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books ; instead of those books.
times find this fault even in writing.

In some dialects, the word what is improperly used for that, and sometimes we find it in this sense in writing They will never believe but what I have been entirely to blame. I am not satisfied but what, &c. instead of, but that.

The pronoun relative who is so much appropriated to persons, that there is generally harshness in the application of it, except to the proper names of persons, or the general terms mon, woman, &c.

We hardly consider little children as persons, because that term gives us the idea of reason and reflection; and therefore the application of the personal relative who, in this case, seems to be harsh. It is still more improperly applied to animals.

We may some

In one case custom authorizes us to use which, with respect to persons; and that is, when we wish to distinguish one person of two, or a particular person among a number of others. We should then say, Which of the two? or, Which of them is he, or she?

It is, and it was, are often, after the manner of the French, used in a plural construction, and by some of our best writers; as, It is either a few great men who decide for the whole, or it is the rabble that follow a seditious ringleader: It is they that are the real authors, though the soldiers are the actors of the revolution: it was the heretics that first began to rail, &c. 'Tis these that early taint the female mind.

The neuter pronoun 2t, by an idiom peculiar to the English language, is frequently joined in ex


planatory sentences with a noun or pronoun of the masculine or feminine gender; as, It was I: It was the man, or woman, that did it.

The neuter pronoun it, is sometimes omitted and understood thus we say, As appears, as fol lows; for, As it appears, as it follows; and, May be, for, It may be.

The neuter pronoun it is sometimes employed to express :

1st. The subject of any discourse or inquiry; as, It happened on a summer's day: Who is it that calls on me?

2d. The state or condition of any person or thing: as, How is it with you?

3d. The thing, whatever it be, that is the cause of any effect or event, or any person considered merely as a cause; as, We heard her say it was not he: The truth is, it was I that helped her:


If there is no nominative between the rela tive and the verb, the relative is nominative case to the verb; as

The master who taught us: The trees which are planted.


When a nominative comes between the relative and the verb, the relative is governed by some word in its own member of the sentence; as,

He who preserves me to whom I owe my being, whose I am and whom I serve, is eternal.

In the several members of the last sentence, the relative performs a dfferent office. In the first

member, it marks the agent; in the second, it sub, mits to the government of the preposition; in the third, it represents the possessor; in the fourth, the object of an action; and therefere it must be in the three different cases, correspondent to those offices.

When both the antecedent and the relative become nominatives, each to different verbs, the relative is the nominative to the former, and the antecedent to the latter verb; as, True Philosophy, which is the ornament of our nature, consists more in love of our duty, and the practice of virtue, than in great talents and extensive knowledge.

When the relative pronoun is of the interrogative kind, the noun or pronoun containing the an swer must be in the same case as that which contains the question; as, Whose books are these? They are John's. Who gave them to him? We. Of Whom did you buy them? Of a bookseller. To express the answers at large, we should say, They are John's books. We gave them to him. We bought them of a bookseller. As the relative pronoun, when used interrogatively, refers to the subsequent word or phrase containing the answer to the question, that word or phrase may properly be termed the subsequent to the interrogative.


Every adjective, and every pronoun and participle, used adjectively, belong to some nous or pronoun expressed or understood; as,

He is a good as well as a wise man: Few are happy; i. e. few persons are happy: This is a pleasant walk; i. e. this walk is pleasant: He

wrote in a style which was easy and flowing; i. e. which was an easy and flowing style.

The word means, and the phrases, by this means, by that means, are used by our best and most correct writers, in the singular number. They are, indeed in so general and approved use,that it would appear awkward, if not affected, to apply the old singular form, and say, By this mean, by that mean; although it is more agreeable to the general analogy of the language. The word means (says Priestly) belongs to the clase of words, which do not change their termination on account of number; for it is used alike in both numbers.

The word amends is used in this manner in the following sentences: Though he did not succeed, he gained the approbation of his country: and, with this amends, he was content: Peace of mind is an honourable amends for the sacrifices of interest.

The practice of the best and most correct writers or a majority of them, corroborated by general usage forms, during its continuance, the standard of language; especially, if, in particlar instances, this practice continue after objection and due consideration. Every connexion and application of words and phrases, thus supported, must therefore be entitled to respect.

On this principle, many forms of expression, not less deviating from the general analogy of the language than those before mentioned, are to be considered as strictly proper and justifiable.

Of this kind are the following: None of them are varied to express the gender: and yet none originally signified one: He himself shall do the work; here. what was at first appropriated to the

objective, is now properly used as the nominative,


When two persons or things are spoken of in a sentence, and there is occasion to mention them again for the sake of distinction, that is used in reference to the former, and this in reference to the latter as, Self-love, which is the spring of action in the soul, is ruled by reason; but for that, man would be inactive; and but for this, he would be active to no end.

The distributive adjective pronouns, each, every, either, agree with the nouns, pronouns, and verbs, of the singular numbers only; unless the plural noun convey a collective idea; as, Every six month: Every hundred years.

The following phrases are exceptionable; Let cach esteem others better than themselves; It ought to be himself: The language should be both perspicuous and correct; in proportion as either of these two qualities are wanting, the language is imperfect; it should be is wanting. Every one of the letters bear regular dates, and contain proofs of attachment; bears a regular date, and contains. Every town and village were burned: Every grove and every tree were cut down; was burned, and was cut down.


Adjectives are sometimes improperly applied as adverbs; as, Indifferent honest; excellent well miserable poor. Instead of, Indifferently honest; excellently well; miserably poor. He behaved himself conformable to that great example; conformably. Endeavour to live hereafter suitable to a person in thy situation; suitably, I can never think so very mean of him; meanly. He describes this river agreeable to the common reading: agreeably. The adjective pronoun such is often

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