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The potential mood is formed by prefixing the auxiliaries may, can, might, could, would, should, in the manner they were applied to the verb to be in all its variations: as, I may or

can have; Thou mayst, &c.

The subjunctive is formed by the addition of a conjunction; as, If I have, &c.

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70. Verbs are called regular, when they form their imperfect tense and perfect participle by the addition of d or ed; and irregular when they do not.

71. Defective verbs are those which are used only in some of their moods and tenses.

72. A passive verb is conjugated by adding the perfect participle to the auxiliary to be through all its changes of number, person, mood, and tense.*

Of Adverbs.

73. An adverb is a part of speech joined to a verb, an adjective, a preposition, an article, and to other adverbs, to qualify them.

*See conjugation of transitive and passive verbs throughout Part II.

74. Some adverbs are compared; as, Soon, sooner, soonest; often, oftener, oftenest; those ending in ly are compared by more and most ; as, Wisely, more wisely, most wisely.

Of Prepositions.

75. Prepositions serve to connect words with one another, and to show the relation between them. They are for the most part put before nouns and pronouns, and always require an objective case after them, expressed or understood.

Of Conjunctions.

76. A conjunction is a part of speech that is chiefly used to connect sentences; so as out of two or more sentences to make but one. sometimes connects only words.


77. Conjunctions are properly divided into two sorts, the copulative and the disjunctive.

78. The conjunction copulative serves to connect or to continue a sentence by expressing an addition, a supposition, a cause, &c.

79. The conjunction disjunctive serves not only to connect and continue the sentence, but also to express opposition of meaning in different degrees.


Of Interjections.

Interjections are words thrown in between the parts of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of the speaker.


81. Syntax treats of the agreement and construction of words in a sentence.

82. A sentence is an assemblage of words forming complete sense.

83 A phrase is two or more words rightly put together, making sometimes part of a sentence, and sometimes a whole sentence.

84 Syntax principally consists of two parts; Concord and Government.

85. Concord is the agreement which one word has with another, in gender, number, case, or person.

86. Government is that power which one part of speech has over another, in directing its mood, tense, or case.



Nominative Case.

Rule 1. The nominative case, except the case absolute, or when an address is made, relates to some verb expressed or understood. Rule 2. A verb agrees with its nominative, in number and person.

Rule 3.

The infinitive mood, or part of a sentence, is sometimes used substantively, and


performs the office of a nominative case to a verb.

Rule 4. When a direct address is made, the noun or pronoun is in the nominative case independent.

Rule 5. A noun or pronoun connected with a participle, and standing independently of the rest of the sentence, is in the nominative case absolute.

Possessive Case.

Rule 6. When two rouns come together,, signifying different things, the former implying possession, is in the possessive case,* and is governed by the latter.

Objective Case.

Rule 7. Transitive verbs govern the objec

tive case.

Rule 8. Participles of transitive verbs govern the objective case.

Rule 9. Verbs of teaching, giving, and some others of a similar nature, govern two objectives, the one of a person, the other of a thing.

Rule 10. A passive verb may govern an objective, when the words immediately preceding and following it, do not refer to the same thing.

Rule 11. Prepositions govern the objective


Rule 12. The conjunction as, when it takes

*This is sometimes called the genitive case.


the meaning of for, or, in the character of, becomes a preposition, and governs an objective. Rule 13. Interjections sometimes govern the objective case.

Rule 14. The adverb like, and the adjectives worth and like, sometimes govern the objective case.

Rule 15. Nouns implying measure, length of time, and distance of space, are put in the objective, without a governing word.

Rule 16. Participial nouns may have the same cases, and be governed in the same manner, with common substantives. They also have the power of governing other words in the objective case.

Cases Corresponding.

Rule 17. Two or more nouns coming together and signifying the same thing, are put by apposition in the same case.

Rule 18 Any intransitive or passive verb may have the same case after it as before it, when both words refer to the same thing.

Miscellaneous Rules.

Rule 19. Pronouns must always agree with their antecedents, and the nouns for which they stand in gender and number. The relative pronoun is of the same person with the antecedent.

A participle supplying the place of a substantive, is styled a participial noun.

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