almost all primitive nations, the Romans believed that every unusual occurrence had a supernatural significance, and contained, hidden in it, the will of heaven regarding men. To reveal or interpret this hidden will, was the exclusive privilege of the augur, who apparently derived his official designation, in part at least, from avis, a bird; while Roman history abundantly proves that the observation of the flight of birds was a principal means adopted for discovering the purpose of the gods. It was not, however, any one who could be appointed an augur. The gods selected their own interpreters—that is to say, they conferred the divine gift upon them from their very birth; but an educational discipline was also considered necessary, and hence a "college of

A usual. 1(Y

augurs" figures in the very dawn of Roman history. Romulus, it is almost certain, wag an augur himself. He is said to have been skilled in the art of divination from his youth; and by "divination" we must specially understand augury; for the Romans, with patriotic piety, held all the forms of divination practiced in other countries to be useless and profane. Previous to the Ogulnian law, passed in the year 307 B.C., there were only four augurs, who were selected from the patricians. By this law, however, the plebeians became eligible for the pontifical or augural offices, and five were immediately created. For more than 200 years, the number continued the same, till Sulla, in 81 B.C., increased it to fifteen. Finally, in the first days of the empire, when all parties, sick of the long civil wars, hurried to throw their privileges at the feet of the monarch who had brought peace into their homes, the right of electing augurs at his pleasure was conferred on Augustus, after which the number became indefinite. • At first the augurs were elected by the comitia curiata; but as the sanction of the former was necessary to give validity to the acts of the latter, they could always "veto" any elections which were obnoxious to them; so that the power of electing members to fill up vacancies naturally fell into the hands of the college itself, and so continued till 103 B.c., when a tribune of the people named Ahenobarbus carried a law by which it was enacted that for the future, vacancies in the augural and pontifical offices should not be filled up by those religious corporations themselves, but by a majority of certain picked tribes. This new law was occasionally repealed and re-enactea during the civil wars which lasted till the time of Augustus. The scramble for power, however, during these political vicissitudes, as well as the general advance of knowledge, had rendered its prophetic pretensions ridiculous in the eyes of educated people. By Cicero's time, it had lost its religious character altogether, but was still regarded as one of the highest political dignities, and coveted for the power it conferred.

The modes of divination employed by the augurs were five in number—augurium ex ccelo, ex avibus, ex tripudlis, ex guadrupedibw, ex diris. The first, related to the interpretation of the celestial phenomena, such as thunder and lightning, was apparently of Etruscan origin, and held to be of supreme significance. The second related to the interpretation of the noise and flight of birds. It was not every bird, however, that •xmld be a sure messenger of the gods. Generally speaking, those "consulted," as it was called, were the eagle, vulture, crow, raven, owl, and hen. The first two belonged to the class of alites, or birds whose flight revealed the will of the gods; the last four to the class of oscines, whose voice divulged the same. These two modes of augury were the oldest and most important. Of the other three, the auguries ex tripudiis were taken from the feeding of chickens; the auguries ex guadruped&us, from four-footed animals —as, for instance, if a dog, or wolf, or hare ran across the path of a Roman, and startled him by any unusual motion, he mentioned it to an augur, who was expected to be able to advise him what to do; the auguries ex diris (a vague kind of augury), from any trifling accidents or occurrences not included in the previous four—such as sneezing, stumbling, spilling salt on the table, etc.

At Rome, the auspices were taken on the summit of the Capitoline hill; and the ground on which the augur stood was solemnly set apart for the purpose. The latter then took a wand, and marked out a portion of the heavens in which his observations were to be made. This imaginary portion was called a templum (hence contemplari, to contemplate), and was subdivided into right and left. According as the birds appeared in either of these divisions were the auspices favorable or unfavorable. How vast the political influence and authority of the augurs must have been is seen from the fact that almost nothing of any consequence could take place without their sanction and approval. The election of every important ruler, king, consul, dictator, or prsetor, every civic officer, every religious functionary, was invalid if the auspices were unfavorable. No general could lawfully engage in battle—no public land could be allotted—no marriage or adoption, at least among the patricians, was held valid—unless the auspices were first taken, while the comitia of the centuries could be dispersed at a moment's notice by the veto of any member of the augural college.

We have employed the two terms, auguries and auspices, as synonymous. But a slight difference is perceptible between them: not the augurs only, but the chief magistrates of Rome (inheriting the honor from Romulus), held the "auspices," while the "suguries" were exclusively in the possession of the former; but the mode of divination, «id the end to be obtained by it, seem to have been the same in both cases.

The power of taking the auspices in war was confined to the commander-in-chief; and any victory gained by a legate was said to be won under the auspices of his superior, and the latter alone was entitled to a triumph. Hence has originated the very common phrase in our language, "under the auspices" of some one, which usually denotes nothing more than that the person alluded to merely lends the influence of his name.

AUGUST, the sixth month in the Roman year, which began with Mar. was originally styled Sextilis. and received its present name from the emperor Augustus, on account o"f several of the most fortunate events of his life having occurred during this month. On this month he was first admitted to the consulate, and thrice entered the city in triumph. On the same month, the legions from the Janiculum placed themselves under his auspices, Egypt was brought under the authority of the Roman people, and an end put to the civil wars. (See Macrobius, i. 12.) As the fifth month, or Quintilti, had pro

HAncaal.
Augaata.

▼iously been styled Julius in honor of Julius Caesar, a day was taken from Feb. to moke A. equal with July.

