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The following account of the derivation of some of the adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, is from the learned Horne Tooke's "Diversions of Purley."

About is derived from a on, and bout, signifying boundary; On the boundary or confines. Among or amongst-comes from the passive participle gemoenced, which is from gemengan, to mix.

And-is from the imperative an-ad, which is from the verb, anan ad, signifying to accumulate, to add to; as, Two and two are four; that is, Two add two are four.

Sunder-comes from the participle asundred of the verb asundrian, to separate and this verb is from sond, sand. - Athwart is derived from the passive participle, athweoried of the verb athweorian, to wrest.

Beyond-comes from be-geond: geond, or goned, is the passive participle of the verb gangan, to go, to pass: Be passed, be gone.

But from the imperative bol, of the verb botan, to boot, to superadd, to supply; as, The number of three is not an even number, but an odd; that is, not an even number, superadd, (it is) an odd number.

But-from the imperative, be-utan, of the verb beonutan, to be out. It is used by way of exception: as, She regards nobody, but him; that is, nobody be out him.

If--comes from gif, the imperative of the verbs gifan, to give; as, If you live honestly

you will live happily; that is, give you live honestly.

Lest--from the participle, lesed, of the verb lesan, to dismiss.


Though--from thafig, the imperative of the verb thafigan, to allow as, Though she is handsome, she is not vain: that is, allow, grant, she is handsome.

Unless---comes from onles, the imperative of the verb onlesun, to dismiss or remove as, Troy will be taken unless the palladium be preserved; that is, Remove the palladium be preserved, Troy will be taken.

With the imperative of withan, to join; as, A house with a party-wall: that is, A house join a party-wall.

Without-comes from wyrth-utan, the im perative of the verb wyrthan-utan, to be out; as, A house without a roof; that is, A house be out a roof.

Yet---is derived from get, the imperative of the verb getan, to get; as, Yet a little while; that is, get a little time.

Through-comes from Gothic and Teutonie. words, which signify door, gate, passage; as, They marched through a wilderness; that is, They marched the passage a wilderness.

For--is from Saxon and Gothic words, signifying cause, motive; as, He died for his religion; that is, He died, the cause his religion.

From-is derived from frum, which signifies beginning, origin, source, &c.; as, The lamp


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hangs from the ceiling; that is, Ceiling the place of beginning to hang.

To-comes from Saxon and Gothic words, which signify action, effect, termination, to act, &c.; as, Figs come from Turkey to England. that is, Figs come---beginning Turkey---termination England.

It is highly probable that the system of the acute grammarian, from whose work these Saxon derivations are borrowed, is founded on truth; and that adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, are corruptions or abbreviations of other parts of speech. But as many of them are derived from obsolete words in our own language, or from words in kindred tongues the radical meaning of which is either obscure, or generally unknown; and as by long prescription, whatever may have been their origin, the words in question appear to have acquired a title to the rank of distinct species; it seems proper to consider them as such, in an elementary treatise of grammar; especially as this plan coincides with that by which other lauguages must be taught; and will render the study of them less intricate. It is of small moment, by what name and classification we distinguish these words, provided their meaning and use are well understood.

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THE third part of Grammar is Syntax, which treats of the agreement and construction of words in a sentence.

A sentence is an assemblage of words, form ing complete sense.

Sentences are of two kinds, simple and compound.

A simple sentence has in it but one subject, and one finite* verb: as, Life is short.

A compound sentence contains two or more simple sentences, joined by one or more connective words: as, Life is short, and art is long.

As sentences themselves are divided into simple and compound, so the members of sentences may be divided likewise into simple and compound members for whole sentences, whether simple or compounded, may become members of other sentences, by means of some additional connexion; as, in the following example: The ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib ; but Israel doth not know, my people do not consider. This sentence

*Finite verbs are those to which number and person apper, tain. Verbs in the infinitive mood have no respect to number or person.

consists of two compound members, each of which is subdivided into two simple members, which are properly called clauses.

There are three sorts of simple sentences; the explicative, or explaining; the interrogative, or asking; the imperative, or commanding.

An explicative sentence is one in which a thing is said to be, or not to be; to do, or not to do; to suffer, or not to suffer,-in a direct manner; as, I am; thou writest; Thomas is loved. If the sentence is negative, the adverb not is placed after the auxiliary, or after the verb itself when it has no auxiliary; as, I did not touch him; or I touched him not.

In an interrogative sentence, or when a question is asked, the nominative case follows the principal verb or the auxiliary; as, Was it he? Did Alexander conquer the Persians?

In an imperative sentence, when a thing is commanded to be, to do, or to suffer, or not, the nominative case likewise follows the verb or the auxiliary; as, Go, thou traitor! Do thou go Haste ye away; unless the verb let be used; as, Let us be gone.

A phrase is two or more words rightly put together, making sometimes part of a sentence, and sometimes a whole sentence.

The principal parts of a simple sentence are the subject, the attribute, and the object.

The subject is the thing chiefly spoken of; the attribute is the thing or action affirmed or denied of it; and the object is the thing affected by such action.

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