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ed against their friends arri
For, by recurring he
aaste to be prepai
A conjunction is a part
It is called a conjunction because it conjo or unites together.
of speech that nces, so as out o res ake but one. the
The conjunction copulative serve's to conne or to continue a sentence by expressing an a dition, a supposition, a cause, &c. as, He
Conjunctions are principally d. ivided into t sorts, the copulative and the disjun ctive.
his brother reside in London: I will go if he will accompany me: You are happy because you are good.
The conjunction disjunctive serves not only to connect and continue the sentence, but also to express opposition of meaning in different degrees; as, Though he was frequently reproved, yet he did not reform: They came with her, but went away without her.
The following is a list of the principal conjunctions:
The copulative: And, that, wherefore, if, both, then, since, for, because, therefore.
The disjunctive: But, or, nor, than, lest, though, unless, either, neither, yet, notwithstanding.
The same word is occasionally used both as a conjunction, and as an adverb; and sometimes as a preposition; as, Ask, then you shall receive; then is here a conjunction; in the following phrase, it is an adverb: He arrived then and not before. I submitted, for it was vain Co resist; in this sentence for is a conjunction; n the next it is a preposition: He contended for victory only. In the first of the following sentences since is a conjunction; in the second it is a preposition; and in the third it is an adverb Since we must part, let us do it peaceably I have not seen him since that time: Our friendship commenced long since.
The word before may also be used as a conjunction, preposition, or adverb. When it sim
ply connects two members of a sentence, it is a conjunction; when it shows the relation between two words and governs an object, it is a preposition; when it has reference to time merely, it is an adverb.
So that, and so as, *and some others, are some times used as compound conjunctions; as, The business, though not fully accomplished, wa put in favorable train, so that our exertion were not useless. My soul thirsteth to see thy power, and thy glory, so as I have seen thee in the sanctuary." Psalms. Should either these compound conjunctions be analysed, the first particle must be considered as an adverb qualifying the verb in the preceding member of the sentence; and the second a conjunction Indeed, when taken as compound words, they evidently have the properties of these two part of speech. Take for instance the last exam ple: To see thy glory, so as I have seen the in the sanctuary. So as here performs the of fice of an adverb of manner, and also connect the two members of the sentence. The ide is, To see thy glory in the manner I have seen in the sanctuary.
The phrase, as well as, is often used as compound conjunction, as, His talents, as wel as his acquirements, were of a high order. Thi compound has also the properties of an adver and conjunction; and should it be analysed, the particle well would be an adverb qualifying the
*Such compounds, and also the phrase as well as, may properly be called adverbial conjunctions.
verb were, the first as would be an adverb qualifying well, and the second as a conjunction connecting the two parts of the sentence; as will be seen by changing the construction, and placng the two adverbial particles with the verb; is, His talents were as well of a high order as is acquirements.
Relative pronouns, as well as conjunctions, erve to connect sentences; as, Blessed is the man who feareth the Lord, and keepeth his comandments.
Relatives are not so useful in language as onjunctions. The former make speech more oncise; the latter make it more explicit. Relatives comprehend the meaning of a prooun and conjunction copulative; conjunctions, hile they couple sentences, may also express pposition, inference, and many other relations nd dependencies.
Interjections are words thrown in between the arts of a sentence, to express the passions or notions of the speaker; as, O!I have alienated y friend alas! I fear for life: O virtue! ow amiable thou art!
The English interjections, as those of other lanhages, are comprised within a small compass. They are of different sorts according to the ifferent passions which they serve to express. Those which intimate earnestness or grief, are Oh! ah! alas! Such as are expressive of conempt, are pish! tush! of wonder, heigh! really!
strange! of calling, hem! ho! of aversion or disgust, foh! fie! away! of a call of the attention, lo! behold! hark! of requesting silence, hush! hist! of salutation, welcome! hail! all hail! Besides these, several others, frequent in the mouths of the multitude, might be enumerated; but in a grammar of a cultivated tongue, it is unnecessary to expatiate on such expressions of passion as are scarcely worthy of being ranked among the branches of artificial language,
Having treated of the different sorts of words and their various modifications, it is now proper to explain the methods by which one word is derived from another.
Words are derived from one another in va rious ways, viz:
1. Substantives are derived from verbs. 2. Verbs are derived from substantives, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs.
3. Adjectives are derived from substantives. 4. Substantives are derived from adjectives. 5. Adverbs are derived from adjectives.
1. Substantives are derived from verbs; as, from to love, comes lover; from to visit, visitor; from to survive, surviver, &c.
In the following instances, and in many others it is difficult to determine whether the verb was deduced from the noun, or the noun from the verb, viz: love, to love; hate, to hate: fear, to fear; sleep, to sleep; walk, to walk; ride, to ride; act, to act, &c.