AUGUSTA, a co. of Virginia, in the valley of the Shenandoah; 900 sq.m. ; pop. '70, 38,763—6737 colored; in '80, 35,500—7000 colored. It is watered by the branches of the Shenandoah and their tributaries, and by several small streams flowing into the James river. The elevation is considerable, including as it does the ridge dividing the waters of the Shenandoah from those of the James. The population is largely of ScotchIrish descent, with an intermixture of the German element from Pennsylvania. The chief productions are beef, pork, mutton, wool, wheat, corn, rye, oats, barley, hay, and tobacco. The streams furnish an abundance of water-power. Deposits of iron and magnesia are found in some places. Near Craigsville is an inexhaustible deposit of coral marble of fine quality, and in the eastern section anthracite coal is abundant. Mineral springs abound. The educational advantages of the county are of a superior kind. County seat, Staunton. Weyer's cave is in this co.

AUGUSTA, cap. of Richmond co., Georgia, on the Savannah river, 248 m. from the ocean; lat. 33° 28' n.; long. 81° 54' w.; 120 m. n.w. of Savannah; 171 m. c. by s. of Atlanta. A., named for an English princess, was laid out by Oglethorpe, in 1735, under charter, and a garrison stationed there in 1736. It soon became the chief trading station with the Indians. In Dec. 1778, it was taken by the British and loyalists, but in 1781. June 5, was recaptured by gen. Pickens and col. Henry Lee. It was the cap. of the state till 1795. It was chartered a second time, Jan. 1798; incorporated Dec. 1817. During the civil war it was garrisoned by confederate forces. A. is at the head of steamboat navigation, and is connected by a line of steamboats with coastwise steamships; while 11 lines of r. r. connect it with the interior, with adjacent states, and with 5 ocean ports; amongthem, the Central; Georgia and Carolina Midland ; Augusta and Chattanooga, and Port Koyal and Western Carolina. A. is elevated 700 ft. above the sea, and is noted for its healthf ulness. The mean summer temperature is about 79.49° ; winter, 46.82°. Summerville, on the Sand hills, one of the suburbs, is a well-known health resort. A. is laid out on a triangular plan, and has an area of 7 sq.m. The streets are beautifully shaded, especially Greene and Broad sts., the former 168 ft. wide. There are several parks, of which May park contains 10J acres, 25 squares, and a number of public monuments; among them, that to the Georgia signers of the declaration of independence ; and the confederate monument in Broad st. The city cemetery and the fair grounds near the city are attractively laid out. Among buildings are the cotton exchange, new theatre, opera house, masonic temple, Odd Fellows' hall, Telfair building, U. S. arsenal. Globe, Planter's, Augusta, Central, and Coskery hotels, and the Sibley, King, Enterprise, and other great cotton mills. Three bridges connect A. with Hamburg, S. C. By means of a dam above the city, 1720 ft. long, and a canal 8 in. long, water for drinking and manufactures is furnished in abundance. The water works were completed in 1861. A. had, 1887, 100 estab. manufacturing flour, iron, chemicals, lumber, tobacco, wagons, cotton-seed-oil, fertilizers, ice, etc. ; val. prod. $10,533,000. It had, 1885,11 cotton goods and yarn mills, with $5,375,000 cap., employing 3000 hands; containing 4130 looms, 181,922 spindles, using 55,370 bales, and producing $4,169,284 worth of goods. It is one of the largest cotton markets in the south. The lumber business amounts to fully $2,000,000 ; a large trade is done in sewing-machines, and the shipping of fruits, melons, and other vegetables is important. There are 2 national banks; cap. $750,000. There are above 40 churches. There are 3 high schools, including 1 for col'd children; 8 grammar schools, including 2 for col'd children; children enrolled in pub. schools, 1887, 5632. Among higher institutions are Richmond acad., Houghton institute, St. Mary's and Sacred Heart academies, the medical coll. of Georgia, and a business coll. Of newspapers, etc., 2 are daily, 5 weekly. A. is governed by a mayor and board of 7 aldermen; receipts, 1887, $516,173.08"; expenses, same; assessed val. real estate, $15,241,450 ; personal property, $4,933,806 ; bonded debt, $1,466,350. There are 12 fire companies. Among public institutions are the orphan asylum, Louise King home for widows, and several hospitals. Pop. 1860, 12,493—1049 col'd; 1880, 21,891—10,109 col'd; 1888, est. 40,000.

AUGUSTA, cap. of Maine and seat of justice of Kennebec co.; situated mainly on the w. bank of the Kennebec river, 45 m. from its mouth; lat. 44° 19' n.; long. 69 47' w.; 67 m. from Bangor; 170 m. from Boston.

The site of the present city (including that of Ilnllowell) was the Indian Cuahnoc. The first permanent settlement was in 1754, when traders from Plymouth, Mass., built a fort on the e. side. Here, in 1762, a settlement was made, which in 1771, April 26, was incorporated as Hallowell. About 1790 a competing village (the present Hallowell) sprang up within the township. From this A. was setoff, Feb. 20, 1797, and received the name of Harrington, which was soon after changed to Augusta. It was made the cap. in 1832, and in March, 1850, became a city. A. is at the head of sloop navigation, but small steamboats ascend 18 m. further. The river, which is crossed by two bridges, one 520 ft. long, is closed by ice 121 days every year, on an average -. the channel is 100 ft. wide and 0| ft. deep at low tide. Semi-weekly steamers run to Portland and Boston, and the Maine Central r. r. (Aug. division) passes through the city. The climate is somewhat severe, the av. greatest heat in past years having been 87.6°; greatest cold, 21,3°, The ground on whicu the w. portion of A. is built rises, a snort.

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